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(Comparative) study (in structure/mode/ways of pronunciation, articulation, phonetics, or whatever; that is, in differences of speaking mouth postures and resultant speaking weight/force center points) between English/foreign languages and mother tongue, for better (more practical/effective/smooth) hearing/speaking of English/foreign languages.       Copyright.   Young-Won Kim,   yw@voicespec.com
open : home | main | brd2 | Kor | book member : main II | Kor II


::: Comparative phonetics, fun facts :::


36 11 View counter   Join Member Login Admin
Name   Young-Won Kim
Subject   absolute term,   intensive modifier,   adjective/noun/verb/adverb/pronoun/preposition/conjunction/  ~

1)
"absolute term"                         (ab/Ch + solute)/GC/S/abT                        absolute
"absolute term"                            (chi/Ch + ef)/GC/S/abT                             chief
"absolute term"                        (com/Ch + plete)/GC/S/abT                        complete
"absolute term"                          (per/Ch + fect)/GC/S/abT                          perfect
"absolute term"                           (p/Ch + rime)/GC/S/abT                            prime
"absolute term"                          (un/Ch + ique)/GC/S/abT                           unique
"absolute term"                           (eq/Ch + ual)/GC/S/abT                            equal
"absolute term"                          (pa/Ch + rallel)/GC/S/abT                          parallel

2)
"intensive modifier"                           (ver + y/Ch)/GC/S/abT                          very
"intensive modifier"                            (so + so/Ch)/GC/S/abT                            so
"intensive modifier"                            (t + oo/Ch)/GC/S/abT                            too
"intensive modifier"                           (qu + ite/Ch)/GC/S/abT                         quite
"intensive modifier"                          (re + ally/Ch)/GC/S/abT                         really
"intensive modifier"                      (e + xtremely/Ch)/GC/S/abT                    extremely

3)
adjective                                    (hap/Ch + py)/T                                 happy
adjective                                       (sa/Ch + d)/T                                   sad
adjective                                       (col/Ch + d)/T                                  cold
adjective                                  (yel/Ch + lowish)/T                             yellowish
adjective                                    (yel/Ch + low)/T                                 yellow

4)
noun                                    (yel/Ch + low)/T/+cp                                yellow
noun                                      (col/Ch + d)/T/+cp                                  cold
noun                                    (sun/Ch + sun)/T/+cp                                  sun
noun                                   (book/Ch + book)/T/+cp                               book
noun                                 (co/Ch + operation)/T/+cp                        cooperation

5)
verb                                    (run/Ch + run)/T/+bp                                   run
verb                            ([la]/Ch + [y=  k=])/T/+bp                       like [la  y=  k=]
verb                                  (em/Ch + ploy)/T/+bp                                employ
verb                                    (sen/Ch + d)/T/+bp                                   send
verb                                 (an/Ch + nounce)/T/+bp                             announce

6)
adverb                                (hap/Ch + pily)/P/+cp                                happily
adverb                                  (nev/Ch + er)/P/+cp                                 never
adverb                                (al/Ch + most)/P/+cp                                almost
adverb                      (for/Ch + "the first time")/P/+cp                     "for the first time"
adverb                                 (too /Ch + too)/P/+cp                                   too

7)
pronoun                                  (the/Ch + y)/P/+bp                                  they
pronoun                                 ([a]/Ch + [i])/P/+bp                                I [a  i]
pronoun                                  (we/Ch + we)/P/+bp                                   we
pronoun                                   (it/Ch + it)/P/+bp                                      it
pronoun                                 (she/Ch + she)/P/+bp                                  she

8)
preposition                             (be + tween/Ch)/S/+bp                            between
preposition                                (on + on/Ch)/S/+bp                                   on
preposition                           (in + "front of"/Ch)/S/+bp                        "in front of"
preposition                      (wi + "-th respect to"/Ch)/S/+bp                  "with respect to"
preposition                          (ex + "-cept for"/Ch)/S/+bp                       "except for"

9)
"complex preposition"                       (p/Ch + reposition)/C2                      preposition
"complex preposition"                     (ex/Ch + "-cept for")/C2                     "except for"
"complex preposition"                      (in/Ch + " front of")/C2                     "in front of"

10)
conjunction                                   (an + d/Ch)/S/+cp                                and
conjunction                                 (nor + nor/Ch)/S/+cp                               nor
conjunction                          (a + "-s well as"/Ch)/S/+cp                        "as well as"
conjunction                             (when + when/Ch)/S/+cp                             when
conjunction                           (when + ever/Ch)/S/+cp                           whenever
conjunction                          (a + "-s long as"/Ch)/S/+cp                       "as long as"
conjunction                         (in + "order that"/Ch)/S/+cp                     "in order that"
conjunction                         ([wa] + [y=l]/Ch)/S/+cp                       while [wa  y=l]

11)
"coordinating conjunction"                    (con + junction/Ch)/C1                   conjunction
"correlative conjunction"                      (con/Ch + junction)/C1                   conjunction
"subordinating conjunction"                (con + junction/Ch)/C1/+cp                 conjunction
complementizer                        (con/Ch + junction)/C1/+cp                     conjunction

*                       "coordinating conjunction"  >>  coordinator /mGC/abE
*                      "subordinating conjunction"  >>  subordinator /mGC/abE

12)
"coordinating conjunction"                            (an + d/Ch)/C1                           and
"coordinating conjunction"                           (for + for/Ch)/C1                           for
"coordinating conjunction"                           (yet + yet/Ch)/C1                          yet
"coordinating conjunction"                           (but + but/Ch)/C1                          but

13)
"correlative conjunction"                    ([bo]/Ch + "[w=  s=] and")/C1                 "both [bo  w=  s=] and"
"correlative conjunction"                       (e/Ch + "-ither or")/C1                    "either or"
"correlative conjunction"                     (ne/Ch + "-ither or")/C1                   "neither or"
"correlative conjunction"                    (not/Ch + "only but also")/C1                 "not only but also"
"correlative conjunction"                         (not/Ch + "but")/C1                      "not but"
"correlative conjunction"                    (whe/Ch + "-ther or")/C1                  "whether or"

14)
"subordinating conjunction"                (con + junction/Ch)/C1/+cp                 conjunction
"subordinating conjunction"                   (al + though/Ch)/C1/+cp                    although
"subordinating conjunction"                      (un + til/Ch)/C1/+cp                         until
"subordinating conjunction"                     (whe + re/Ch)/C1/+cp                       where
"subordinating conjunction"                    (when + when/Ch)/C1/+cp                    when
"subordinating conjunction"                (a + "-s much as"/Ch)/C1/+cp               "as much as"
"subordinating conjunction"                (in + "order that"/Ch)/C1/+cp               "in order that"

after, although, as much as, as long as, as soon as, because, before, if, in order that, lest, since, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, whether, and while
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Grammatical+conjunction ,  
15)
complementizer                           (whe/Ch + ther)/C1/+cp                         whether
complementizer                            (that/Ch + that)/C1/+cp                            that

16)
determiner                                (the + the/Ch)/GC/S/abT                             the
determiner                                   (a + a/Ch)/GC/S/abT                                a
determiner                           ([ma] + [i]/Ch)/GC/S/abT                         my [ma  i]
determiner                                 (you + r/Ch)/GC/S/abT                             your
determiner                                (her + her/Ch)/GC/S/abT                             her
determiner                               (one + one/Ch)/GC/S/abT                             one
determiner                         (t + "-wenty five"/Ch)/GC/S/abT                   "twenty five"
determiner                           ([n] + [i]/Ch)/GC/S/abT                         any [n  i]
determiner                      ([bo] + [u  s=]/Ch)/GC/S/abT                    both [bo  u  s=]
determiner                             (who + se/Ch)/GC/S/abT                             whose

17)
interjection                                 (ah + ah/Ch)/C1/+bp                                ah
interjection                               (well + well /Ch)/C1/+bp                             well
interjection                               (che + ers/Ch)/C1/+bp                            cheers
interjection                                 (oh + oh/Ch)/C1/+bp                                oh
interjection                                 (wo + w/Ch)/C1/+bp                               wow
interjection                               (hur + ray/Ch)/C1/+bp                            hurray

*                                  interjection  >>  exclamation /mGC/abE/Ch

18)
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/interjection ,  
yes                    ([a]/Ch + "-[i] agree with you")/GC/S/abT                   "I [a i] agree with you"
no                    ([a]/Ch + "-[i] do not agree with you")/GC/S/abT                   "I [a i] do not agree with you"

"Are you happy?" ---   I ^am^ happy.  >>  "Yes I am"
"Are you happy?" ---   I ^am^ not happy.  >>  "No I am not"

"Will you go there?" --- I ^will^ go there.  >>  "Yes I will."
*     (Will/SS you/uCh go/SS there/uCh)/GC/S/abT  >>  "Do you go there?"
*                  (Yes/SS I/uCh will/SS)/GC/S/abT  >>  "Yes I do."

"Do you love him?" ------   I ^love^ him  >>  "Yes I do"
"Do you love him?" ------   I ^do^ not love him  >>  "No I don't."

19)
expletive                                    (it/Ch + it)/C1/+cp                                   it
expletive                                  (the/Ch + re)/C1/+cp                               there

*            (Rain/SS comes/uCh)/T  >>  "It rains."
*    (Rain/SS is/uCh comeing/SS)/T  >>  "It is raining."
*           (Rain's/SS comes/uCh)/T  >>  "It's raining."

**         (Shower/SS comes/uCh)/T  >>  "It pours."

* (Many/SS books/uCh are/SS on/uCh the/SS table/uCh)/P  >>  "There are many books on the table."

**                            expletive  >>  curse /mGC/abE/Ch

20)
"measure word"                              (hea/Ch + d)/C1/+bp                            head
"measure word"                              (s/Ch + tem)/C1/+bp                            stem
"measure word"                               (pa/Ch + ir)/C1/+bp                             pair
"measure word"                              (pa/Ch + irs)/C1/+bp                            pairs

*           "measure word"  >>  "units of measurement" /mGC/abE/Ch

**              "units of measurement" /mGC/abE  >>  "count noun" /T


http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Measure+word ,  
five head of cattle (said by ranchers)   <<  (five/SS cows/uCh)/P
ten stem of roses (said by florists)      <<  (ten/SS roses/uCh)/P
three pair of pants                      <<  (three/SS trousers/uCh)/P
three pairs of pants                     <<  (three/SS trousers/uCh)/GC/S/abT


"measure word"                              (cup/Ch + s)/C1/+bp                             cups
"measure word"                             (ker/Ch + nels)/C1/+bp                        kernels
"measure word"                              (e/Ch + ars)/C1/+bp                             ears
"measure word"                            (bu/Ch + shels)/C1/+bp                         bushels

three cups of coffee                     <<  (in/SS cup/uCh, three/SS coffees/uCh)/GC/S/abT
four kernels of corn                     <<  (in/SS kernel/uCh, four/SS corns/uCh)/GC/S/abT
, three ears of corn                       <<  (in/SS ear/uCh, three/SS corns/uCh)/GC/S/abT
, two bushels of corn                     <<  (in/SS bushel/uCh, two/SS corns/uCh)/GC/S/abT
one litre of water                       <<  (in/SS liter/uCh, one/SS water/uCh)/GC/S/abT

**                         liter  >>  litre /mGC/abE/Ch


golfers: twosome, threesome, foursome...
musicians: solo, duet, trio, quartet... (from Italian, probably by old French).
wombmates: twins, triplets, quadruplets....

"measure word"                          (four/Ch + some)/C1/+bp                       foursome
"measure word"                           (quar/Ch + tet)/C1/+bp                          quartet
"measure word"                       (qua/Ch + druplets)/C1/+bp                     quadruplets

*           "two golfers"  >>  twosome /mGC/abE/Ch
*           "three golfers"  >>  threesome /mGC/abE/Ch
*           "four golfers"  >>  foursome /mGC/abE/Ch

*           "one musician"  >>  solo /mGC/abE/Ch
*           "two musician"  >>  duet /mGC/abE/Ch
*           "three musician"  >>  trio /mGC/abE/Ch
*           "four musician"  >>  quartet /mGC/abE/Ch

*           "two babies in a birth"  >>  twins /mGC/abE/Ch
*           "three babies in a birth"  >>  triplets /mGC/abE/Ch
*           "four babies in a birth"  >>  quadruplets /mGC/abE/Ch

21)
preverb                                (for/Ch + for)/P/+bp                             for (forget)

22)
pro-form                            (he + he/Ch)/S/+bp                           he (He said so.)
pro-form                             (so + so/Ch)/S/+bp                           so (He said so.)
pro-form                  (doe + s/Ch)/S/+bp                   he (I can't understand Greek but he does'.)

A pronoun substitutes a noun or a noun phrase, with or without a determiner: it, this.
A pro-adjective substitutes an adjective or a phrase that functions as an adjective: so as in "It is less so than we had expected."
A pro-adverb substitutes an adverb or a phrase that functions as an adverb: how or this way.
A pro-verb substitutes a verb or a verb phrase: do.
A pro-sentence substitutes an entire sentence or subsentence: Yes or (some have argued) that as in "That is true."

23)
"pro-sentence"                                (ye + s/Ch)/C1/+cp                              yes
"pro-sentence"                                (no + no/Ch)/C1/+cp                              no
"pro-sentence"                               (o + kay/Ch)/C1/+cp                             okay
"pro-sentence"                               (a + men/Ch)/C1/+cp                           amen

yes                    ([a]/Ch + "-[i] agree with you")/GC/S/abT                   "I [a i] agree with you"
no                    ([a]/Ch + "-[i] do not agree with you")/GC/S/abT                   "I [a i] do not agree with you"

okay                   ([a]/Ch + "-[i] accept your proposal")/GC/S/abT                   "I [a i] accept your proposal"
amen                    ([a]/Ch + "-[i] believe you")/GC/S/abT                   "I [a i] believe you"

24)
pro-verb                            (can + can/Ch)/GC/S/abT/+bp                              can
pro-verb                             (wo + n't/Ch)/GC/S/abT/+bp                            won't
pro-verb                            (doe + s/Ch)/GC/S/abT/+bp                               does
pro-verb                            (ha + ve/Ch)/GC/S/abT/+bp                               have
pro-verb                      ([me] + [i d=]/Ch)/GC/S/abT/+bp                   made [me i d=]

Who can tell? No-one can [tell].  <<  (Who/SS can/uCh tell/SS it/uCh? No/SS -one/uCh can/SS tell/uCh it/SS)/GC/S/abT
Why can't he do it? He can [do it], he just won't [do it].  <<  (He/SS can/uCh do/SS it/uCh, he/SS just/uCh won't/SS do/uCh it/SS)/GC/S/abT
I like pie, as does he [like pie].  <<  (as/SS he/uCh likes/SS pie/uCh)/GC/S/abT
Are you doing it tomorrow? No, I already have [done it].  <<  (I/SS already/uCh have/SS done/uCh it/SS)/GC/S/abT
Why did you break the jar? He made me [break the jar].  >>  (He/SS made/uCh me/SS break/uCh it/SS)/GC/S/abT
Can you go to the park? No I can not [go to the park]  <<  (I/SS can/uCh not/SS go/uCh there/SS)/GC/S/abT

pro-verb                              (to + to/Ch)/GC/S/abT/+bp                                to

Clean your room! I don't want to [clean my room].  >>  (I/SS don't/uCh want/SS to/uCh do/SS it/uCh)/GC/S/abT
He refused to clean his room when I told him to [clean his room].  <<  (when/SS I/uCh told/SS him/uCh to/SS do/uCh it/SS)/GC/S/abT

25)
"procedure word"                    (ra + "-dio telephone"/Ch)/GC/S/abT/+cp                    "radio telephone"

*                              "procedure word"  >>  proword /mGC/abE

"procedure word"                         (sen + d/Ch)/GC/S/abT/+cp                         send
"procedure word"                          (o + ut/Ch)/GC/S/abT/+cp                           out
"procedure word"                          (o + ver/Ch)/GC/S/abT/+cp                         over


* (Please/SS continue/uCh to/SS send/uCh your/SS message/uCh)/GC/S/abT  >>  SEND [e s=  i  en  di]

*                 (finish/SS of/uCh sending/SS)/GC/S/abT  >>  OUT [o  yu  ti]

*          (please/SS reply/uCh to/SS my/uCh sending/SS)/GC/S/abT  >>  OVER [o  v= i  i  ar]

26)
infinitive                                 (ver/Ch + b)/P/+bp                                  verb

*                    infinitive  >>  "I N F" /mGC/abE  >>  "I N F I N" /mGC/abE/Ch

infinitive                              ([tu]/Ch + go)/P/+bp                             "to [tu] go"
infinitive                         ([tu]/Ch + explain)/P/+bp                        "to [tu] explain"
infinitive                            ([tu]/Ch + help)/P/+bp                           "to [tu] help"

27)
gerund                                  (ver/Ch + b)/T/+cp                                   verb

gerund                                 (go/Ch + ing)/T/+cp                                   going
gerund                              (e/Ch + xplaining)/T/+cp                            explaining
gerund                               (hel/Ch + ping)/T/+cp                                 helping

28)
past                                    (ver/Ch + b)/P/+cp                                    verb

*                                   past  >>  P /mGC/abE/Ch

past                                      (ha/Ch + d)/P/+cp                                    had
past                                    (li/Ch + ved)/P/+cp                                    lived
past                                   (par/Ch + ked)/P/+cp                                parked

29)
"past participle"                             (ver/Ch + b)/T/+bp                               verb

*                            "past participle"  >>  "P P" /mGC/abE/Ch

"past participle"                           (wri/Ch + tten)/T/+bp                            written
"past participle"                             (li/Ch + ved)/T/+bp                               lived
"past participle"                            (run/Ch + run)/T/+bp                               run

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DATE: 2013.Apr.07 - 00:05


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12Simple view釣魚台群島/尖閣諸島,    琉球諸島/南西諸島/薩南諸島/吐噶喇列島/沖縄諸島/慶良間諸島/先島諸島/宮古列島/八重山諸島 Y... 2013.May.05
11Simple view 'Naked Cowboy'       "열하일기"는 가짜,                                       Nelson Mandela Y... 2013.Apr.28
10Simple viewtornado,   landspout,  waterspout,   tornadogenesis,   cloud,   'Tornado Alley'   'funnel cloud'   supercell Y... 2013.Apr.24
9Simple view NSSL,   NCAR,   NSF,   lightning   'lightning rod'     HAARP                   #  'How to prevent tornado' Y... 2013.Apr.24
8Now readingabsolute term,   intensive modifier,   adjective/noun/verb/adverb/pronoun/preposition/conjunction/  ~ Y... 2013.Apr.07
7Simple view자음동화,  두음법칙,  구개음화,  사이시옷,             'Grammar by Ben Yagoda'             ADHD,        OK Y... 2013.Feb.26
6Simple view>>                      두음법칙, Y... 2015.Oct.27
5Simple view'2013's Full Moons by Joe Rao'      'Patient discussion about enterprise/resource/push/~'     environment Y... 2013.Jan.27
4Simple view '고려대 교가'         'Adam Lanza'             'between Greek ancient city states & modern states of Europe' Y... 2012.Dec.16
3Simple viewUnited Mexican States,   수학능력시험,  조강지처,    아카라카,   입실렌티체이홉,   '서울대 교가',    '연세대 교가' Y... 2012.Nov.23
2Simple viewAve Maria, Summertime, What a Wonderful World, Amazing grace, Imagine, Oh happy day, Mission Imp- Y... 2012.Nov.21
1Simple view>>                        'o sole mio,                           미사의 종 Y... 2013.Mar.02
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