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(Comparative) study (in structure/mode/ways of pronunciation, articulation, phonetics, or whatever; that is, in differences of speaking mouth postures and resultant speaking weight/force center points) between English/foreign languages and mother tongue, for better (more practical/effective/smooth) hearing/speaking of English/foreign languages.       Copyright.   Young-Won Kim,
open : home | main | brd2 | Kor | book member : main II | Kor II

::: Comparative phonetics, fun facts :::

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Name   Young-Won Kim
Subject   Places and why their nicknames,     Seven Wonders of the World,      Tower of Babel,         T. S. Eliot

1.                          Places and why their nicknames ,  
Places and their nicknames

Place ---------------------------------------- Nickname

Aberdeen ------------------------------------ the Granite City

Aberdeen [ŋ ye bΛ din]  >>  (ŋ/uCh ye/SS bΛ/uCh din/SS)/C2  >>  the Granite City

Adelaide ------------------------------------ the City of Churches

Adelaide [ŋe ŋ dΛ le y= d=]/uCh/C1  >>  the City of Churches

Amsterdam ------------------------------------ the Venice of the North

Amsterdam [ŋ= wu ŋa s= te dam]/uCh/S  >>  the Venice of the North

Birmingham ------------------------------------ Brum or the Venice of the North

Birmingham [bo ŋΛ mi hem]/uCh/P  >>  Brum
Birmingham [bΛ ŋo mi hem]  >>  [bΛ/uCh ŋo/SS mi/uCh hem/SS]/P >>  the Venice of the North

Boston ------------------------------------ Bean Town

Boston [bΛ ŋo s= ton]/uCh/P  >>  Bean Town

Bruges ------------------------------------ the Venice of the North

Bruges [bu w= r= ze]/uCh/P  >>  the Venice of the North

California ------------------------------------ the Golden State

California [k y le fo ni ŋa]  >>  (k/uCh y/SS le/uCh fo/SS ni/uCh ŋa/SS)/P  >>  the Golden State

Chicago ------------------------------------ the Windy City

Chicago [si yi ka go]/uCh/P  >>  the Windy City

Dallas ------------------------------------ the Big D

Dallas [d y lΛ s=]/uCh/C2  >>  the Big D

Detroit ------------------------------------ the Motor City

Detroit [di/uCh yi/SS t=/uCh ro/SS y=/uCh t=/SS]/P  >>  the Motor City

Dresden ------------------------------------ Florence on the Elbe

Dresden [du ŋ= re s= den]/uCh/P  >>  Florence on the Elbe

Dublin ------------------------------------ the Fair City

Dublin [do ŋΛ b= lin]  >>  (do/uCh ŋΛ/SS b=/uCh lin/SS)/C1  >>  the Fair City

Dumfries ------------------------------------ Queen of the South

Dumfries [do ŋΛ f= ra y= s=]/uCh/S  >>  Queen of the South

Edinburgh ------------------------------------ Auld Reekie or the Athens of the North

Edinburgh [ŋ ye di bΛ g=]/uCh/P  >>  Auld Reekie
Edinburgh [ŋe y di bΛ g=]  >>  (ŋe/uCh y/SS di/uCh bΛ/SS g=/uCh)/P  >> the Athens of the North

Florida ------------------------------------ the Sunshine State

Florida [f= wu lo ri da]  >>  (f=/uCh wu/SS lo/uCh ri/SS da/uCh)/P  >>  the Sunshine State

Fraserburgh ---------------------------------- the Broch

Fraserburgh [fu w= re y= zΛr]  >>  (fu/uCh w=/SS re/uCh y=/SS zΛr/uCh)/S  >>  the Broch

Fremantle ------------------------------------ Freo

Fremantle [f= ŋu ri me t=l]  >>  (f=/uCh ŋu/SS ri/uCh me/SS t=l/uCh)/P  >>  Freo

Glasgow ------------------------------------ the Dear Green Place

Glasgow [g= wu le s= go w=]  >>  (g=/uCh wu/SS le/uCh s=/SS go/uCh w=/SS)/T  >>  the Dear Green Place

Hamburg ------------------------------------ the Venice of the North

Hamburg [h= wu ŋa b= r= k=]  >>  (h=/uCh wu/SS ŋa/uCh b=/SS r=/uCh k=/SS) /C1  >>  the Venice of the North

Indiana ------------------------------------ the Hoosier State

Indiana [ŋi y= di ŋa na]  >>  (ŋi/uCh y=/SS di/uCh ŋa/SS na/uCh)/P  >>  the Hoosier State

Iowa ------------------------------------ the Hawkeye State

Iowa [ŋa yi ŋo ŋa]  >>  (ŋa/uCh yi/SS ŋo/uCh ŋa/SS)/S  >>  the Hawkeye State

Ireland ------------------------------------ the Emerald Isle

Ireland [ŋa yi lΛ d=]  >>  (ŋa/uCh yi/SS lΛ/uCh d=/SS)/S  >>  the Emerald Isle

Jamaica ------------------------------------ J.A. or the Yard

Jamaica [z= wu ŋa me y= ka]  >>  (z=/uCh wu/SS ŋa/uCh me/SS y=/uCh ka/SS)/P  >>  J.A.
Jamaica [zu ŋ= ŋa me y= ka]/uCh/P  >>  the Yard

Jerusalem ------------------------------------ the Holy City

Jerusalem [zo ŋΛ ru sa lem]  >>  (zo/uCh ŋΛ/SS ru/uCh sa/SS lem/uCh)/P  >>  the Holy City

Kentucky ------------------------------------ the Bluegrass State

Kentucky [ke ŋ tΛ ki]/uCh/P  >>  the Bluegrass State

Kuala Lumpur ------------------------------------ K.L.

Kuala Lumpur [k= wu ŋa la lu pu r=]/uCh/S  >>  K.L.

London ------------------------------------ the Big Smoke or the Great Wen

London [lo ŋΛ dΛn]/uCh/S  >>  the Big Smoke
London [lΛ ŋo dΛn]  >>  (lo/uCh ŋΛ/SS dΛn/uCh)/P  >>  the Great Wen

Los Angeles ------------------------------------ L.A.

Los Angeles [lo ŋΛ s= ye ze li s=]/uCh/P  >>  L.A.

New Jersey ------------------------------------ the Garden State

New Jersey [nu yu zΛ zi]/uCh/P  >>  the Garden State

New Orleans ------------------------------------ the Crescent City or the Big Easy

New Orleans [n= yu ŋo li ŋΛ s=]/uCh/P  >>  the Crescent City
New Orleans [nu w= ŋo li ŋΛ s=]  >>  (nu/uCh w=/SS ŋo/uCh li/SS ŋΛ/uCh s=/SS)/S  >>  the Big Easy

New South Wales ------------------------------------ Ma State

New South Wales [nu wu sa wu s= s= te y= t=]  >>  (nu/uCh wu/SS sa/uCh wu/SS s=/uCh s=/SS te/uCh y=/SS t=/uCh)/P  >>  Ma State

New York (City) ------------------------------------ the Big Apple

New York [n= wu yok]/uCh/GC/P/abT  >>  the Big Apple
New York City [nu wu yok si ti]  >>  (nu/uCh wu/SS yok/uCh si/SS ti/uCh)/T  >>  the Big Apple

New York (State) ------------------------------------ the Empire State

New York [n= wu yok]  >>  (n=/uCh wu/SS yok/uCh)/GC/S/abT  >>  the Empire State
New York State [n= ŋu yok s= te y= t=]/uCh/S  >>  the Empire State

New Zealand ------------------------------------ Pig Island

New Zealand [nu w= zi le d=]/uCh/P  >>  Pig Island

North Carolina ------------------------------------ the Tarheel State

North Carolina [nΛ ŋo s= ke ro la y= na]  >>  (nΛ/uCh ŋo/SS s=/uCh ke/SS ro/uCh la/SS y=/uCh na/SS)/P  >>  the Tarheel State

Nottingham ------------------------------------ Queen of the Midlands

Nottingham [nΛ ŋo ti hem]/uCh/P  >>  Queen of the Midlands

Oklahoma ------------------------------------ the Sooner State

Oklahoma [ŋΛ ŋo k= la ho ma]/uCh/S  >>  the Sooner State

Pennsylvania ------------------------------------ the Keystone State

Pennsylvania [p ye si va ni ŋa]/uCh/S  >>  the Keystone State

Philadelphia ------------------------------------ Philly

Philadelphia [fi yi la de fi ŋa]  >>  (fi/uCh yi/SS la/uCh de/SS fi/uCh ŋa/SS)/C2  >>  Philly

Portsmouth ------------------------------------ Pompey

Portsmouth [pΛ ŋo c= ma w= s=]/uCh/T  >>  Pompey

Prince Edward Island ------------------------------------ Spud Island

Prince Edward Island [p= ŋe d= wΛ d= ŋa y= lΛ d=]/uCh/S  >>  Spud Island

Queensland ------------------------------------ Bananaland or the Deep North (both derogatory)

Queensland [ku wu yi s= lΛ d=]  >>  (ku/uCh wu/SS yi/uCh s=/SS lΛ/uCh d=/SS)/C2  >>  Bananaland
Queensland [ku wu yi s= lΛ d=]  >>  (ku/uCh wu/SS yi/uCh s=/SS lΛ/uCh d=/SS)/C1  >>  derogatory
Queensland [k= ŋu yi s= lΛ d=]/uCh /P  >>  the Deep North
Queensland [k= ŋu yi s= lΛ d=]/uCh /S  >>  derogatory

Rome ------------------------------------ the Eternal City

Rome [rΛ ŋom]/uCh/P  >>  the Eternal City

San Francisco ------------------------------------ Frisco

San Francisco [s ŋe f= ra si s= ko]/uCh/S  >>  Frisco

Southeastern U.S.A. ------------------------------------ Dixie, Dixieland, or the Deep South

Southeastern U.S.A. [s= ŋu s= ŋi y= s= tΛn yu ŋe s= ŋe y=]/uCh/S  >>  Dixie
Southeastern U.S.A. [s= wu s= ~]  >>  (s=/uCh wu/SS s=/uCh ŋi/SS y=/uCh ~)/C2  >>  Dixielamd
Southeastern U.S.A. [s= wu s= ~]  >>  (s=/uCh wu/SS s=/uCh ŋi/SS y=/uCh ~)/C1  >>  the Deep South

Tasmania ------------------------------------ Tassie or the Apple Isle

Tasmania [tu wu ŋa s= me ni ŋa]/uCh/P  >>  Tassie
Tasmania [t= wu ŋa s= me ni ŋa] >>  (t=/uCh wu/SS ŋa/uCh s=/SS me/uCh ni/SS ŋa/SS)/P  >>  the Apple Isle

Texas ------------------------------------ the Lone Star State

Texas [t y sa s=]/uCh/S  >>  the Lone Star State

Utah ------------------------------------ the Beehive State

Utah [yu ŋ= ta]  >>  (yu/uCh ŋ=/SS ta/uCh)/S  >>  the Beehive State

Venice ------------------------------------ La Serenissima

Venice [ve ŋ ni s=]/uCh/P  >>  La Serenissima

Collins Thesaurus of the English Language Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002

2.                            Seven Wonders of the World

"Seven Wonders of the World"  <<  mystery [mi/uCh yi/SS s=/uCh tΛ/SS ri/uCh]/mGC/abT

"the temple of Artemis at Ephesus"  <<  mystery [mi/uCh yi/SS s=/uCh tΛ/SS ri/uCh]/mGC/abT/+cp
"the Colossus of Rhodes"  <<  mystery [mi/uCh yi/SS s=/uCh tΛ/SS ri/uCh]/mGC/abT/+bp

"the Hanging Gardens of Babylon"  <<  mystery [mi yi s= tΛ ri]/uCh/mGC/abT
"Phidias' statue of Zeus at Olympia"  <<  mystery [mi yi s= tΛ ri]/uCh/mGC/abT/+cp
"the Pyramids of Egypt"  <<  mystery [mi yi s= tΛ ri]/uCh/mGC/abT/+bp

"the mausoleum of Halicarnassus"  <<  mystery [mi/SS yi/uCh s=/SS tΛ/uCh ri/SS]/mGC/abT
"the Pharos (or lighthouse) of Alexandria"  <<  mystery [mi/SS yi/uCh s=/SS tΛ/uCh ri/SS]/mGC/abT/+cp ,    
Seven Wonders of the World
pl n
1. (Historical Terms) the seven structures considered by ancient and medieval scholars to be the most wondrous of the ancient world. The list varies, but generally consists of the Pyramids of Egypt, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Phidias' statue of Zeus at Olympia, the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, the mausoleum of Halicarnassus, the Colossus of Rhodes, and the Pharos (or lighthouse) of Alexandria

Collins English Dictionary Complete and Unabridged HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003

 (the [o ŋΛ] seven structures)/SS/mGC/abT  >>  magnificence
"the seven structures"  <<  magnificence [m/uCh y/SS g=/uCh ni/SS fi/uCh s=/SS s=/uCh]/mGC/abT

[(PARENTHESIS Historical Terms) PARENTHESIS]  <<  magnificence [m/uCh y/SS g=/uCh ni/SS fi/uCh s=/SS s=/uCh]/mGC/abT/+cp
"Seven Wonders of the World"  <<  magnificence [m/uCh y/SS g=/uCh ni/SS fi/uCh s=/SS s=/uCh]/mGC/abT/+bp

"p l n"  <<  magnificence [m y g= ni fi s= s=]/uCh/mGC/abT
"considered by ancient and medieval scholars"  <<  magnificence [m y g= ni fi s= s=]/uCh/mGC/abT/+cp
"to be the most wondrous of the ancient world. POINT"  <<  magnificence [m y g= ni fi s= s=]/uCh/mGC/abT/+bp

"The list varies, COMMA"  <<  magnificence [m y g= ni fi s= s=]/SS/mGC/abT
"but generally consists of the Pyramids of Egypt, COMMA"  <<  magnificence [m y g= ni fi s= s=]/SS/mGC/abT/+cp
"the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, COMMA"  <<  magnificence [m y g= ni fi s= s=]/SS/mGC/abT/+bp

"Phidias' statue of Zeus at Olympia, COMMA"  <<  magnificence [m y g= ni fi s= s=]/uCh/mGC/abT
"the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, COMMA"  <<  magnificence [m y g= ni fi s= s=]/uCh/mGC/abT/+cp
"the mausoleum of Halicarnassus, COMMA"  <<  magnificence [m y g= ni fi s= s=]/uCh/mGC/abT/+bp

"the Colossus of Rhodes, COMMA"  <<  magnificence [m/SS y/uCh g=/SS ni/uCh fi /SS s=/uCh s=/SS]/mGC/abT
"and the Pharos"  <<  magnificence [m/SS y/uCh g=/SS ni/uCh fi /SS s=/uCh s=/SS]/mGC/abT/+cp
"( PARENTHESIS or lighthouse) PARENTHESIS of Alexandria"  <<  magnificence [m/SS y/uCh g=/SS ni/uCh fi /SS s=/uCh s=/SS]/mGC/abT/+bp

(the [o ŋΛ] seven structures)/SS/mGC/abT/+cp  >>  "Collins English Dictionary DASH"
(the [o ŋΛ] seven structures)/SS/mGC/abT/+bp  >>  "Complete and Unabridged"

(the [o ŋΛ] seven structures)/uCh/mGC/abT  >>   COPYRIGHT
(the [o ŋΛ] seven structures)/uCh/mGC/abT/+cp  >>  "HarperCollins Publishers"
(the [o ŋΛ] seven structures)/uCh/mGC/abT/+bp  >>  "1991, COMMA"

(the [o ŋΛ]/uCh seven/SS structures/uCh)/mGC/abT  >>  "1994, COMMA"
(the [o ŋΛ]/uCh seven/SS structures/uCh)/mGC/abT/+cp  >>  "1998, COMMA"
(the [o ŋΛ]/uCh seven/SS structures/uCh)/mGC/abT/+bp  >>  "2000, COMMA 2003" ,  
Seven Wonders of the World
The seven most remarkable structures of ancient times: pyramids at El Gizeh, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Colossus at Rhodes, statue of Zeus at Olympia, and the lighthouse at Alexandria; of these, only the pyramids at El Gizeh remain.

McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

(The [o ŋΛ]/uCh seven/SS most/uCh remarkable/SS structures/uCh of ancient times: COLON)/mGC/abT  >>  reputation
"The seven most remarkable structures of ancient times: COLON"  <<  reputation [r y p= yu te y= s= yΛn]/uCh/mGC/abT

"pyramids at El Gizeh, COMMA"  <<  reputation [r y p= yu te y= s= yΛn]/uCh/mGC/abT/+cp
"the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, COMMA"  <<  reputation [r y p= yu te y= s= yΛn]/uCh/mGC/abT/+bp

"the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, COMMA"  <<  reputation [r/uCh y/SS p=/uCh yu/SS te/uCh y=/SS s=/uCh yΛn/SS]/mGC/abT
"Hanging Gardens of Babylon, COMMA"  <<  reputation [r/uCh y/SS p=/uCh yu/SS te/uCh y=/SS s=/uCh yΛn/SS]/mGC/abT/+cp
"Colossus at Rhodes, COMMA"  <<  reputation [r/uCh y/SS p=/uCh yu/SS te/uCh y=/SS s=/uCh yΛn/SS]/mGC/abT/+bp

"statue of Zeus at Olympia, COMMA"  <<  reputation [r y p= yu te y= s= yΛn]/SS/mGC/abT
"and the lighthouse at Alexandria; SEMICOLON"  <<  reputation [r y p= yu te y= s= yΛn]/SS/mGC/abT/+cp
"of these, COMMA"  <<  reputation [r y p= yu te y= s= yΛn]/SS/mGC/abT/+bp

(The [o ŋΛ]/uCh seven/SS most remarkable structures of ancient times: COLON)/mGC/abT/+cp  >>  "only the pyramids at El Gizeh remain. POINT"
(The [o ŋΛ]/uCh seven/SS most remarkable structures of ancient times: COLON)/mGC/abT/+bp >> "McGraw-DASH Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. POINT"

(The [o ŋΛ] seven most remarkable structures of ancient times: COLON)/uCh/mGC/abT  >>  Copyright
(The [o ŋΛ] seven most remarkable structures of ancient times: COLON)/uCh/mGC/abT/+cp  >>  2003
(The [o ŋΛ] seven most remarkable structures of ancient times: COLON)/uCh/mGC/abT/+bp  >>  "by McGraw-DASH Hill"

(The [o ŋΛ] seven most remarkable structures of ancient times: COLON)/SS/mGC/abT  >>  "Companies, COMMA"
(The [o ŋΛ] seven most remarkable structures of ancient times: COLON)/SS/mGC/abT/+cp  >>  "I n c. POINT"

3.                                     Tower of Babel

(The [Λ]/uCh Tower/SS of/uCh Babel/SS)/GC/P/abE  >>  Babylonia
"The Tower of Babel"  <<  Babylonia [be ŋ bΛ lo w= ni ŋa]/uCh/GC/P/abE

"Tower of Babel"                        (b  yi/Ch  bΛl)/S                       Babel [b yi bΛl]

Babel                  (be/Ch ŋ bΛ/Ch lo w=/Ch ni ŋa/Ch)/GC/S/abT                  Babylonia [be ŋ bΛ lo w= ni ŋa]

Babylon                  (be/Ch ŋ bΛ/Ch lo w=/Ch ni ŋa/Ch)/GC/P/abE                  Babylonia [be ŋ bΛ lo w= ni ŋa]

Babylonia/T  >>  tower/P  >>  fortress/S  >>  stronghold/C2  >>  citadel/T/Ch  >>  castle/P/Ch  >>  fort/S/Ch  >>  keep/C2/Ch

refuge                 (B/Ch + a + by/Ch + lo + [w=]/Ch + ni + a/Ch)/GC/S/abT                 Babylonia

fortification                  (B/Ch + a + by/Ch + lo + [w=]/Ch + ni + a/Ch)/GC/P/abT                  Babylonia

A) ,    
Ziggurat [zi/uCh yi/SS gu/uCh ra/SS t=/uCh]/P  >>  tower
Ziggurat  <<  tower [ta ŋu ŋΛr]/uCh/P

zikkurat                        (ta/Ch wu ŋΛr/Ch)/GC/P/abT                       tower [ta wu ŋΛr]

zikurat                            (ta wu/Ch ŋΛr)/GC/S/abT                        tower [ta wu ŋΛr]

B) ,  
Babel ('beı b∂l, 'bb ∂l)
1. an ancient city in Shinar where people began building a tower (Tower of Babel) intended to reach heaven but were forced to abandon their work upon the confusion of their languages by God. Gen. 11:49.

(an/uCh ancient/SS city/uCh in/SS Shinar where people began building a tower)/GC/P/abR  >>  tower
"an ancient city in Shinar where people began building a tower"  <<  tower [ta w= ŋΛr]/uCh/GC/P/abR

"B a POINT b e l"  <<  tower [ta w= ŋΛr]/uCh/GC/P/abR/+cp
PARENTHESIS  <<  tower [ta w= ŋΛr]/uCh/GC/P/abR/+bp

[' APOSTROPHE b e ı BLANK]  <<  tower [ta/uCh w=/SS ŋΛr/uCh]/GC/P/abR
[b ∂ l, COMMA]  <<  tower [ta/uCh w=/SS ŋΛr/uCh]/GC/P/abR/+cp
[' APOSTROPHE b b BLANK]  <<  tower [ta/uCh w=/SS ŋΛr/uCh]/GC/P/abR/+bp

[∂ l ) PARENTHESIS]  <<  tower [ta/SS w=/uCh ŋΛr/SS]/GC/P/abR
"n. POINT"  <<  tower [ta/SS w=/uCh ŋΛr/SS]/GC/P/abR/+cp
"(PARENTHESIS Tower of Babel) PARENTHESIS"  <<  tower [ta/SS w=/uCh ŋΛr/SS]/GC/P/abR/+bp

(an/uCh ancient/SS city/uCh in/SS Shinar where people began building a tower)/GC/P/abR/+cp  >>  "intended to reach heaven"
(an/uCh ancient/SS city/uCh in/SS Shinar where people began building a tower)/GC/P/abR/+bp >> "but were forced to abandon their work"

(an ancient city in Shinar where people began building a tower)/uCh/GC/P/abR >> "upon the confusion of their languages"
(an ancient city in Shinar where people began building a tower)/uCh/GC/P/abR/+cp  >>  "by God. POINT"
(an ancient city in Shinar where people began building a tower)/uCh/GC/P/abR/+bp >> "G e n. POINT"

(an ancient city in Shinar where people began building a tower)/SS/GC/P/abR  >>  "11: COLON"
(an ancient city in Shinar where people began building a tower)/SS/GC/P/abR/+cp  >>  "4 DASH"
(an ancient city in Shinar where people began building a tower)/SS/GC/P/abR/+bp  >>  "9. POINT"

2. (usu. l.c.) a confused mixture of sounds or voices.

(a confused mixture of sounds or voices)/uCh/mGC/abT  >>  noise
"a confused mixture of sounds or voices"  <<  noise [no/uCh yi/SS z=/uCh]/mGC/abT

3. (usu. l.c.) a scene of noise and confusion.
[< Hebrew Bābhel Babylon]
Babel′ic (-'bεl ık) adj.

(a/uCh scene/SS of/uCh noise/SS and/uCh confusion/SS. POINT/uCh)/GC/P/abT  >>  chaos
"a scene of noise and confusion. POINT"  <<  chaos [k yi ŋa s=]/SS/GC/P/abT

"( PARENTHESIS u s u. POINT"  <<  chaos [k yi ŋa s=]/SS/GC/P/abT/+cp
"l. POINT c. POINT) PARENTHESIS"  <<  chaos [k yi ŋa s=]/SS/GC/P/abT/+bp

"B a POINT b e l"  <<  chaos [k yi ŋa s=]/uCh/GC/P/abT
PARENTHESIS  <<  chaos [k yi ŋa s=]/uCh/GC/P/abT/+cp
[' APOSTROPHE b e ı BLANK]  <<  chaos [k yi ŋa s=]/uCh/GC/P/abT/+bp

[b ∂ l, COMMA]  <<  chaos [k/SS yi/uCh ŋa/SS s=/uCh]/GC/P/abT
[' APOSTROPHE b b BLANK]  <<  chaos [k/SS yi/uCh ŋa/SS s=/uCh]/GC/P/abT/+cp
[∂ l ) PARENTHESIS]  <<  chaos [k/SS yi/uCh ŋa/SS s=/uCh]/GC/P/abT/+bp

"n. POINT"  <<  chaos [k/uCh yi/SS ŋa/uCh s=/SS]/GC/P/abT
BRACKET  <<  chaos [k/uCh yi/SS ŋa/uCh s=/SS]/GC/P/abT/+cp
"LESS-THAN SIGN"  <<  chaos [k/uCh yi/SS ŋa/uCh s=/SS]/GC/P/abT/+bp

(a/uCh scene/SS of/uCh noise/SS and/uCh confusion/SS. POINT/uCh)/GC/P/abT/+cp  >>  "Hebrew B ā b h e l"
(a/uCh scene/SS of/uCh noise/SS and/uCh confusion/SS. POINT/uCh)/GC/P/abT/+bp  >>  "Babylon] BRACKET"

(a scene of noise and confusion. POINT)/SS/GC/P/abT  >>  "B a POINT b e l′ APOSTROPHE i c"
(a scene of noise and confusion. POINT)/SS/GC/P/abT/+cp  >>  "(PARENTHESIS DASH ' APOSTROPHE b ε l BLANK ı k) PARENTHESIS"
(a scene of noise and confusion. POINT)/SS/GC/P/abT/+bp  >>  "a d j. POINT"

('bb ∂l)
Isaak Emmanuilovich, 18941941, Russian author.

Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.

4.                         T. S. Eliot            (The Waste Land)

The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock (1915), The Waste Land (1922), Four Quartets (1944)

(The/uCh Love/SS Song/uCh of/SS J/uCh. POINT/SS Alfred/uCh Prufrock/SS)/S  >>  Eliot
"The Love Song of J. POINT Alfred Prufrock"  <<  Eliot [ye y li ŋΛt]/uCh/S

(Four/uCh Quartets/SS)/C2  >>  Prufrock
"Four Quartets"  <<  Prufrock [p= w= ru f= rok]/uCh/C2

T. S. Eliot ------------ Thomas Stearns Eliot

THE WASTE LAND --------------------------------------- (T. S. Eliot)/uCh/P/MS
By T. S. Eliot

"Nam Sibyllam quidem ---------------------------------- /uCh/P ---------------- Eliot [ŋ li ŋΛt] /MS
Cumis ego ipse -------------------------------------------------------------------- Eliot [ŋ li ŋΛt] /SS
oculis meis ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Eliot [ŋ li ŋΛt] /pES
vidi in ampulla --------------------------------------------------------------------- Eliot [ŋ li ŋΛt] /mES
pendere, COMMA ------------------------------------------------------------------ Eliot [ŋ li ŋΛt] /FS
et cum illi -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Eliot [ŋ li ŋΛt] /aES
pueri dicerent: COLON --------------------------------- /uCh/P/Ch ------------- Eliot [ŋ li ŋΛt] /MS
Sibylla ti  -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Eliot [ŋ li ŋΛt] /SS
theleis; SEMICOLON -------------------------------------------------------------- Eliot [ŋ li ŋΛt] /pES
respondebat illa: COLON --------------------------------------------------------- Eliot [ŋ li ŋΛt] /mES
apothanein  ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Eliot [ŋ li ŋΛt] /FS
thelo. POINT" --------------------------------------------------------------------- Eliot [ŋ li ŋΛt] /aES

CONTENTS  -------------------------------------------- (T. S. Eliot)/uCh/P/SS

I. POINT THE BURIAL OF THE DEAD  ---------------- (T. S. Eliot)/uCh/P/pES
I I. POINT A GAME OF CHESS  ----------------------- (T. S. Eliot)/uCh/P/mES
I I I. POINT THE FIRE SERMON ----------------------- (T. S. Eliot)/uCh/P/FS
I V. POINT DEATH BY WATER -------------------------- (T. S. Eliot)/uCh/P/aES
V. POINT WHAT THE THUNDER SAID  ---------------- (T. S. Eliot)/uCh/P/MS/Ch

NOTES  ------------------------------------------------- (T. S. Eliot)/uCh/P/SS/Ch
ON " DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK  -------------------- (T. S. Eliot)/uCh/P/pES/Ch
THE WASTE  -------------------------------------------- (T. S. Eliot)/uCh/P/mES/Ch
LAND ---------------------------------------------------- (T. S. Eliot)/uCh/P/FS/Ch
" DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK -------------------------- (T. S. Eliot)/uCh/P/aES/Ch

I. THE BURIAL OF THE DEAD -------------------------------------- /uCh/P ----------- T [ti y=] /MS

April is the cruellest month, COMMA breeding -------------------------------------- T [ti y=] /SS
Lilacs out of the dead land, COMMA mixing ----------------------------------------- T [ti y=] /pES
Memory and desire, COMMA stirring ------------------------------------------------- T [ti y=] /mES
Dull roots with spring rain. POINT --------------------------------------------------- T [ti y=] /FS
Winter kept us warm, COMMA covering --------------------------------------------- T [ti y=] /aES
Earth in forgetful snow, COMMA feeding ---------------------- /uCh/P/Ch --------- T [ti y=] /MS
A little life with dried tubers. POINT -------------------------------------------------- T [ti y=] /SS
Summer surprised us, COMMA coming over the Starnbergersee ------------------- T [ti y=] /pES
With a shower of rain; SEMICOLON we stopped in the colonnade, COMMA -------- T [ti y=] /mES
And went on in sunlight, COMMA into the Hofgarten, COMMA 10 TEN -------------- T [ti y=] /FS
And drank coffee, COMMA and talked for an hour. POINT --------------------------- T [ti y=] /aES
Bin gar keine Russin, COMMA stamm' APOSTROPHE aus Litauen, COMMA echt deutsch. POINT ------- /uCh/P ----- S [ŋ y s=] /MS
And when we were children, COMMA staying at the archduke's, COMMA ---------- S [ŋ y s=] /SS
My cousin' APOSTROPHE s, COMMA he took me out on a sled, COMMA ----------- S [ŋ y s=] /pES
And I was frightened. POINT He said, COMMA Marie, COMMA --------------------- S [ŋ y s=] /mES
Marie, COMMA hold on tight. POINT And down we went. POINT ------------------- S [ŋ y s=] /FS
In the mountains, COMMA there you feel free. POINT ------------------------------ S [ŋ y s=] /aES
I read, COMMA much of the night, COMMA and go south in the winter. POINT ---- /uCh/P/Ch ---- S [ŋ y s=] /MS

What are the roots that clutch, COMMA what branches grow ----------------------- S [ŋ y s=] /SS
Out of this stony rubbish? QUESTION MARK Son of man, COMMA 20 TWENTY ---- S [ŋ y s=] /pES
You cannot say, COMMA or guess, COMMA for you know only ---------------------- S [ŋ y s=] /mES
A heap of broken images, COMMA where the sun beats, COMMA ------------------- S [ŋ y s=] /FS
And the dead tree gives no shelter, COMMA the cricket no relief, COMMA ---------- S [ŋ y s=] /aES
And the dry stone no sound of water. POINT Only ---------------- Thomas [tΛ ŋo mΛ s=]/uCh/P ------- /MS
There is shadow under this red rock, COMMA ----------------------------------------------------- /SS
(PARENTHESIS Come in under the shadow of this red rock) PARENTHESIS, COMMA ----------- /pES
And I will show you something different from either ---------------------------------------------- /mES
Your shadow at morning striding behind you ------------------------------------------------------ /FS
Or your shadow at evening rising to meet you; SEMICOLON ------------------------------------- /aES
I will show you fear in a handful of dust. POINT 30 THIRTY ------ Thomas [tΛ ŋo mΛ s=]/uCh/P/Ch ------- /MS
       Frisch weht der Wind  ----------------------------------------------------------------------- /SS
       Der Heimat zu  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ /pES
       Mein Irisch Kind, COMMA  ------------------------------------------------------------------ /mES
       Wo weilest du? QUESTION MARK ----------------------------------------------------------- /FS
" DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK You gave me hyacinths first a year ago; SEMICOLON ------------ /aES
" DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK They called me the hyacinth girl. POINT " DOUBLE QUOTATION MARK ------ Stearns [s= ŋu ti s=]/uCh/P ------ /MS
LONG DASH Yet when we came back, COMMA late, COMMA from the Hyacinth garden, COMMA --------------- /SS
Your arms full, COMMA and your hair wet, COMMA I could not ----------------------------------- /pES
Speak, COMMA and my eyes failed, COMMA I was neither ---------------------------------------- /mES
Living nor dead, COMMA and I knew nothing, COMMA 40 FORTY --------------------------------- /FS
Looking into the heart of light, COMMA the silence. POINT ---------------------------------------- /aES
Od' APOSTROPHE und leer das Meer. POINT ---------- Stearns [s= ŋu ti s=]/uCh/P/Ch -------- /MS

Madame Sosostris, COMMA famous clairvoyante, COMMA ----------------------------------------- /SS
Had a bad cold, COMMA nevertheless --------------------------------------------------------------- /pES
Is known to be the wisest woman in Europe, COMMA ---------------------------------------------- /mES
With a wicked pack of cards. POINT Here, COMMA said she, COMMA ------------------------------ /FS
Is your card, COMMA the drowned Phoenician Sailor, COMMA -------------------------------------- /aES
(PARENTHESIS Those are pearls that were his eyes. POINT Look! EXCLAMATION MARK) PARENTHESIS ------ T [ti yi]/uCh/P ------ /MS
Here is Belladonna, COMMA the Lady of the Rocks, COMMA --------------------------------------- /SS
The lady of situations. POINT 50 FIFTY --------------------------------------------------------------/pES
Here is the man with three staves, COMMA and here the Wheel, COMMA ------------------------ /mES
And here is the one-DASH eyed merchant, COMMA and this card, COMMA ----------------------- /FS
Which is blank, COMMA is something he carries on his back, COMMA ---------------------------- /aES Which I am forbidden to see. POINT I do not find -------------- T [ti yi]/uCh/P/Ch ------------- /MS
The Hanged Man. POINT Fear death by water. POINT ---------------------------------------------- /SS
I see crowds of people, COMMA walking round in a ring. POINT ---------------------------------- /pES
Thank you. POINT If you see dear Mrs. Equitone, COMMA ---------------------------------------- /mES
Tell her I bring the horoscope myself: COLON ----------------------------------------------------- /FS
One must be so careful these days. POINT --------------------------------------------------------- /aES

Unreal City, COMMA 60 SIXTY --------------------------------- S [ŋ ye s=]/uCh/P ------------- /MS
Under the brown fog of a winter dawn, COMMA ----------------------------------------------------/SS
A crowd flowed over London Bridge, COMMA so many, COMMA ---------------------------------- /pES
  I had not thought death had undone so many.
  Sighs, short and infrequent, were exhaled,
  And each man fixed his eyes before his feet.
  Flowed up the hill and down King William Street,
  To where Saint Mary Woolnoth kept the hours
  With a dead sound on the final stroke of nine.
  There I saw one I knew, and stopped him, crying "Stetson!
  "You who were with me in the ships at Mylae!                            70
  "That corpse you planted last year in your garden,
  "Has it begun to sprout? Will it bloom this year?
  "Or has the sudden frost disturbed its bed?

  Line 42 Od'] Oed' Editor.

  "Oh keep the Dog far hence, that's friend to men,
  "Or with his nails he'll dig it up again!
  "You! hypocrite lecteur! mon semblable, mon frere!"


The Chair she sat in, like a burnished throne,
  Glowed on the marble, where the glass
  Held up by standards wrought with fruited vines
  From which a golden Cupidon peeped out                                  80
  (Another hid his eyes behind his wing)
  Doubled the flames of sevenbranched candelabra
  Reflecting light upon the table as
  The glitter of her jewels rose to meet it,
  From satin cases poured in rich profusion;
  In vials of ivory and coloured glass
  Unstoppered, lurked her strange synthetic perfumes,
  Unguent, powdered, or liquid troubled, confused
  And drowned the sense in odours; stirred by the air
  That freshened from the window, these ascended                          90
  In fattening the prolonged candle-flames,
  Flung their smoke into the laquearia,
  Stirring the pattern on the coffered ceiling.
  Huge sea-wood fed with copper
  Burned green and orange, framed by the coloured stone,
  In which sad light a carved dolphin swam.
  Above the antique mantel was displayed
  As though a window gave upon the sylvan scene
  The change of Philomel, by the barbarous king
  So rudely forced; yet there the nightingale                             100
  Filled all the desert with inviolable voice
  And still she cried, and still the world pursues,
  "Jug Jug" to dirty ears.
  And other withered stumps of time
  Were told upon the walls; staring forms
  Leaned out, leaning, hushing the room enclosed.
  Footsteps shuffled on the stair.
  Under the firelight, under the brush, her hair
  Spread out in fiery points
  Glowed into words, then would be savagely still.                        110

  "My nerves are bad to-night. Yes, bad. Stay with me.
  "Speak to me. Why do you never speak. Speak.
  "What are you thinking of? What thinking? What?
  "I never know what you are thinking. Think."

  I think we are in rats' alley
  Where the dead men lost their bones.

  "What is that noise?"
                               The wind under the door.
  "What is that noise now? What is the wind doing?"
                               Nothing again nothing.                     120
  "You know nothing? Do you see nothing? Do you remember

     I remember
  Those are pearls that were his eyes.
  "Are you alive, or not? Is there nothing in your head?"
  O O O O that Shakespeherian Rag
  It's so elegant
  So intelligent                                                          130
  "What shall I do now? What shall I do?"
  I shall rush out as I am, and walk the street
  "With my hair down, so. What shall we do to-morrow?
  "What shall we ever do?"
                                       The hot water at ten.
  And if it rains, a closed car at four.
  And we shall play a game of chess,
  Pressing lidless eyes and waiting for a knock upon the door.

  When Lil's husband got demobbed, I said
  I didn't mince my words, I said to her myself,                          140
  Now Albert's coming back, make yourself a bit smart.
  He'll want to know what you done with that money he gave you
  To get yourself some teeth. He did, I was there.
  You have them all out, Lil, and get a nice set,
  He said, I swear, I can't bear to look at you.
  And no more can't I, I said, and think of poor Albert,
  He's been in the army four years, he wants a good time,
  And if you don't give it him, there's others will, I said.
  Oh is there, she said. Something o' that, I said.                       150
  Then I'll know who to thank, she said, and give me a straight look.
  If you don't like it you can get on with it, I said.
  Others can pick and choose if you can't.
  But if Albert makes off, it won't be for lack of telling.
  You ought to be ashamed, I said, to look so antique.
  (And her only thirty-one.)
  I can't help it, she said, pulling a long face,
  It's them pills I took, to bring it off, she said.
  (She's had five already, and nearly died of young George.)              160
  The chemist said it would be alright, but I've never been the same.
  You are a proper fool, I said.
  Well, if Albert won't leave you alone, there it is, I said,
  What you get married for if you don't want children?
  Well, that Sunday Albert was home, they had a hot gammon,
  And they asked me in to dinner, to get the beauty of it hot
  Goonight Bill. Goonight Lou. Goonight May. Goonight.                    170
  Ta ta. Goonight. Goonight.
  Good night, ladies, good night, sweet ladies, good night, good night.


The river's tent is broken: the last fingers of leaf
  Clutch and sink into the wet bank. The wind
  Crosses the brown land, unheard. The nymphs are departed.
  Sweet Thames, run softly, till I end my song.
  The river bears no empty bottles, sandwich papers,
  Silk handkerchiefs, cardboard boxes, cigarette ends
  Or other testimony of summer nights. The nymphs are departed.
  And their friends, the loitering heirs of city directors;               180
  Departed, have left no addresses.

  Line 161 ALRIGHT. This spelling occurs also in
  the Hogarth Press edition Editor.

  By the waters of Leman I sat down and wept . . .
  Sweet Thames, run softly till I end my song,
  Sweet Thames, run softly, for I speak not loud or long.
  But at my back in a cold blast I hear
  The rattle of the bones, and chuckle spread from ear to ear.
  A rat crept softly through the vegetation
  Dragging its slimy belly on the bank
  While I was fishing in the dull canal
  On a winter evening round behind the gashouse                           190
  Musing upon the king my brother's wreck
  And on the king my father's death before him.
  White bodies naked on the low damp ground
  And bones cast in a little low dry garret,
  Rattled by the rat's foot only, year to year.
  But at my back from time to time I hear
  The sound of horns and motors, which shall bring
  Sweeney to Mrs. Porter in the spring.
  O the moon shone bright on Mrs. Porter
  And on her daughter                                                     200
  They wash their feet in soda water
  Et O ces voix d'enfants, chantant dans la coupole!

  Twit twit twit
  Jug jug jug jug jug jug
  So rudely forc'd.

  Unreal City
  Under the brown fog of a winter noon
  Mr. Eugenides, the Smyrna merchant
  Unshaven, with a pocket full of currants                                210
  C.i.f. London: documents at sight,
  Asked me in demotic French
  To luncheon at the Cannon Street Hotel
  Followed by a weekend at the Metropole.

  At the violet hour, when the eyes and back
  Turn upward from the desk, when the human engine waits
  Like a taxi throbbing waiting,
  I Tiresias, though blind, throbbing between two lives,
  Old man with wrinkled female breasts, can see
  At the violet hour, the evening hour that strives                       220
  Homeward, and brings the sailor home from sea,
  The typist home at teatime, clears her breakfast, lights
  Her stove, and lays out food in tins.
  Out of the window perilously spread
  Her drying combinations touched by the sun's last rays,
  On the divan are piled (at night her bed)
  Stockings, slippers, camisoles, and stays.
  I Tiresias, old man with wrinkled dugs
  Perceived the scene, and foretold the rest
  I too awaited the expected guest.                                       230
  He, the young man carbuncular, arrives,
  A small house agent's clerk, with one bold stare,
  One of the low on whom assurance sits
  As a silk hat on a Bradford millionaire.
  The time is now propitious, as he guesses,
  The meal is ended, she is bored and tired,
  Endeavours to engage her in caresses
  Which still are unreproved, if undesired.
  Flushed and decided, he assaults at once;
  Exploring hands encounter no defence;                                   240
  His vanity requires no response,
  And makes a welcome of indifference.
  (And I Tiresias have foresuffered all
  Enacted on this same divan or bed;
  I who have sat by Thebes below the wall
  And walked among the lowest of the dead.)
  Bestows one final patronising kiss,
  And gropes his way, finding the stairs unlit . . .

  She turns and looks a moment in the glass,
  Hardly aware of her departed lover;                                     250
  Her brain allows one half-formed thought to pass:
  "Well now that's done: and I'm glad it's over."
  When lovely woman stoops to folly and
  Paces about her room again, alone,
  She smoothes her hair with automatic hand,
  And puts a record on the gramophone.

  "This music crept by me upon the waters"
  And along the Strand, up Queen Victoria Street.
  O City city, I can sometimes hear
  Beside a public bar in Lower Thames Street,                             260
  The pleasant whining of a mandoline
  And a clatter and a chatter from within
  Where fishmen lounge at noon: where the walls
  Of Magnus Martyr hold
  Inexplicable splendour of Ionian white and gold.

       The river sweats
       Oil and tar
       The barges drift
       With the turning tide
       Red sails                                                          270
       To leeward, swing on the heavy spar.
       The barges wash
       Drifting logs
       Down Greenwich reach
       Past the Isle of Dogs.
            Weialala leia
            Wallala leialala

       Elizabeth and Leicester
       Beating oars                                                       280
       The stern was formed
       A gilded shell
       Red and gold
       The brisk swell
       Rippled both shores
       Southwest wind
       Carried down stream
       The peal of bells
       White towers
            Weialala leia                                                 290
            Wallala leialala

  "Trams and dusty trees.
  Highbury bore me. Richmond and Kew
  Undid me. By Richmond I raised my knees
  Supine on the floor of a narrow canoe."

  "My feet are at Moorgate, and my heart
  Under my feet. After the event
  He wept. He promised 'a new start'.
  I made no comment. What should I resent?"
  "On Margate Sands.                                                      300
  I can connect
  Nothing with nothing.
  The broken fingernails of dirty hands.
  My people humble people who expect
       la la

  To Carthage then I came

  Burning burning burning burning
  O Lord Thou pluckest me out
  O Lord Thou pluckest                                                    310



  Phlebas the Phoenician, a fortnight dead,
  Forgot the cry of gulls, and the deep sea swell
  And the profit and loss.
                                           A current under sea
  Picked his bones in whispers. As he rose and fell
  He passed the stages of his age and youth
  Entering the whirlpool.
                                         Gentile or Jew
  O you who turn the wheel and look to windward,                          320
  Consider Phlebas, who was once handsome and tall as you.


  After the torchlight red on sweaty faces
  After the frosty silence in the gardens
  After the agony in stony places
  The shouting and the crying
  Prison and palace and reverberation
  Of thunder of spring over distant mountains
  He who was living is now dead
  We who were living are now dying
  With a little patience                                                  330

  Here is no water but only rock
  Rock and no water and the sandy road
  The road winding above among the mountains
  Which are mountains of rock without water
  If there were water we should stop and drink
  Amongst the rock one cannot stop or think
  Sweat is dry and feet are in the sand
  If there were only water amongst the rock
  Dead mountain mouth of carious teeth that cannot spit
  Here one can neither stand nor lie nor sit                              340
  There is not even silence in the mountains
  But dry sterile thunder without rain
  There is not even solitude in the mountains
  But red sullen faces sneer and snarl
  From doors of mudcracked houses
                                                           If there were water
  And no rock
  If there were rock
  And also water
  And water                                                               350
  A spring
  A pool among the rock
  If there were the sound of water only
  Not the cicada
  And dry grass singing
  But sound of water over a rock
  Where the hermit-thrush sings in the pine trees
  Drip drop drip drop drop drop drop
  But there is no water

  Who is the third who walks always beside you?                          360
  When I count, there are only you and I together
  But when I look ahead up the white road
  There is always another one walking beside you
  Gliding wrapt in a brown mantle, hooded
  I do not know whether a man or a woman
  But who is that on the other side of you?

  What is that sound high in the air
  Murmur of maternal lamentation
  Who are those hooded hordes swarming
  Over endless plains, stumbling in cracked earth                         370
  Ringed by the flat horizon only
  What is the city over the mountains
  Cracks and reforms and bursts in the violet air
  Falling towers
  Jerusalem Athens Alexandria
  Vienna London

  A woman drew her long black hair out tight
  And fiddled whisper music on those strings
  And bats with baby faces in the violet light                            380
  Whistled, and beat their wings
  And crawled head downward down a blackened wall
  And upside down in air were towers
  Tolling reminiscent bells, that kept the hours
  And voices singing out of empty cisterns and exhausted wells.

  In this decayed hole among the mountains
  In the faint moonlight, the grass is singing
  Over the tumbled graves, about the chapel
  There is the empty chapel, only the wind's home.
  It has no windows, and the door swings,                                 390
  Dry bones can harm no one.
  Only a cock stood on the rooftree
  Co co rico co co rico
  In a flash of lightning. Then a damp gust
  Bringing rain

  Ganga was sunken, and the limp leaves
  Waited for rain, while the black clouds
  Gathered far distant, over Himavant.
  The jungle crouched, humped in silence.
  Then spoke the thunder                                                  400
  Datta: what have we given?
  My friend, blood shaking my heart
  The awful daring of a moment's surrender
  Which an age of prudence can never retract
  By this, and this only, we have existed
  Which is not to be found in our obituaries
  Or in memories draped by the beneficent spider
  Or under seals broken by the lean solicitor
  In our empty rooms                                                     410
  Dayadhvam: I have heard the key
  Turn in the door once and turn once only
  We think of the key, each in his prison
  Thinking of the key, each confirms a prison
  Only at nightfall, aetherial rumours
  Revive for a moment a broken Coriolanus
  Damyata: The boat responded
  Gaily, to the hand expert with sail and oar                            420
  The sea was calm, your heart would have responded
  Gaily, when invited, beating obedient
  To controlling hands

                                       I sat upon the shore
  Fishing, with the arid plain behind me
  Shall I at least set my lands in order?
  London Bridge is falling down falling down falling down
  Poi s'ascose nel foco che gli affina
  Quando fiam ceu chelidon O swallow swallow
  Le Prince d'Aquitaine a la tour abolie                                 430
  These fragments I have shored against my ruins
  Why then Ile fit you. Hieronymo's mad againe.
  Datta. Dayadhvam. Damyata.
                             Shantih    shantih    shantih

  Line 416 aetherial] aethereal
  Line 429 ceu] uti Editor


Not only the title, but the plan and a good deal of the incidental symbolism of the poem were suggested by Miss Jessie L. Weston's book on the Grail legend: From Ritual to Romance (Macmillan).<1> Indeed, so deeply am I indebted, Miss Weston's book will elucidate the difficulties of the poem much better than my notes can do; and I recommend it (apart from the great interest of the book itself) to any who think such elucidation of the poem worth the trouble. To another work of anthropology I am indebted in general, one which has influenced our generation profoundly; I mean The Golden Bough; I have used especially the two volumes Adonis, Attis, Osiris. Anyone who is acquainted with these works will immediately recognise in the poem certain references to vegetation ceremonies.

  <1> Macmillan] Cambridge.

  Line 20.  Cf.  Ezekiel 2:1.

  23.  Cf.  Ecclesiastes 12:5.

  31.  V.  Tristan und Isolde, i, verses 5-8.

  42.  Id.  iii, verse 24.

  46.  I am not familiar with the exact constitution of the Tarot pack
  of cards, from which I have obviously departed to suit my own convenience.
  The Hanged Man, a member of the traditional pack, fits my purpose
  in two ways:  because he is associated in my mind with the Hanged God
  of Frazer, and because I associate him with the hooded figure in
  the passage of the disciples to Emmaus in Part V. The Phoenician Sailor
  and the Merchant appear later; also the "crowds of people," and
  Death by Water is executed in Part IV.  The Man with Three Staves
  (an authentic member of the Tarot pack) I associate, quite arbitrarily,
  with the Fisher King himself.

  60.  Cf.  Baudelaire:

       "Fourmillante cite;, cite; pleine de reves,
       Ou le spectre en plein jour raccroche le passant."

  63.  Cf.  Inferno, iii.  55-7.

                                     "si lunga tratta
       di gente, ch'io non avrei mai creduto
       che morte tanta n'avesse disfatta."

  64.  Cf.  Inferno, iv.  25-7:

       "Quivi, secondo che per ascoltare,
       "non avea pianto, ma' che di sospiri,
       "che l'aura eterna facevan tremare."

  68.  A phenomenon which I have often noticed.

  74.  Cf.  the Dirge in Webster's White Devil .

  76.  V. Baudelaire, Preface to Fleurs du Mal.


  77.  Cf.  Antony and Cleopatra, II. ii., l. 190.

  92.  Laquearia.  V.  Aeneid, I. 726:

       dependent lychni laquearibus aureis incensi, et noctem flammis
                      funalia vincunt.

  98.  Sylvan scene.  V. Milton, Paradise Lost, iv.  140.

  99.  V. Ovid, Metamorphoses, vi, Philomela.

  100.  Cf.  Part III, l. 204.

  115.  Cf.  Part III, l. 195.

  118.  Cf.  Webster:  "Is the wind in that door still?"

  126.  Cf.  Part I, l. 37, 48.

  138.  Cf.  the game of chess in Middleton's Women beware Women.


  176.  V. Spenser, Prothalamion.

  192.  Cf.  The Tempest, I.  ii.

  196.  Cf.  Marvell, To His Coy Mistress.

  197.  Cf.  Day, Parliament of Bees:

       "When of the sudden, listening, you shall hear,
       "A noise of horns and hunting, which shall bring
       "Actaeon to Diana in the spring,
       "Where all shall see her naked skin . . ."

  199.  I do not know the origin of the ballad from which these lines
  are taken:  it was reported to me from Sydney, Australia.

  202.  V. Verlaine, Parsifal.

  210.  The currants were quoted at a price "carriage and insurance
  free to London"; and the Bill of Lading etc. were to be handed
  to the buyer upon payment of the sight draft.

  Notes 196 and 197 were transposed in this and the Hogarth Press edition,
  but have been corrected here.

  210.  "Carriage and insurance free"] "cost, insurance and freight"-Editor.

  218.  Tiresias, although a mere spectator and not indeed a "character,"
  is yet the most important personage in the poem, uniting all the rest.
  Just as the one-eyed merchant, seller of currants, melts into
  the Phoenician Sailor, and the latter is not wholly distinct
  from Ferdinand Prince of Naples, so all the women are one woman,
  and the two sexes meet in Tiresias.  What Tiresias sees, in fact,
  is the substance of the poem.  The whole passage from Ovid is
  of great anthropological interest:

       '. . . Cum Iunone iocos et maior vestra profecto est
       Quam, quae contingit maribus,' dixisse, 'voluptas.'
       Illa negat; placuit quae sit sententia docti
       Quaerere Tiresiae: venus huic erat utraque nota.
       Nam duo magnorum viridi coeuntia silva
       Corpora serpentum baculi violaverat ictu
       Deque viro factus, mirabile, femina septem
       Egerat autumnos; octavo rursus eosdem
       Vidit et 'est vestrae si tanta potentia plagae,'
       Dixit 'ut auctoris sortem in contraria mutet,
       Nunc quoque vos feriam!' percussis anguibus isdem
       Forma prior rediit genetivaque venit imago.
       Arbiter hic igitur sumptus de lite iocosa
       Dicta Iovis firmat; gravius Saturnia iusto
       Nec pro materia fertur doluisse suique
       Iudicis aeterna damnavit lumina nocte,
       At pater omnipotens (neque enim licet inrita cuiquam
       Facta dei fecisse deo) pro lumine adempto
       Scire futura dedit poenamque levavit honore.

  221.  This may not appear as exact as Sappho's lines, but I had in mind
  the "longshore" or "dory" fisherman, who returns at nightfall.

  253.  V. Goldsmith, the song in The Vicar of Wakefield.

  257.  V.  The Tempest, as above.

  264.  The interior of St. Magnus Martyr is to my mind one of
  the finest among Wren's interiors.  See The Proposed Demolition
  of Nineteen City Churches (P. S. King & Son, Ltd.).

  266.  The Song of the (three) Thames-daughters begins here.
  From line 292 to 306 inclusive they speak in turn.
  V.  Gutterdsammerung, III.  i:  the Rhine-daughters.

  279.  V. Froude, Elizabeth, Vol.  I, ch.  iv, letter of De Quadra
  to Philip of Spain:

  "In the afternoon we were in a barge, watching the games on the river.
  (The queen) was alone with Lord Robert and myself on the poop,
  when they began to talk nonsense, and went so far that Lord Robert
  at last said, as I was on the spot there was no reason why they
  should not be married if the queen pleased."

  293.  Cf.  Purgatorio, v.  133:

       "Ricorditi di me, che son la Pia;
       Siena mi fe', disfecemi Maremma."

  307.  V. St. Augustine's Confessions:  "to Carthage then I came,
  where a cauldron of unholy loves sang all about mine ears."

  308.  The complete text of the Buddha's Fire Sermon (which corresponds
  in importance to the Sermon on the Mount) from which these words are taken,
  will be found translated in the late Henry Clarke Warren's Buddhism
  in Translation (Harvard Oriental Series). Mr. Warren was one
  of the great pioneers of Buddhist studies in the Occident.

  309.  From St. Augustine's Confessions again.  The collocation
  of these two representatives of eastern and western asceticism,
  as the culmination of this part of the poem, is not an accident.


  In the first part of Part V three themes are employed:
  the journey to Emmaus, the approach to the Chapel Perilous
  (see Miss Weston's book) and the present decay of eastern Europe.

  357.  This is Turdus aonalaschkae pallasii, the hermit-thrush
  which I have heard in Quebec County.  Chapman says (Handbook of
  Birds of Eastern North America) "it is most at home in secluded
  woodland and thickety retreats. . . . Its notes are not remarkable
  for variety or volume, but in purity and sweetness of tone and
  exquisite modulation they are unequalled."  Its "water-dripping song"
  is justly celebrated.

  360.  The following lines were stimulated by the account of one
  of the Antarctic expeditions (I forget which, but I think one
  of Shackleton's): it was related that the party of explorers,
  at the extremity of their strength, had the constant delusion
  that there was one more member than could actually be counted.

  367-77. Cf.  Hermann Hesse, Blick ins Chaos:

  "Schon ist halb Europa, schon ist zumindest der halbe Osten Europas auf dem
  Wege zum Chaos, f�hrt betrunken im heiligem Wahn am Abgrund entlang
  und singt dazu, singt betrunken und hymnisch wie Dmitri Karamasoff sang.
  Ueber diese Lieder lacht der B�rger beleidigt, der Heilige
  und Seher h�rt sie mit Tr�nen."

  402.  "Datta, dayadhvam, damyata" (Give, sympathize,
  control). The fable of the meaning of the Thunder is found
  in the Brihadaranyaka-Upanishad, 5, 1.  A translation is found
  in Deussen's Sechzig Upanishads des Veda, p.  489.

  408.  Cf.  Webster, The White Devil, v.  vi:

                                                      ". . . they'll remarry
     Ere the worm pierce your winding-sheet, ere the spider
     Make a thin curtain for your epitaphs."

  412.  Cf.  Inferno, xxxiii.  46:

            "ed io sentii chiavar l'uscio di sotto
            all'orribile torre."

  Also F. H. Bradley, Appearance and Reality, p.  346:

  "My external sensations are no less private to myself than are my
  thoughts or my feelings.  In either case my experience falls within
  my own circle, a circle closed on the outside; and, with all its
  elements alike, every sphere is opaque to the others which surround
  it. . . . In brief, regarded as an existence which appears in a soul,
  the whole world for each is peculiar and private to that soul."

  425.  V. Weston, From Ritual to Romance; chapter on the Fisher King.

  428.  V.  Purgatorio, xxvi.  148.

            "'Ara vos prec per aquella valor
             'que vos guida al som de l'escalina,
             'sovegna vos a temps de ma dolor.'
              Poi s'ascose nel foco che gli affina."

  429.  V.  Pervigilium Veneris.  Cf.  Philomela in Parts II and III.

  430.  V. Gerard de Nerval, Sonnet El Desdichado.

  432.  V. Kyd's Spanish Tragedy.

  434.  Shantih.  Repeated as here, a formal ending to an Upanishad.
  'The Peace which passeth understanding' is a feeble translation
  of the content of this word.

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29Now readingPlaces and why their nicknames,     Seven Wonders of the World,      Tower of Babel,         T. S. Eliot  Y... 2015.Mar.25
28Simple view'Korean Sea' or 'Sea of Japan' ??                 黃帝內經 medical book,               Democrat or Republican Y... 2015.Feb.26
27Simple viewAmerican Pie,    My Way,    Singin' In The Rain,    I Got A Woman,   Stormy Weather,    내 나이가 어때서 Y... 2015.Feb.14
26Simple viewTie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Old Oak Tree Y... 2015.Mar.26
25Simple view살짜기 옵서에 & happy birthday,         Good morning to all,      갈등,     요우커/旅行客,    소개팅,      졺/졸음 Y... 2015.Jan.15
24Simple view진보당 해산 결정,       애쓰셨습니다,      처용가,      생과일,        홀로 아리랑 & hallelujah,           언어와 매체 Y... 2014.Dec.19
23Simple viewHallelujah (versions) & 목포의 눈물,     Merry Christmas Y... 2016.Jun.13
22Simple view입학사정관,        지속 가능한 성장.               Occurring principle of sentences,       and so on and so forth Y... 2014.Oct.14
21Simple view김기춘 비서실장,              Muhammad & Jesus Christ,               If Hamlet was really written by Marlowe Y... 2014.Jun.29
20Simple viewHow the nation name of "U.S.A." happened,                    한오백년 & Santa Lucia,            권고항로?? Y... 2014.Mar.17
19Simple view대마초? marijuana,              적기가/혁명동지가,      악법도 법이다??        상한 영혼을 위하여,        국가안전처 Y... 2014.Feb.10
18Simple viewThe Sound Of Music,  Sixteen Going On Seventeen,   Do-Re-Mi,   Edelweiss,  Climb Every Mountain, ~ ~  Y... 2013.Dec.26
17Simple view'고향의 봄',   '정지용 - 향수(鄕愁)'          "아리랑"은 어떻게 생겨났나?                  일본/닙뽄/Japan의 어원은? Y... 2013.Jul.15
16Simple viewAuld lang syne,       The last rose of summer,    The Minstrel Boy,     Scarborough Fair,    Loch Lomond Y... 2013.May.15
15Simple view                                                Yankee Doodle Y... 2013.Jun.28
14Simple view'La Marseillaise'     Deutschlandlied/Schweizerpsalm     'National anthems of Austria/Sweden/Italy/Spain' Y... 2013.May.11
13Simple view            O Canada,                Netherlands/Scotland/Australia,              New Zealand Y... 2013.Jun.01
12Simple view釣魚台群島/尖閣諸島,    琉球諸島/南西諸島/薩南諸島/吐噶喇列島/沖縄諸島/慶良間諸島/先島諸島/宮古列島/八重山諸島 Y... 2013.May.05
11Simple view 'Naked Cowboy'       "열하일기"는 가짜,                                       Nelson Mandela Y... 2013.Apr.28
10Simple viewtornado,   landspout,  waterspout,   tornadogenesis,   cloud,   'Tornado Alley'   'funnel cloud'   supercell Y... 2013.Apr.24
9Simple view NSSL,   NCAR,   NSF,   lightning   'lightning rod'     HAARP                   #  'How to prevent tornado' Y... 2013.Apr.24
8Simple viewabsolute term,   intensive modifier,   adjective/noun/verb/adverb/pronoun/preposition/conjunction/  ~ Y... 2013.Apr.07
7Simple view자음동화,  두음법칙,  구개음화,  사이시옷,             'Grammar by Ben Yagoda'             ADHD,        OK Y... 2013.Feb.26
6Simple view>>                      두음법칙, Y... 2015.Oct.27
5Simple view'2013's Full Moons by Joe Rao'      'Patient discussion about enterprise/resource/push/~'     environment Y... 2013.Jan.27
4Simple view '고려대 교가'         'Adam Lanza'             'between Greek ancient city states & modern states of Europe' Y... 2012.Dec.16
3Simple viewUnited Mexican States,   수학능력시험,  조강지처,    아카라카,   입실렌티체이홉,   '서울대 교가',    '연세대 교가' Y... 2012.Nov.23
2Simple viewAve Maria, Summertime, What a Wonderful World, Amazing grace, Imagine, Oh happy day, Mission Imp- Y... 2012.Nov.21
1Simple view>>                        'o sole mio,                           미사의 종 Y... 2013.Mar.02
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