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(Comparative) study (in structure/mode/ways of pronunciation, articulation, phonetics, or whatever; that is, in differences of speaking mouth postures and resultant speaking weight/force center points) between English/foreign languages and mother tongue, for better (more practical/effective/smooth) hearing/speaking of English/foreign languages.       Copyright.   Young-Won Kim,   yw@voicespec.com
open : home | main | brd2 | Kor | book member : main II | Kor II


::: Comparative phonetics, fun facts :::


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Name   Young-Won Kim
Subject   tornado,   landspout,  waterspout,   tornadogenesis,   cloud,   'Tornado Alley'   'funnel cloud'   supercell

tornado,   landspout,  waterspout,   tornadogenesis,   cloud,   'Tornado Alley'   'funnel cloud'   supercell

NSSL,   NCAR,   NSF,   lightning,    lightning rod,    HAARP    'How to prevent tornado'

tornado,  landspout/waterspout,  tornadogenesis,  cloud,  'Tornado Alley'   'funnel cloud'  supercell,  'National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL)'   'National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'   'National Science Foundation (NSF)'   lightning,    lightning rod,   HAARP,   'How to prevent tornado'



1.                                       tornado

*         회오리바람/S*  >>  돌풍/S/Ch* >>  폭풍/P*  >>  질풍/P/Ch*  >>  eddywind/C2

용오름                                     (질/Ch + 풍)/서울1                                   질풍


whirlwind                          (e/Ch + ddy + win/Ch + d)/T                        "eddy wind"
"vertiginous wind"                      (e/Ch + ddy + win/Ch + d)/P                   "eddy wind"
cyclone                            (e/Ch + ddy + win/Ch + d)/S                        "eddy wind"
tornado                          (e/Ch + ddy + win/Ch + d)/C2                        "eddy wind"
"whirling tornado"                 (e/Ch + ddy + win/Ch + d)/GC/S/abT               "eddy wind"


landspout                              (whirl + win/Ch + d)/P                             whirlwind
waterspout                           (tor/Ch + na + [i]/Ch + do)/T                         tornado

tornadogenesis                      (tor + na/Ch + [y=] + do/Ch)/GC/S/abT                    tornado
cyclogenesis                      (tor/Ch + na + [y=]/Ch + do)/GC/S/abT                    tornado

mesocyclone                        (tor + na/Ch + [y=] + do/Ch)/C2                      tornado
supercell                            (tor/Ch + na + [y=]/Ch + do)/S                        tornado


*                                   tornado  >>  twister /mGC/abE/Ch

*                     cyclone  >>  hurricane /mGC/abE  >>  typhoon /mGC/abE/Ch

*                  "vertiginous wind"  >>  gale /mGC/abE  >>  storm /mGC/abE/Ch

**                                 storm /mGC/abE  >>  tempest/P

*                              "whirling tornado"  >>  "willy-willy" /mGC/abE/Ch

**                             "willy-willy" /mGC/abE  >>  windstorm /P


eddy                                     (whirl/Ch + pool)/T                               whirlpool
vortex                                   (whirl/Ch + pool)/P                               whirlpool
swirl                                     (whirl/Ch + pool)/S                               whirlpool
undertow                                (whirl/Ch + pool)/C2                              whirlpool
tideway                             (whirl/Ch + pool)/GC/S/abT                           whirlpool

*                                 swirl  >>  "counter-current" /mGC/abE/Ch

*                                   tideway  >>  counterflow /mGC/abE/Ch


 *   whirlpool/GC/S/abT >> Charybdis/C2 >> maelstrom/T >> confusion/P >> bedlam/S >> disorder/GC/S/abT/Ch >> uproar/C2/Ch >> turmoil/T/Ch >> tumult/P/Ch >> chaos/S/Ch

*                             chaos  >>  upheaval /mGC/abE  >>  pandemonium /mGC/abE/Ch

"convective storm detection"                        (s/Ch + torm)/C2                        storm



http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Tornado ,  
Tornado
For the current tornado season, see Tornadoes of 2011

A tornado (often referred to as a twister or, erroneously, a cyclone) is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact

 with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour (177 km/h), are approximately 250 feet (80 m) across, and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating. The most extreme can attain wind speeds of more than 300 mph (480 km/h), stretch more than two miles (3 km) across, and stay on the ground for dozens of miles (more than 100 km).[1][2][3]

*    whirlwind {>> (Tornado /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "A tornado PARENTHESIS" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> often /GC/S/abE/+cp >> referred /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> to /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> as /GC/P/abE/+bp >> a /GC/P/abE/+cp >> twister /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> or /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> erroneously /GC/S/abR/+bp >> a /GC/S/abR/+cp >> cyclone /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> PARENTHESIS /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> is /GC/P/abR/+bp >> a /GC/P/abR/+cp >> violent /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> dangerous /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> rotating /mGC/abE/+bp >> column /mGC/abE/+cp >> of /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> air /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> that /mGC/abR/+bp >> is /mGC/abR/+cp >> in /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> contact /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "rotating column" >> with /GC/S/abE/+bp >> both /GC/S/abE/+cp >> the /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> surface /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> of /GC/P/abE/+bp >> the /GC/P/abE/+cp >> earth /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~


Various types of tornadoes include the landspout, multiple vortex tornado, and Waterspout. Waterspouts are characterized by a spiraling funnel-shaped wind current, connecting to a large cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud. They are generally classified as non-supercellular tornadoes that develop over bodies of water.[4] These spiraling columns of air frequently develop in tropical areas close to the equator, and are less common at high latitudes.[5] Other tornado-like phenomena that exist in nature include the gustnado, dust devil, fire whirls, and steam devil.

Tornadoes have been observed on every continent except Antarctica. However, the vast majority of tornadoes in the world occur in the Tornado Alley region of the United States, although they can occur nearly anywhere in North America.[6] They also occasionally occur in south-central and eastern Asia, the Philippines, northern and east-central South America, Southern Africa, northwestern and southeast Europe, western and southeastern Australia, and New Zealand.[7] Tornadoes can be detected before or as they occur through the use of Pulse-Doppler radar by recognizing patterns in velocity and reflectivity data, such as hook echoes, as well as by the efforts of storm spotters.

There are several different scales for rating the strength of tornadoes. The Fujita scale rates tornadoes by damage caused, and has been replaced in some countries by the updated Enhanced Fujita Scale. An F0 or EF0 tornado, the weakest category, damages trees, but not substantial structures. An F5 or EF5 tornado, the strongest category, rips buildings off their foundations and can deform large skyscrapers. The similar TORRO scale ranges from a T0 for extremely weak tornadoes to T11 for the most powerful known tornadoes.[8] Doppler radar data, photogrammetry, and ground swirl patterns (cycloidal marks) may also be analyzed to determine intensity and assign a rating.[9]

Etymology



2.                                        landspout
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Landspout ,  
Landspout
A landspout is a slang-term coined by meteorologist Howard B. Bluestein in 1985 for a kind of tornado not associated with the meso

cyclone of a thunderstorm.[1] The Glossary of Meteorology defines a landspout as

*     eddy {>> (Landspout /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "A landspout is a slang-term" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> coined /GC/S/abE/+cp >> by /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> meteorologist /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> Howard /GC/P/abE/+bp >> B /GC/P/abE/+cp >> POINT /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> Blue /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> stein /GC/S/abR/+bp >> in /GC/S/abR/+cp >> 1/one /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> 9 /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> 8 /GC/P/abR/+bp >> 5 /GC/P/abR/+cp >> for /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> a /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> kind /mGC/abE/+bp >> of /mGC/abE/+cp >> tornado /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> not /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> associated /mGC/abR/+bp >> with /mGC/abR/+cp >> the /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> meso /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "Howard B" >> cyclone /GC/S/abE/+bp >> of /GC/S/abE/+cp >> a /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> thunder /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> storm /GC/P/abE/+bp >> The /GC/P/abE/+cp >> Glossary /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~


"Colloquial expression describing tornadoes occurring with a parent cloud in its growth stage and with its vorticity originating in the boundary layer.
The parent cloud does not contain a preexisting midlevel mesocyclone. The landspout was so named because it looks like a weak Florida Keys waterspout over land."[2]

Known officially as "dust-tube tornadoes" by the National Weather Service[3], they form during the growth stage of convective clouds by the ingestion and tightening of boundary layer vorticity by the cumuliform tower's updraft. Landspouts most often occur in drier areas with high-based storms and considerable low-level instability. They generally are smaller and weaker than supercellular tornadoes, though many persist in excess of 15 minutes and some have produced F3 damage. They bear an appearance and generative mechanism highly similar to that of waterspouts, usually taking the form of a translucent and highly laminar helical tube. Like waterspouts, they are also technically considered tornadoes since they are defined by an intensely rotating column of air in contact with both the surface and a cumuliform cloud. Not all landspouts are visible, and many are first sighted as debris swirling at the surface before eventually filling in with condensation and dust.

See also
Dust devil
Gustnado
Waterspout
Whirlwind

References



3.                                        waterspout
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/waterspout ,    
Waterspout
A waterspout is an intense columnar vortex (usually appearing as a funnel-shaped cloud) that occurs over a body of water and is connected to a cumuliform

 cloud. In the common form, it is a non-supercell tornado over water[1]. While it is often weaker than most of its land counterparts, stronger versions spawned by mesocyclones do occur[2][3]. Waterspouts do not suck up water; the water seen in the main funnel cloud is actually water droplets formed by condensation.[4] While many waterspouts form in the tropics, locations at higher latitude within temperate zones also report waterspouts, such as Europe and the Great Lakes. Although rare, waterspouts have been observed in connection with lake-effect snow precipitation bands. Waterspouts have a five-part life cycle: formation of a dark spot on the water surface, spiral pattern on the water surface, formation of a spray ring, development of the visible condensation funnel, and ultimately decay.

*     cyclone {>> (Waterspout /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "A waterspout is an intense columnar vortex PARENTHESIS" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> usually /GC/S/abE/+cp >> appearing /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> as /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> a /GC/P/abE/+bp >> funnel /GC/P/abE/+cp >> DASH /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> shaped /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> cloud /GC/S/abR/+bp >> PARENTHESIS /GC/S/abR/+cp >> that /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> occurs /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> over /GC/P/abR/+bp >> a /GC/P/abR/+cp >> body /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> of /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> water /mGC/abE/+bp >> and /mGC/abE/+cp >> is /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> connected /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> to /mGC/abR/+bp >> a /mGC/abR/+cp >> cumuli /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> form /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "columnar vortex" >> cloud /GC/S/abE/+bp >> In /GC/S/abE/+cp >> the /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> common /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> form /GC/P/abE/+bp >> it /GC/P/abE/+cp >> is /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~


Formation
Waterspouts exist on a microscale, where their environment is less than two kilometers in width. The cloud that develops them can be as innocuous as a moderate cumulus, or as great as a supercell. While some waterspouts are strong and tornadic in nature, like their land-based counterpart, most are much weaker and caused by different atmospheric dynamics. They normally develop in moisture-laden environments as their parent clouds are in the process of development, and it is theorized that they spin up as they move up the surface boundary from the horizontal shear near the surface, and then stretch upwards to the cloud once the low level shear vortex aligns with a developing cumulus or thunderstorm. Weak tornadoes, known as landspouts, have been shown to develop in a similar manner.[5]

Types



4.                                       tornadogenesis
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Tornadogenesis ,    
Tornadogenesis
Tornadogenesis is the process by which a tornado forms. There are many types of tornadoes, and each type of tornado can have several different methods of formation.

 Scientific study is ongoing, as some aspects of tornado formation remain a mystery.

*     genesis {>> (Tornadogenesis /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "Tornadogenesis is the process" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> by /GC/S/abE/+cp >> which /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> a /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> tornado /GC/P/abE/+bp >> forms /GC/P/abE/+cp >> There /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> are /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> many /GC/S/abR/+bp >> types /GC/S/abR/+cp >> of /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> tornadoes /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> and /GC/P/abR/+bp >> each /GC/P/abR/+cp >> type /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> of /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> tornado /mGC/abE/+bp >> can /mGC/abE/+cp >> have /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> several /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> different /mGC/abR/+bp >> methods /mGC/abR/+cp >> of /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> formation /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "different methods" >> Scientific /GC/S/abE/+bp >> study /GC/S/abE/+cp >> is /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> on /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> going /GC/P/abE/+bp >> as /GC/P/abE/+cp >> some /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~


Supercellular tornadoes
Classical tornadoes are supercellular tornadoes, which have a recognizable pattern of formation.[1] The cycle begins when a strong thunderstorm develops a rotating mesocyclone a few miles up in the atmosphere. As rainfall in the storm increases, it drags with it an area of quickly descending air known as the rear flank downdraft (RFD). This downdraft accelerates as it approaches the ground, and drags the rotating mesocyclone towards the ground with it. Storm relative helicity (SRH) has been shown to play a role in tornado development and strength. SRH is horizontal vorticity that is parallel to the inflow of the storm and is tilted upwards when it is taken up by the updraft, thus creating vertical vorticity.

As the mesocyclone lowers below the cloud base, it begins to take in cool, moist air from the downdraft region of the storm. This convergence of warm air in the updraft, and this cool air, causes a rotating wall cloud to form. The RFD also focuses the mesocyclone's base, causing it to siphon air from a smaller and smaller area on the ground. As the updraft intensifies, it creates an area of low pressure at the surface. This pulls the focused mesocyclone down, in the form of a visible condensation funnel. As the funnel descends, the RFD also reaches the ground, creating a gust front that can cause severe damage a good distance from the tornado. Usually, the funnel cloud begins causing damage on the ground (becoming a tornado) within a few minutes of the RFD reaching the ground.

Landspouts



5.                                      cloud

cloud                               ([ŋ(uΛ)]/Ch + ter)/C2                       "water [ŋ(uΛ)  tΛ]"

mist                                  ([ŋ(uΛ)]/Ch + ter)/T                                    water
haze                                  ([ŋ(uΛ)]/Ch + ter)/P                                    water
fog                                   ([ŋ(uΛ)]/Ch + ter)/S                                    water
vapour                           ([ŋ(uΛ)]/Ch + ter)/GC/S/abT                                water

murk                                ([wΛ]/Ch + ter)/C2                           "water [wΛ  tΛ]"
nebula                                ([wΛ]/Ch + ter)/T                           "water [wΛ  tΛ]"
obscurity                              ([wΛ]/Ch + ter)/P                           "water [wΛ  tΛ]"
darkness                              ([wΛ]/Ch + ter)/S                           "water [wΛ  tΛ]"
gloom                           ([wΛ]/Ch + ter)/GC/S/abT                        "water [wΛ  tΛ]"

billow                              ([ŋ(uΛ)] + ter/Ch)/C2                       "water [ŋ(uΛ)  tΛ]"
shower                              ([ŋ(uΛ)] + ter/Ch)/T                       "water [ŋ(uΛ)  tΛ]"
mass                                ([ŋ(uΛ)] + ter/Ch)/P                       "water [ŋ(uΛ)  tΛ]"
puff                                 ([ŋ(uΛ)] + ter/Ch)/S                       "water [ŋ(uΛ)  tΛ]"
"dense mass"                           ([ŋ(uΛ)] + ter/Ch)/GC/S/abT                         water

host                                 ([wΛ] + ter/Ch)/C2                           "water [wΛ  tΛ]"
multitude                             ([wΛ] + ter/Ch)/T                           "water [wΛ  tΛ]"
flock                                  ([wΛ] + ter/Ch)/P                           "water [wΛ  tΛ]"
swarm                                ([wΛ] + ter/Ch)/S                           "water [wΛ  tΛ]"
crowd                             ([wΛ] + ter/Ch)/GC/S/abT                      "water [wΛ  tΛ]"

*                        crowd  >>  horde /mGC/abE  >>  throng /mGC/abE/Ch


A)
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Cloud ,  
cloud, aggregation of minute particles of water or ice suspended in the air.
Formation of Clouds
Clouds are formed when air containing water vapor is cooled below a critical temperature called the dew

 dew, thin film of water that has condensed on the surface of objects near the ground. Dew forms when radiational cooling of these objects during the nighttime hours also cools the shallow layer of overlying air in contact with them, causing the condensation of some
..... Click the link for more information.

  point and the resulting moisture condenses into droplets on microscopic dust particles (condensation nuclei) in the atmosphere. The air is normally cooled by expansion during its upward movement. Upward flow of air in the atmosphere may be caused by convection resulting from intense solar heating of the ground; by a cold wedge of air (cold front) near the ground causing a mass of warm air to be forced aloft; or by a mountain range at an angle to the wind. Clouds are occasionally produced by a reduction of pressure aloft or by the mixing of warmer and cooler air currents.
********************
********************

http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Cloud ,  
cloud, aggregation of minute particles of water or ice suspended in the air.

Formation of Clouds
Clouds are formed when air containing water vapor is cooled below a critical

 temperature called the dew

point and the resulting moisture condenses into droplets on microscopic dust particles (condensation nuclei) in the atmosphere. The air is normally cooled by expansion during its upward movement. Upward flow of air in the atmosphere may be caused by convection resulting from intense solar heating of the ground; by a cold wedge of air (cold front) near the ground causing a mass of warm air to be forced aloft; or by a mountain range at an angle to the wind. Clouds are occasionally produced by a reduction of pressure aloft or by the mixing of warmer and cooler air currents.

*    water {>> (cloud /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "aggregation of minute particles of water" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> or /GC/S/abE/+cp >> ice /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> suspended /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> in /GC/P/abE/+bp >> the /GC/P/abE/+cp >> air /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> Formation /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> of /GC/S/abR/+bp >> Clouds /GC/S/abR/+cp >> Clouds /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> are /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> formed /GC/P/abR/+bp >> when /GC/P/abR/+cp >> air /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> containing /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> water /mGC/abE/+bp >> vapor /mGC/abE/+cp >> is /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> cooled /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> be /mGC/abR/+bp >> low /mGC/abR/+cp >> a /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> critical /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "Formation of Clouds" >> temperature /GC/S/abE/+bp >> called /GC/S/abE/+cp >> the /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> dew /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> dew /GC/P/abE/+bp >> thin /GC/P/abE/+cp >> film /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~


Classification of Clouds
A classification of cloud forms was first made (1801) by French naturalist Jean Lamarck. In 1803, Luke Howard, an English scientist, devised a classification that was adopted by the International Meteorological Commission (1929), designating three primary cloud types, cirrus, cumulus, and stratus, and their compound forms, which are still used today in modified form. Today's classification has four main divisions: high clouds, 20,000 to 40,000 ft (6,10012,200 m); intermediate clouds, 6,500 to 20,000 ft (1,9806,100 m); low clouds, near ground level to 6,500 ft (1,980 m); and clouds with vertical development, 1,600 ft to over 20,000 ft (4906,100 m).

High cloud forms include cirrus, detached clouds of delicate and fibrous appearance, generally white in color, often resembling tufts or featherlike plumes, and composed entirely of ice crystals; cirrocumulus (mackerel sky), composed of small white flakes or very small globular masses, arranged in groups, lines, or ripples; and cirrostratus, a thin whitish veil, sometimes giving the entire sky a milky appearance, which does not blur the outline of the sun or moon but frequently produces a halo.

Intermediate clouds include altocumulus, patchy layer of flattened globular masses arranged in groups, lines, or waves, with individual clouds sometimes so close together that their edges join; and altostratus, resembling thick cirrostratus without halo phenomena, like a gray veil, through which the sun or the moon shows vaguely or is sometimes completely hidden.

Low clouds include stratocumulus, a cloud layer or patches composed of fairly large globular masses or flakes, soft and gray with darker parts, arranged in groups, lines, or rolls, often with the rolls so close together that their edges join; stratus, a uniform layer resembling fog but not resting on the ground; and nimbostratus, a nearly uniform, dark grey layer, amorphous in character and usually producing continuous rain or snow.

Clouds having vertical development include cumulus, a thick, detached cloud, generally associated with fair weather, usually with a horizontal base and a dome-shaped upper surface that frequently resembles a head of cauliflower and shows strong contrasts of light and shadow when the sun illuminates it from the side, and cumulonimbus, the thunderstorm cloud, heavy masses of great vertical development whose summits rise in the form of mountains or towers, the upper parts having a fibrous texture, often spreading out in the shape of an anvil, and sometimes reaching the stratosphere. Cumulonimbus generally produces showers of rain, snow, hailstorms, or thunderstorms.

Climatic Influence of Clouds
Cloudiness (or proportion of the sky covered by any form of cloud), measured in tenths, is one of the elements of climate. The cloudiness of the United States averages somewhat less than 50% (i.e., the country receives somewhat more than 50% of the possible sunshine); the Great Lakes region and the coast of Washington and Oregon have the greatest cloudiness (60%70%), and the SW United StatesArizona and adjacent areasare the least cloudy (10%30%). Clouds have become an important focus in the study of global warming or cooling, including how the increase or decrease in cloud cover can effect the amount of radiation reflected from the earth back into space.

Bibliography
See R. S. Scorer, Clouds of the World (1972); R. Houze, Cloud Dynamics (1991).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Copyright 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/



B)
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Cloud ,  
Cloud
A cloud is a visible mass of water droplets or frozen ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of the Earth or other planetary body. Clouds in

 the Earth's atmosphere are studied in the nephology or cloud physics branch of meteorology. This article concentrates mainly on clouds that form in the troposphere, the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere where most of the world's weather is generated.

*    fog {>> (Cloud /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "A cloud is a visible mass" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> of /GC/S/abE/+cp >> water /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> droplets /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> or /GC/P/abE/+bp >> frozen /GC/P/abE/+cp >> ice /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> crystals /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> suspended /GC/S/abR/+bp >> in /GC/S/abR/+cp >> the /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> atmosphere /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> above /GC/P/abR/+bp >> the /GC/P/abR/+cp >> surface /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> of /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> the /mGC/abE/+bp >> Earth /mGC/abE/+cp >> or /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> other /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> planetary /mGC/abR/+bp >> body /mGC/abR/+cp >> Clouds /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> in /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "water droplets" >> the /GC/S/abE/+bp >> Earth's /GC/S/abE/+cp >> atmosphere /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> are /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~


Formation in troposphere
Incoming shortwave radiation generated by the Sun reflects back as longwave radiation when it reaches the Earth's surface; a process that warms the air closest to the ground. This warm air tends to absorb moisture in the form of invisible water vapor from bodies of water, moist ground, and from plants. Warm moisture-laden air is inherently unstable and tends to rise to higher altitudes where the surrounding air is colder. Atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude, so when air rises, it expands in a process that expends energy which causes the air to cool.

Cold air holds less water vapor than warm air, so clouds are formed when the air is lifted and cooled to the point at which it begins to shed vapor it can no longer retain. This is the saturation temperature which is also known as the dewpoint temperature. The altitude of the saturation level determines the altitude of the cloud base. The vapor begins to condense onto airborne hygroscopic particles like dust and salt from sea spray and becomes visible as cloud. Very small water droplets form at lower altitudes below the freezing level and ice crystals or sometimes supercooled water droplets at higher altitudes. This process of cooling and condensation continues until the air achieves temperature equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere and stops rising. The altitude of equilibrium tends to determine the altitude of the cloud tops, although if the vertical air currents have become very strong, momentum can push the tops to even higher altitudes.

The droplets or crystals that make up a cloud are typically about 0.01 mm (0.00039 in) in diameter. If these continue to grow in size, a process facilitated by strong upward lift and abundant condensation particles, they will eventually become too large and heavy to be supported by the upward air currents and fall to the ground as precipitation. If sufficient condensation nuclei are not present at and above the saturation level, the rising air becomes supersaturated and the formation of cloud is inhibited. The most common agents of upward motion causing condensation are spontaneous convective lift caused by daytime solar heating of unstable air at surface level, lift along a weather front or around a cyclonic low pressure area (anticyclonic in the southern hemisphere) that forces a stable or unstable airmass ro rise over top of a cooler airmass, and orographic lift of the air over mountains.

Colder air at surface level absorbs less moisture than warm air and thus tends to be more stable. If this type of airmass moves over water, it may become more unstable and subject to spontaneous convective lift; otherwise it requires the external forces of frontal, orographic, or cyclonic lift to trigger cloud formation. At the other extreme, if an airmass that is already warm and unstable is subjected to the additional forces of a strong external lifting agent like a fast moving cold front, the results can be explosive with very powerful air currents resulting in the formation of severe thunderstorms and tornados.

Tropospheric classification



6.                                     Tornado Alley

"Tornado Alley"                     (U/Ch + [e] + [s=]/Ch + [e] + [i] /Ch)/C2                    USA

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Tornado+Alley ,  
Tornado Alley
For the book by William S. Burroughs, see Tornado Alley (book).

Tornado Alley is a colloquial and popular media term that most often refers to the area of the United States where tornadoes are most frequent. Although an official location is not defined,

 the area between the Rocky Mountains and Appalachian Mountains is usually associated with it.[1]

*    America {>> ("Tornado Alley" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "Tornado Alley is a colloquial and popular media term" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> that /GC/S/abE/+cp >> most /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> often /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> refers /GC/P/abE/+bp >> to /GC/P/abE/+cp >> the /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> area /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> of /GC/S/abR/+bp >> the /GC/S/abR/+cp >> United /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> States /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> where /GC/P/abR/+bp >> tornadoes /GC/P/abR/+cp >> are /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> most /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> frequent /mGC/abE/+bp >> Although /mGC/abE/+cp >> an /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> official /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> location /mGC/abR/+bp >> is /mGC/abR/+cp >> not /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> defined /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "Tornado Alley" >> the /GC/S/abE/+bp >> area /GC/S/abE/+cp >> between /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> the /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~


Tornado geography
Although no U.S. state is entirely free of tornadoes, they are most frequent in the plains between the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains. According to the storm events database of the National Climatic Data Center, Texas reports more tornadoes than any other state, though this state's very large land area should be taken into account. Kansas and Oklahoma are second and third respectively for sheer number of tornadoes reported but report more per land area than Texas. However, the density of tornado occurrences in northern Texas is comparable to Oklahoma and Kansas. Florida also reports a high number and density of tornado occurrences, though only rarely do tornadoes there approach the strength of those that sometimes strike the southern plains.[2]

Definition
Although Tornado Alley is considered to be in the areas of the Central United States, no official definition of the term has actually been produced by the National Weather Service. According to the National Severe Storms Laboratory FAQ,[3] "Tornado Alley" is a term created by the media to refer to areas that have greater numbers of tornadoes. There are several ideas of what Tornado Alley is, but those ideas are the result of the different criteria used to refer to it. 90% of tornadoes hit this region of the U.S because cold, dry air from Canada and the Rocky Mountains meets warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and hot, dry air from the Sonoran Desert, which combines with atmospheric instability to produce intense thunderstorms.[4]

The most common definition of Tornado Alley is the location where the strongest tornadoes occur most frequently and was first coined by Jennifer L. Wiley in 1904. The core of Tornado Alley consists of the Texas Panhandle, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, eastern South Dakota, and the Colorado Eastern Plains.[5] However, Tornado Alley can be also be defined as an area stretching from central Texas to the Canadian prairies and from eastern Colorado to western Pennsylvania.[1] It can also be argued that there are numerous Tornado Alleys. In addition to the Texas/Oklahoma/Kansas core, such areas include the Ohio Valley, the southern Great Lakes, the Tennessee Valley and the lower Mississippi valley.

Variations



7.                                      funnel cloud

"funnel cloud"                              (cl/Ch + o + u/Ch + d)/T                          cloud

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/funnel+cloud ,  
Funnel cloud
A funnel cloud is a funnel-shaped cloud of condensed water droplets, associated with a rotating column of wind and extending from the base of a cloud (usually

 a cumulonimbus or towering cumulus cloud) but not reaching the ground or a water surface. A funnel cloud is usually visible as a cone-shaped or needle like protuberance from the main cloud base. Funnel clouds form most frequently in association with supercell thunderstorms.

*    funnel {>> ("Funnel cloud" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "A funnel cloud is a funnel DASH" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> shaped /GC/S/abE/+cp >> cloud /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> of /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> condensed /GC/P/abE/+bp >> water /GC/P/abE/+cp >> droplets /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> associated /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> with /GC/S/abR/+bp >> a /GC/S/abR/+cp >> rotating /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> column /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> of /GC/P/abR/+bp >> wind /GC/P/abR/+cp >> and /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> extending /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> from /mGC/abE/+bp >> the /mGC/abE/+cp >> base /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> of /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> a /mGC/abR/+bp >> cloud /mGC/abR/+cp >> PARENTHESIS /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> usually /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "funnel cloud" >> a /GC/S/abE/+bp >> cumulo /GC/S/abE/+cp >> nimbus /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> or /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~


If a funnel cloud touches the ground it becomes a tornado. Most tornadoes begin as funnel clouds, but many funnel clouds do not make ground contact and so do not become tornadoes. Also, a tornado does not necessarily need to have an associated condensation funnelif strong cyclonic winds are occurring at the surface (and connected to a cloud base, regardless of condensation), then the feature is a tornado. Some tornadoes may appear only as a debris swirl, with no obvious funnel cloud extending below the rotating cloud base. A funnel cloud is quite noticeable as it passes overhead aloft. The sounds heard are described as buzzing bees, roaring, a sucking sound, or a waterfall-like sound. A pressure drop is often noticeable as well, in the form of popping ears in anyone below the funnel cloud. A funnel cloud that touches down on, or moves over water is a waterspout.

Safety
Many, but not all funnel clouds will be warned for, and an appropriate warning may have been dispersed. Sirens (if present) may be sounding, Radio/TV may be interrupted for warning dissemination. If there is no warning, such as when outdoors, it is important to take immediate action.

If one spots a funnel cloud, it is recommended to take shelter immediately, as it may suddenly become a tornado. In the field, citizens are recommended to report or call-in funnel clouds to local police for relay to the National Weather Service (USA) or Environment Canada (CA)

If driving, determine if the funnel will pass near or through your intended route of travel. If so, stop and seek safe shelter at once, away from your vehicle, but not under any bridges/overpasses (see Tornado#Safety and Tornado#Myths and misconceptions).

Cold-air funnel clouds



8.                                     supercell

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/supercell ,  
Supercell
A supercell is a thunderstorm that is characterized by the presence of a mesocyclone; a deep, continuously-rotating updraft.[1] Of the four classifications of

 thunderstorms (supercell, squall line, multi-cell, and single-cell), supercells are the overall least common and have the potential to be the most severe. Supercells are often isolated from other thunderstorms, and can dominate the local climate up to 32 kilometres (20 mi) away.

*    thunderstorm {>> (Supercell /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "A supercell is a thunderstorm" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> that /GC/S/abE/+cp >> is /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> characterized /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> by /GC/P/abE/+bp >> the /GC/P/abE/+cp >> presence /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> of /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> a /GC/S/abR/+bp >> meso /GC/S/abR/+cp >> cyclone /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> SEMICOLON /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> a /GC/P/abR/+bp >> deep /GC/P/abR/+cp >> continuously /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> DASH /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> rotating /mGC/abE/+bp >> up /mGC/abE/+cp >> draft /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> Of /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> the /mGC/abR/+bp >> four /mGC/abR/+cp >> classifications /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> of /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "rotating updraft" >> thunder /GC/S/abE/+bp >> storms /GC/S/abE/+cp >> PARENTHESIS /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> super /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~


Supercells are often put into two classification types: Low-precipitation (LP) and High-precipitation (HP). LP supercells are usually found in climates that are more arid, such as the high plains of the United States, and HP supercells are most often found in moist climates. Supercells can occur anywhere in the world under the right pre-existing weather conditions, but they are most common in the Great Plains of the United States.

Characteristics
Supercells are usually found isolated from other thunderstorms, although they can sometimes be embedded in a squall line. Because they can last for hours, they are known as quasi-steady-state storms. Supercells have the capability to deviate from the mean wind. If they track to the right or left of the mean wind (relative to the vertical wind shear), they are said to be "right-movers" or "left-movers," respectively. Supercells can sometimes develop two separate updrafts with opposing rotations, which splits the storm into two supercells: one left-mover and one right-mover.

Supercells can be any size large or small, low or high topped. They usually produce copious amounts of hail, torrential rainfall, strong winds, and substantial downbursts. Supercells are one of the few types of clouds that typically spawn tornadoes within the mesocyclone, although only 30% or less do so.[2]

Geography

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