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(Comparative) study (in structure/mode/ways of pronunciation, articulation, phonetics, or whatever; that is, in differences of speaking mouth postures and resultant speaking weight/force center points) between English/foreign languages and mother tongue, for better (more practical/effective/smooth) hearing/speaking of English/foreign languages.       Copyright.   Young-Won Kim,
open : home | main | brd2 | Kor | book member : main II | Kor II

::: Comparative phonetics, fun facts :::

36 11 View counter   Join Member Login Admin
Name   Young-Won Kim
Subject   NSSL,   NCAR,   NSF,   lightning   'lightning rod'     HAARP                   #  'How to prevent tornado'

tornado,   landspout,  waterspout,   tornadogenesis,   cloud,   'Tornado Alley'   'funnel cloud'   supercell

NSSL,   NCAR,   NSF,   lightning,    lightning rod,    HAARP    'How to prevent tornado'

tornado,  landspout/waterspout,  tornadogenesis,  cloud,  'Tornado Alley'   'funnel cloud'  supercell,  'National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL)'   'National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'   'National Science Foundation (NSF)'   lightning,    lightning rod,   HAARP,   'How to prevent tornado'

9.                       National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL)

"National Severe Storms Laboratory"                 (hur/Ch + ri + ca/Ch + {y}ne)/C2                hurricane ,  
National Severe Storms Laboratory
The National Severe Storms Laboratory (or NSSL) is a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration weather research laboratory located at the National Weather Center in

 Norman, Oklahoma. NSSL investigates all aspects of severe weather to improve severe weather warnings and forecasts in order to save lives and reduce property damage. Research areas include weather radar, automated algorithm detection tools for use with weather radar, and basic tornado research to understand how tornadoes form.

*    storms {>> ("National Severe Storms Laboratory" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "The National Severe Storms Laboratory PARENTHESIS" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> or /GC/S/abE/+cp >> N /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> S /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> S /GC/P/abE/+bp >> L /GC/P/abE/+cp >> PARENTHESIS /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> is /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> a /GC/S/abR/+bp >> National /GC/S/abR/+cp >> Oceanic /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> and /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> Atmospheric /GC/P/abR/+bp >> Administration /GC/P/abR/+cp >> weather /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> research /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> laboratory /mGC/abE/+bp >> located /mGC/abE/+cp >> at /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> the /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> National /mGC/abR/+bp >> Weather /mGC/abR/+cp >> Center /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> in /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "National Severe Storms Laboratory" >> Norman /GC/S/abE/+bp >> Oklahoma /GC/S/abE/+cp >> N /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> S /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~

NSSL scientists developed the first Doppler weather radar, and have since contributed to the development of NEXRAD, as well as research mobile radar systems.

NSSL also works with the Storm Prediction Center to help verify and improve severe weather forecasting.

External links
• National Severe Storms Lab
• National Weather Center

This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia® - the free encyclopedia created and edited by its online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of Wikipedia® encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information, please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.

10.                   National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

"National Center for Atmospheric Research"                 (s/Ch + torm + s/Ch)/GC/S/abT               storms ,    
National Center for Atmospheric Research
The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR, pronounced "EN-car"[1]) is a nongovernmental institute in the United States that conducts collaborative research

 in atmospheric and Earth system science. The center has multiple facilities, including the I. M. Pei-designed Mesa Laboratory headquarters in Boulder, Colorado. NCAR is managed by the nonprofit University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Studies include meteorology, climate science, atmospheric chemistry, solar-terrestrial interactions, environmental and societal impacts.

*    hurricane {>> ("National Center for Atmospheric Research" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "The National Center for Atmospheric Research PARENTHESIS" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> N /GC/S/abE/+cp >> C /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> A /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> R /GC/P/abE/+bp >> pronounced /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "QUOTATION MARK" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "E N" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> DASH /GC/S/abR/+bp >> car /GC/S/abR/+cp >> "QUOTATION MARK" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> PARENTHESIS /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> is /GC/P/abR/+bp >> a /GC/P/abR/+cp >> nongovernmental /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> institute /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> in /mGC/abE/+bp >> the /mGC/abE/+cp >> United /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> States /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> that /mGC/abR/+bp >> conducts /mGC/abR/+cp >> collaborative /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> research /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "National Center for Atmospheric Research" >> in /GC/S/abE/+bp >> atmospheric /GC/S/abE/+cp >> and /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> Earth /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~

Research, services, and facilities
NCAR provides a broad array of tools and technologies to the scientific community for studying Earth’s atmosphere, including[2], [3]
• Specialized instruments to measure atmospheric processes
• Research aircraft
• High-performance computing and cyberinfrastructure, including supercomputers
• Mauna Loa Solar Observatory
• Cooperative field campaigns
• Atmospheric models of weather, chemical, solar, and climate processes, including cooperatively developed models such as:
o Community Climate System Model (CCSM)
o Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF)
o Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM)
• Technology transfer to support societal needs
• Data sets, data services, and other resources

The center is staffed by scientists, engineers, technicians, and support personnel who develop and extend these capabilities.[1] Key research areas include [4]
• Climate (Earth’s past, present, and future climate; the greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change; El Niño, La Niña, and other large-scale atmospheric patterns; drought, wildfires)
• Meteorology/Weather (short-term forecasts; weather forecasting and predictability; weather's effect on climate; hurricanes, tornadoes, and other severe storms; physical processes)
• Environmental and societal impacts (impacts of climate change on the natural and managed environment; interactions of weather, climate, and society; weather hazard systems for aviation and ground transportation; national security)
• Pollution and air chemistry (air pollution on local, regional, and global scales; air chemistry and climate; chemical evolution and transport in the atmosphere)
• the Sun and space weather (the structure of the Sun, from its interior to sunspots to the solar corona; the solar cycle; the Sun’s effect on Earth’s weather and climate; space weather)
• Other components of the Earth system (the effects on weather and climate of interactions with: the oceans and other components of Earth's water cycle, including sea ice, glaciers, and the rest of the cryosphere; forests, agriculture, urbanization and other types of land use)

NCAR is organized into five laboratories and two programs:[5]

• Computational & Information Systems Laboratory (CISL)
• Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL)
• High Altitude Observatory (HAO)
• NCAR Earth System Laboratory (NESL)
• Research Applications Laboratory (RAL)

• Advanced Study Program (ASP)
• Integrated Science Program (ISP)

NCAR's service to the universities and larger geosciences community is reinforced by the offerings of UCAR's community programs.[6], [7]

Computational and Information Systems Laboratory

11.                                 National Science Foundation (NSF)

"National Science Foundation"                 (sc(a)/Ch + i + en/Ch + ce)/T                science

science                        (di/Ch + sci + pl/Ch + ine)/GC/S/abT                      discipline
"area of study"                        (di/Ch + sci + pl/Ch + ine)/T                       discipline
"branch of knowledge"                     (di/Ch + sci + pl/Ch + ine)/P                    discipline
"body of knowledge"                     (di/Ch + sci + pl/Ch + ine)/S                    discipline
curriculum                          (di/Ch + sci + pl/Ch + ine)/C2                        discipline ,  
National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields

 of science and engineering. Its medical counterpart is the National Institutes of Health. With an annual budget of about US$6.87 billion (fiscal year 2010), the NSF funds approximately 20 percent of all federally supported basic research conducted by the United States' colleges and universities. In some fields, such as mathematics, computer science, economics and the social sciences, the NSF is the major source of federal backing.

*    discipline {>> ("National Science Foundation" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "The National Science Foundation PARENTHESIS" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> N /GC/S/abE/+cp >> S /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> F /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> PARENTHESIS /GC/P/abE/+bp >> is /GC/P/abE/+cp >> a /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> United /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> States /GC/S/abR/+bp >> government /GC/S/abR/+cp >> agency /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> that /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> supports /GC/P/abR/+bp >> fundamental /GC/P/abR/+cp >> research /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> and /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> education /mGC/abE/+bp >> in /mGC/abE/+cp >> all /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> the /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> non /mGC/abR/+bp >> DASH /mGC/abR/+cp >> medical /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> fields /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "National Science Foundation" >> of /GC/S/abE/+bp >> science /GC/S/abE/+cp >> and /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> engineering /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~

The NSF's director, deputy director, and the 24 members of the National Science Board (NSB)[1] are appointed by the President of the United States, and confirmed by the United States Senate. The director and deputy director are responsible for administration, planning, budgeting and day-to-day operations of the foundation, while the NSB meets six times a year to establish its overall policies. Before the appointment of Dr. Subra Suresh was confirmed by Congress in October 2010[2], the NSF Acting Director was Dr. Cora B. Marrett.[3]

Grants and the merit review process

12.                                 lightning

lightning                                   (thun/Ch + der)/T                               thunder

thunder                                     (bol/Ch + t)/C2                                     bolt
thunderbolt                                  (bol/Ch + t)/T                                     bolt
thunderstroke                                 (bol/Ch + t)/P                                    bolt
"stroke of lightning"                          (bol/Ch + t)/GC/S/abT                            bolt
flash                                       (bol/Ch + t)/S                                       bolt

* bolt/GC/S/abT/Ch >> bar/T/Ch >> catch/P/Ch >> fastener/S/Ch >> lock/C2/Ch >> pin/T >> rod/P >> peg/S >> rivet/C2 (>> shaft /GC/S/abT)

*                           pin  >>  latch /mGC/abE  >>  "sliding bar" /mGC/abE/Ch
*                           peg  >>  screw /mGC/abE  >>  fastener /mGC/abE/Ch

arrow                                    (b/T + olt/C2)/Ch                                     bolt
missile                                   (b/P + olt/C2)/Ch                                     bolt
shaft                                     (b/S + olt/C2)/Ch                                     bolt
projectile                            (b/GC/S/abT + olt/C2)/Ch                                 bolt

*                                     projectile  >>  dart /mGC/abE/Ch

flash                                      (b/P + olt/T)/Ch                                      bolt
thunderbolt                                  (b/S + olt/T)/Ch                                   bolt
burst                                       (b/C2 + olt/T)/Ch                                   bolt
streak                                   (b/GC/S/abT + olt/T)/Ch                               bolt

bale                                       (b/T + olt/S)/Ch                                      bolt
amount                                     (b/P + olt/S)/Ch                                    bolt
roll                                       (b/C2 + olt/S)/Ch                                     bolt
quantity                                (b/GC/S/abT + olt/S)/Ch                                bolt

*                        bale  >>  reel /mGC/abE  >>  packet /mGC/abE/Ch
*                                      roll  >>  bundle /mGC/abE/Ch

dash                                       (b/T + olt/P)/Ch                                     bolt
race                                       (b/S + olt/P)/Ch                                     bolt
spring                                     (b/C2 + olt/P)/Ch                                    bolt
rush                                   (b/GC/S/abT + olt/P)/Ch                                 bolt

dart                                   (b/T + olt/GC/S/abT)/Ch                                 bolt
rush                                   (b/P + olt/GC/S/abT)/Ch                                 bolt
bound                                 (b/S + olt/GC/S/abT)/Ch                                 bolt
sprint                                 (b/C2 + olt/GC/S/abT)/Ch                                bolt

*                         sprint  >>  flight /mGC/abE  >>  spurt /mGC/abE/Ch ,  
Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of electricity accompanied by thunder, which typically occurs during thunderstorms, and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or dust storms.[1] In the atmospheric electrical discharge,

 a leader of a bolt of lightning can travel at speeds of 220,000 km/h (140,000 mph), and can reach temperatures approaching 30,000 °C (54,000 °F), hot enough to fuse silica sand into glass channels known as fulgurites which are normally hollow and can extend some distance into the ground.[2][3] There are some 16 million lightning storms in the world every year.[4]

*    lightning >> "an atmospheric discharge of electricity" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> accompanied /GC/S/abE/+cp >> by /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> thunder /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> which /GC/P/abE/+bp >> typically /GC/P/abE/+cp >> occurs /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> during /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> thunder /GC/S/abR/+bp >> storms /GC/S/abR/+cp >> and /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> some /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> times /GC/P/abR/+bp >> during /GC/P/abR/+cp >> volcanic /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> eruptions /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> or /mGC/abE/+bp >> dust /mGC/abE/+cp >> storms /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> In /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> the /mGC/abR/+bp >> atmospheric /mGC/abR/+cp >> electrical /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> discharge /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "discharge of electricity" >> a /GC/S/abE/+bp >> leader /GC/S/abE/+cp >> of /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> a /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~

Lightning can also occur within the ash clouds from volcanic eruptions, or can be caused by violent forest fires which generate sufficient dust to create a static charge.[1][5]

How lightning initially forms is still a matter of debate:[6] Scientists have studied root causes ranging from atmospheric perturbations (wind, humidity, friction, and atmospheric pressure) to the impact of solar wind and accumulation of charged solar particles.[4] Ice inside a cloud is thought to be a key element in lightning development, and may cause a forcible separation of positive and negative charges within the cloud, thus assisting in the formation of lightning.[4]

The irrational fear of lightning (and thunder) is astraphobia. The study or science of lightning is called fulminology, and someone who studies lightning is referred to as a fulminologist.[7]

History of lightning research


"Cloud-to-ground lightning"                    (l(a) + (y)igh/Ch + tn + ing/Ch)/GC/S/abT                    lightning
"Bead lightning"                    (l(a) + (y)igh/Ch + tn + ing/Ch)/C2                    lightning
"Ribbon lightning"                    (l(a) + (y)igh/Ch + tn + ing/Ch)/S                   lightning
"Staccato lightning"                   (l(a) + (y)igh/Ch + tn + ing/Ch)/P                  lightning
"Forked lightning"                    (l(a) + (y)igh/Ch + tn + ing/Ch)/T                   lightning

"Ground-to-cloud lightning"                    (l(a)/Ch + (y)igh + tn/Ch + ing)/GC/S/abT                    lightning
"Cloud-to-cloud lightning"                  (l(a)/Ch + (y)igh + tn/Ch + ing)/C2                 lightning
"Sheet lightning"                    (l(a)/Ch + (y)igh + tn/Ch + ing)/S                    lightning
"Heat lightning"                     (l(a)/Ch + (y)igh + tn/Ch + ing)/P                    lightning
"Dry lightning"                      (l(a)/Ch + (y)igh + tn/Ch + ing)/T                    lightning

"Rocket lightning"                    (l(a)/Ch + (ŋ)igh + tn/Ch + ing)/GC/S/abT                    lightning
"Positive lightning"                   (l(a)/Ch + (ŋ)igh + tn/Ch + ing)/C2                   lightning

"High voltage lightning"                   (l(a) + (ŋ)igh/Ch + tn + ing/Ch)/C2                   lightning

"Ball lightning"                     (l(a)/Ch + (ŋ)igh + tn/Ch + ing)/S                     lightning
"Upper-atmospheric lightning"                   (l(a)/Ch + (ŋ)igh + tn/Ch + ing)/P                   lightning
Sprites                         (l(a)/Ch + (ŋ)igh + tn/Ch + ing)/T                         lightning

"Blue jets"                    (l(a) + (ŋ)igh/Ch + tn + ing/Ch)/GC/S/abT                    lightning
Elves                          (l(a) + (ŋ)igh/Ch + tn + ing/Ch)/C2                        lightning

"Rocket-triggered lightning"                   (l(a)/Ch + (y)igh + tn/Ch + ing)/C1                   lightning
"Rocket-triggered lightning"                   (l(a) + (y)igh/Ch + tn + ing/Ch)/C1                   lightning
"Laser-triggered lightning"                   (l(a)/Ch + (ŋ)igh + tn/Ch + ing)/C1                   lightning
"Extraterrestrial lightning"                   (l(a) + (ŋ)igh/Ch + tn + ing/Ch)/C1                   lightning

13.                                lightning rod

lightening rod                                  (so + ul/Ch)/T                                   soul
lightening conductor                       (con/Ch + duc + tor/Ch)/T                    conductor

*   "lightning rod" /GC/S/abT  >>  individual/T >> mortal/P >> person/S >> somebody/C2 >> someone/C1 ,  
Lightning rod
A lightning rod (US, AUS) or lightning conductor (UK) is a metal rod or conductor mounted on top of

 a building and electrically connected to the ground through a wire, to protect the building in the event of lightning. If lightning strikes the building it will preferentially strike the rod, and be conducted harmlessly to ground through the wire, instead of passing through the building, where it could start a fire or cause electrocution. A lightning rod is a single component in a lightning protection system. In addition to rods placed at regular intervals on the highest portions of a structure, a lightning protection system typically includes a rooftop network of conductors, multiple conductive paths from the roof to the ground, bonding connections to metallic objects within the structure and a grounding network. The rooftop lightning rod is a metal strip or rod, usually of copper or aluminum. Lightning protection systems are installed on structures, trees, monuments, bridges or water vessels to protect from lightning damage. Individual lightning rods are sometimes called finials, air terminals or strike termination devices. The lightning rod was invented by Benjamin Franklin in the Americas in 1749 and, perhaps independently, by Prokop Diviš in Europe in 1754.[1]

*    soul {>> ("Lightning rod" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "A lightning rod PARENTHESIS" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> U /GC/S/abE/+cp >> S /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> A /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> U /GC/P/abE/+bp >> S /GC/P/abE/+cp >> PARENTHESIS /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> or /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> lightning /GC/S/abR/+bp >> conductor /GC/S/abR/+cp >> PARENTHESIS /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> U /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> K /GC/P/abR/+bp >> PARENTHESIS /GC/P/abR/+cp >> is /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> a /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> metal /mGC/abE/+bp >> rod /mGC/abE/+cp >> or /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> conductor /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> mounted /mGC/abR/+bp >> on /mGC/abR/+cp >> top /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> of /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "lightning rod" >> a /GC/S/abE/+bp >> building /GC/S/abE/+cp >> and /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> electrically /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~

As buildings became taller, lightning becomes more of a threat. Lightning can damage structures made of most materials (masonry, wood, concrete and steel) as the huge currents involved can heat materials, causing a potential for fire, and also water to high temperatures.

Some of the most ancient lightning conductors can be found in Sri Lanka in places like the Kingdom of Anuradhapura that dates back to thousands of years. The Sinhalese kings who mastered construction of stupas and advanced building structures, installed a metal tip made of copper on the highest point of every building to conduct any lightning charge. In many parts of the world ancient Buddhist monuments have been destroyed by lightning strikes but not in Sri Lanka.


14.                   High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) ,  
High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program
The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is an ionospheric research program jointly funded by the US Air Force,

 the US Navy, the University of Alaska and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).[1] Its purpose is to analyze the ionosphere and investigate the potential for developing ionospheric enhancement technology for radio communications and surveillance purposes (such as missile detection).[2] The HAARP program operates a major Arctic facility, known as the HAARP Research Station, on an Air Force owned site near Gakona, Alaska.

*    weather {>> ("High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program PARENTHESIS" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> H /GC/S/abE/+cp >> A /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> A /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> R /GC/P/abE/+bp >> P /GC/P/abE/+cp >> PARENTHESIS /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> is /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> an /GC/S/abR/+bp >> I /GC/S/abR/+cp >> O /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> N /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> O /GC/P/abR/+bp >> spheric /GC/P/abR/+cp >> research /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> program /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> jointly /mGC/abE/+bp >> funded /mGC/abE/+cp >> by /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> the /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> U /mGC/abR/+bp >> S /mGC/abR/+cp >> Air /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> Force /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

*    "Auroral Research Program" >> the /GC/S/abE/+bp >> U /GC/S/abE/+cp >> S /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> Navy /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~

The most prominent instrument at the HAARP Station is the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), a high power radio frequency transmitter facility operating in the high frequency (HF) band. The IRI is used to temporarily excite a limited area of the ionosphere. Other instruments, such as a VHF and a UHF radar, a fluxgate magnetometer, a digisonde and an induction magnetometer, are used to study the physical processes that occur in the excited region.

Work on the HAARP Station began in 1993. The current working IRI was completed in 2007, and its prime contractor was BAE Advanced Technologies.[1]

As of 2008, HAARP had incurred around $250 million in tax-funded construction and operating costs. HAARP has also been blamed by conspiracy theorists for several natural disasters.[3]

The HAARP project aims to direct a 3.6 MW signal, in the 2.8-10 MHz region of the HF [High Frequency] band, into the ionosphere. The signal may be pulsed or continuous. Then, effects of the transmission and any recovery period can be examined using associated instrumentation, including VHF and UHF radars, HF receivers, and optical cameras. According to the HAARP team, this will advance the study of basic natural processes that occur in the ionosphere under the natural but much stronger influence of solar interaction, as well as how the natural ionosphere affects radio signals.

*    climate {>> (Objectives /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "The H" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> A /GC/S/abE/+cp >> A /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> R /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> P /GC/P/abE/+bp >> project /GC/P/abE/+cp >> aims /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~

This will enable scientists to develop techniques to mitigate these effects in order to improve the reliability and/or performance of communication and navigation systems, which would have a wide range of applications in both the civilian and military sectors, such as an increase in the accuracy of GPS navigation, and advancements in underwater and underground research and applications. This may lead to improved methods for submarine communication and the ability to remotely sense the mineral content of the terrestrial subsurface, among other things. One application would be to map out the underground complexes of countries such as Iran and North Korea. The current facility lacks the range to reach these countries, but the research could be used to develop a mobile platform.[4]

The HAARP program began in 1990. The project is funded by the Office of Naval Research and jointly managed by the ONR and Air Force Research Laboratory, with the principal involvement of the University of Alaska. Many other universities and educational institutions have been involved in the development of the project and its instruments, namely the University of Alaska (Fairbanks), Stanford University, Penn State University (ARL), Boston College, UCLA, Clemson University, Dartmouth College, Cornell University, Johns Hopkins University, University of Maryland, College Park, University of Massachusetts, MIT, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, and the University of Tulsa. The project's specifications were developed by the universities, which are continuing to play a major role in the design of future research efforts.

According to HAARP's management, the project strives for openness and all activities are logged and publicly available. Scientists without security clearances, even foreign nationals, are routinely allowed on site. The HAARP facility regularly (once a year on most years according to the HAARP home page) hosts open houses, during which time any civilian may tour the entire facility. In addition, scientific results obtained with HAARP are routinely published in major research journals (such as Geophysical Research Letters, or Journal of Geophysical Research), written both by university scientists (American and foreign) or by US Department of Defense research lab scientists. Each summer, the HAARP holds a summer-school for visiting students, including foreign nationals, giving them an opportunity to do research with one of the world's foremost research instruments.

HAARP's main goal is basic science research of the uppermost portion of the atmosphere, known as the ionosphere. Essentially a transition between the atmosphere and the magnetosphere, the ionosphere is where the atmosphere is thin enough that the sun's x-rays and UV rays can reach it, but thick enough that there are still enough molecules present to absorb those rays. Consequently, the ionosphere consists of a rapid increase in density of free electrons, beginning at ~70 km, reaching a peak at ~300 km, and then falling off again as the atmosphere disappears entirely by ~1000 km. Various aspects of HAARP can study all of the main layers of the ionosphere.

*    conditions {>> (Research /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> H /GC/S/abE/+bp >> A /GC/S/abE/+cp >> A /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> R /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> P /GC/P/abE/+bp >> PRIME /GC/P/abE/+cp >> S /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> main /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~

The profile of the ionosphere, however, is highly variable, showing minute-to-minute changes, diurnal changes, seasonal changes, and year-to-year changes. This becomes particularly complicated near the Earth's poles, where a host of physical processes (like auroral lights) are unlocked by the fact that the alignment of the Earth's magnetic field is nearly vertical.

On the other hand, the ionosphere is traditionally very difficult to measure. Balloons cannot reach it because the air is too thin, but satellites cannot orbit there because the air is still too thick. Hence, most experiments on the ionosphere give only small pieces of information. HAARP approaches the study of the ionosphere by following in the footsteps of an ionospheric heater called EISCAT near Tromsø, Norway. There, scientists pioneered exploration of the ionosphere by perturbing it with radio waves in the 2-10 MHz range, and studying how the ionosphere reacts. HAARP performs the same functions but with more power, and a more flexible and agile HF beam.

Some of the main scientific findings from HAARP include:
1. Generation of very low frequency radio waves by modulated heating of the auroral electrojet, useful because generating VLF waves ordinarily requires gigantic antennas
2. Production of weak luminous glow (below what you can see with your eye, but measurable) from absorption of HAARP's signal
3. Production of extremely low frequency waves in the 0.1 Hz range, which are next to impossible to produce any other way
4. Generation of whistler-mode VLF signals which enter the magnetosphere, and propagate to the other hemisphere, interacting with Van Allen radiation belt particles along the way
5. VLF remote sensing of the heated ionosphere

Research at the HAARP includes:
1. Ionospheric heating
2. plasma line observations
3. Stimulated electron emission observations
4. Gyro frequency heating research
5. Spread F observations
6. Airglow observations
7. Heating induced scintillation observations
8. VLF and ELF generation observations [5]
9. Radio observations of meteors
10. Polar mesospheric summer echoes: PMSE have been studied using the IRI as a powerful radar, as well as with the 28 MHz radar, and the two VHF radars at 49 MHz and 139 MHz. The presence of multiple radars spanning both HF and VHF bands allows scientists to make comparative measurements that may someday lead to an understanding of the processes that form these elusive phenomena.
11. Research on extraterrestrial HF radar echos: the Lunar Echo experiment (2008).[6][7]
12. Testing of Spread Spectrum Transmitters (2009)
13. Meteor shower impacts on the ionosphere
14. Response and recovery of the ionosphere from solar flares and geomagnetic storms
15. The effect of ionospheric disturbances on GPS satellite signal quality

Instrumentation and operation
The main instrument at HAARP Station is the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI). This is a high power, high-frequency phased array radio transmitter with a set of 180 antennas, disposed in an array of 12x15 units that occupy a rectangle of about 33 acres (13 hectares). The IRI is used to temporarily energize a small portion of the ionosphere. The study of these disturbed volumes yields important information for understanding natural ionospheric processes.

*    temperature {>> ("Instrumentation and operation" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "The main instrument at H" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> A /GC/S/abE/+cp >> A /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> R /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> P /GC/P/abE/+bp >> Station /GC/P/abE/+cp >> is /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> the /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~

During active ionospheric research, the signal generated by the transmitter system is delivered to the antenna array and transmitted in an upward direction. At an altitude between 70 km (43 mi) to 350 km (217 mi) (depending on operating frequency), the signal is partially absorbed in a small volume several tens of kilometers in diameter and a few meters thick over the IRI. The intensity of the HF signal in the ionosphere is less than 3 µW/cm², tens of thousands of times less than the Sun's natural electromagnetic radiation reaching the earth and hundreds of times less than even the normal random variations in intensity of the Sun's natural ultraviolet (UV) energy which creates the ionosphere. The small effects that are produced, however, can be observed with the sensitive scientific instruments installed at the HAARP Station, and these observations can provide information about the dynamics of plasmas and insight into the processes of solar-terrestrial interactions.[8]

Each antenna element consists of a crossed dipole that can be polarized for linear, ordinary mode (O-mode), or extraordinary mode (X-mode) transmission and reception.[9][10] Each part of the two section crossed dipoles are individually fed from a custom built transmitter, that has been specially designed with very low distortion. The Effective Radiated Power (ERP) of the IRI is limited by more than a factor of 10 at its lower operating frequencies. Much of this is due to higher antenna losses and a less efficient antenna pattern.

The IRI can transmit between 2.7 and 10 MHz, a frequency range that lies above the AM radio broadcast band and well below Citizens' Band frequency allocations. The HAARP Station is licensed to transmit only in certain segments of this frequency range, however. When the IRI is transmitting, the bandwidth of the transmitted signal is 100 kHz or less. The IRI can transmit in continuous waves (CW) or in pulses as short as 10 microseconds (µs). CW transmission is generally used for ionospheric modification, while transmission in short pulses frequently repeated is used as a radar system. Researchers can run experiments that use both modes of transmission, first modifying the ionosphere for a predetermined amount of time, then measuring the decay of modification effects with pulsed transmissions.

There are other geophysical instruments for research at the Station. Some of them are:
• A fluxgate magnetometer built by the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, available to chart variations in the Earth's magnetic field. Rapid and sharp changes of it may indicate a geomagnetic storm.
• A digisonde that provides ionospheric profiles, allowing scientists to choose appropriate frequencies for IRI operation. The HAARP makes current and historic digisonde information available online.
• An induction magnetometer, provided by the University of Tokyo, that measures the changing geomagnetic field in the Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) range of 0–5 Hz.

The project site (62°23′30″N 145°09′03″W / 62.39167°N 145.15083°W) is north of Gakona, Alaska just west of Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park. An environmental impact statement led to permission for an array of up to 180 antennas to be erected.[11] The HAARP has been constructed at the previous site of an over-the-horizon radar (OTH) installation. A large structure, built to house the OTH now houses the HAARP control room, kitchen, and offices. Several other small structures house various instruments.

*    forecast {>> (Site /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "The project site PARENTHESIS" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> 6 /GC/S/abE/+cp >> 2 /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> DEGREE /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> 2 /GC/P/abE/+bp >> 3 /GC/P/abE/+cp >> SECOND /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~

The HAARP site has been constructed in three distinct phases: [12]
1. The Developmental Prototype (DP) had 18 antenna elements, organized in three columns by six rows. It was fed with a total of 360 kilowatts (kW) combined transmitter output power. The DP transmitted just enough power for the most basic of ionospheric testing.
2. The Filled Developmental Prototype (FDP) had 48 antenna units arrayed in six columns by eight rows, with 960 kW of transmitter power. It was fairly comparable to other ionospheric heating facilities. This was used for a number of successful scientific experiments and ionospheric exploration campaigns over the years.
3. The Final IRI (FIRI) is the final build of the IRI. It has 180 antenna units, organized in 15 columns by 12 rows, yielding a theoretical maximum gain of 31 dB. A total of 3.6 MW of transmitter power will feed it, but the power is focused in the upward direction by the geometry of the large phased array of antennas which allow the antennas to work together in controlling the direction. As of March 2007, all the antennas were in place, the final phase was completed and the antenna array was undergoing testing aimed at fine-tuning its performance to comply with safety requirements required by regulatory agencies. The facility officially began full operations in its final 3.6 MW transmitter power completed status in the summer of 2007, yielding an effective radiated power (ERP) of 5.1 Gigawatts or 97.1 dBW at maximum output. However, the site typically operates at a fraction of that value due to the lower antenna gain exhibited at standard operational frequencies.[13]

Related facilities
In America, there are two related ionospheric heating facilities: the HIPAS, near Fairbanks, Alaska, and (currently offline for reconstruction) one at the Arecibo Observatory Link text in Puerto Rico. The European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association (EISCAT) operates an ionospheric heating facility, capable of transmitting over 1 GW effective radiated power (ERP), near Tromsø, Norway.[14] Russia has the Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility, in Vasilsursk near Nizhniy Novgorod, capable of transmitting 190 MW ERP.

*    outlook {>> ("Related facilities" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> In /GC/S/abE/+bp >> America /GC/S/abE/+cp >> there /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> are /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> two /GC/P/abE/+bp >> related /GC/P/abE/+cp >> I /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~

Conspiracy theories
Main article: List of conspiracy theories#Development of weapons technology

HAARP is the subject of numerous conspiracy theories, with individuals ascribing various hidden motives and capabilities to the project. Journalist Sharon Weinberger called HAARP "the Moby Dick of conspiracy theories" and said the popularity of conspiracy theories often overshadows the benefits HAARP may provide to the scientific community.[15][3] Skeptic computer scientist David Naiditch called HAARP "a magnet for conspiracy theorists", saying the project has been blamed for triggering catastrophes such as floods, droughts, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and devastating earthquakes in Pakistan and the Philippines aimed to "shake up" terrorists. Naiditch says HAARP has been blamed for diverse events including major power outages, the downing of TWA Flight 800, Gulf War syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Conspiracy theorists have also suggested links between HAARP and the work of Nikola Tesla (particularly potential combinations of HAARP energy with Tesla's work on pneumatic small-scale earthquake generation) and physicist Bernard Eastlund. According to Naiditch, HAARP is an attractive target for conspiracy theorists because "its purpose seems deeply mysterious to the scientifically uninformed".[16]

*    "meteorological conditions" {>> ("Conspiracy theories" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> Main /GC/S/abE/+bp >> article /GC/S/abE/+cp >> COLON /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> List /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> of /GC/P/abE/+bp >> conspiracy /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "theories NUMBER Development" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~

Conspiracy theorists have blamed HAARP for numerous earthquakes. An opinion piece on a Venezuelan state-run television channel's website named HAARP as a cause of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. [17][18][19]

In Media
A fictionalized HAARP was the setting for a stage in the X-Men Legends game.[20] HAARP was also featured in the animated series GI JOE: Resolute.

*    elements {>> ("In Media" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "A fictionalized H" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> A /GC/S/abE/+cp >> A /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> R /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> P /GC/P/abE/+bp >> was /GC/P/abE/+cp >> the /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~

See also
• Ionospheric reflection
• Poker Flat Research Range
• SuperDARN

*    clime {>> ("See also" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> I /GC/S/abE/+bp >> O /GC/S/abE/+cp >> N /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> O /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> spheric /GC/P/abE/+bp >> reflection /GC/P/abE/+cp >> ~ ~ ~

1. ^ a b "HAARP Fact Sheet". HAARP. 15 June 2007. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
2. ^ "Purpose and Objectives of the HAARP Program". HAARP. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
3. ^ a b Weinberger, Sharon (23 April 2008). "Atmospheric physics: Heating up the heavens". Nature. Retrieved 21 January 2010.

*    country {>> (References /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "INVERSE V A" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> B /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "QUOTATION MARK" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> H /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> A /GC/P/abE/+bp >> A /GC/P/abE/+cp >> ~ ~ ~

4. ^ Pentagon Scientists Target Iran’s Nuclear Mole Men
5. ^
6. ^ Reeve, W.D. (2008). "The Lunar Echo Experiment (Part 1)". Radio User 3 (8): 56–58. ISSN 1748-8117.
7. ^ Reeve, W.D. (2008). "The Lunar Echo Experiment (Part 2)". Radio User 3 (9): 56–57. ISSN 1748-8117.
8. ^ "Technical Information". HAARP. 12 April 2007. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
9. ^ "The HAARP Antenna Array". HAARP. Archived from the original on 15 April 2007. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
10. ^ "Details of the HAARP Antenna Design". HAARP. Archived from the original on 13 may 2007. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
11. ^ "The HAARP IRI As Described in the EIS". 17 May 2007. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
12. ^ "Phases of Completion of the IRI". HAARP. Archived from the original on 1 May 2007.
13. ^ "HAARP IRI Performance Calculator". 10 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-10.
14. ^ B. Isham, C. La Hoz, M. T. Rietveld, F. T. Djuth, T. Hagfors, and T. Grydeland (October 2000). "High Latitude HF-Induced Plasma Turbulence". The First S-RAMP Conference. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
15. ^ Weinberger, Sharon (April 25, 2008). "The Strange Life and Times of HAARP". Wired Magazine. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
16. ^ Naiditch, David (Spring, 2003). "Is baked Alaska half-baked?". Skeptic Magazine. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
17. ^ Pescovitz, David (January 22, 2010). "Venezuelan president: US tectonic weapon caused Haiti quake". Retrieved 3 February 2010.
18. ^ "Earthquakes, HAARP and conspiracy theories.". Anchorage Daily News. January 20th, 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
19. ^ "Truth over delusion: Hugo Chavez did not accuse the U.S. of causing the Haitian earthquake". 3 February 2010. Retrieved 15 February 2010.
20. ^ "X-Men Legends Plot". Strategy Wiki. Retrieved 24 August 2010.

Further reading
• Y. Zaitsev (11 May 2007). "From radio telescopes to electromagnetic weapons.". Ria Novosti. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
• "Evidence for Precipitation of Energetic Particles by Ionospheric «Heating» Transmissions". National Geophysical Data Center. 7 December 2004. Retrieved 2009-09-27.

*    region {>> ("Further reading" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "Y POINT" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> Z /GC/S/abE/+cp >> A /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> I /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> T /GC/P/abE/+bp >> S /GC/P/abE/+cp >> E /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> V /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> PARENTHESIS /GC/S/abR/+bp >> 11 /GC/S/abR/+cp >> ~ ~ ~

• J. E. Smith (6 May 2006). "HAARP Completed!". Indybay. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
• U. S. Inan and T. F. Bell. "Polar Aeronomy and Radio Science (PARS):ULF/ELF/VLF Project". STAR Laboratory, Stanford University. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
• U. S. Inan, M. Golkowski, D. L. Carpenter, N. Reddell, R. C. Moore, T. F. Bell, E. Paschal, P. Kossey, E. Kennedy, and S. Z. Meth (2004). "Multi-hop whisler-mode ELF/VLF signals and triggered emissions excited by the HAARP HF heater". Geophysical Research Letters 31: L24805. doi:10.1029/2004GL021647.
• E. J. Kennedy, P. Rodriguez, and C. A. Selcher. "The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program". Retrieved 2009-09-27.
• H. L. Rowland (28 April 1999). "Simulations of ELF radiation generated by heating the high-latitude D- region". Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, Beam Physics Branch. Retrieved 2009-09-27.

• C. W. Hansell (1945)."Communication system by pulses through the Earth", U.S. Patent 2,389,432.
• R. L. Tanner (1965). "Extremely low-frequency antenna", U.S. Patent 3,215,937.
• G. F. Leydorf (1966). "Antenna near field coupling system", U.S. Patent 3,278,937.
• B. J. Eastlund (1987). "Method and apparatus for altering a region in the Earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, and/or magnetosphere", U.S. Patent 4,686,605.
• B. J. Eastlund (1991). "Method for producing a shell of relativistic particles at an altitude above the earths surface", U.S. Patent 5,038,664.

External links
• Official website
• HAARP executive summary
• GoogleMaps satellite image of HAARP

Coordinates: 62°23′30″N 145°09′00″W / 62.39167°N 145.15°W

This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia® - the free encyclopedia created and edited by its online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of Wikipedia® encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information, please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.

*    surroundings {>> ("External links" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "Official website H" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> A /GC/S/abE/+cp >> A /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> R /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> P /GC/P/abE/+bp >> executive /GC/P/abE/+cp >> summary /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> GoogleMaps /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> satellite /GC/S/abR/+bp >> image /GC/S/abR/+cp >> ~ ~ ~

15.                       *How to prevent tornado

A) Lightning is produced by "(electrically) charged cloud".

B) Tornado is produced by "(magnetically) magnetized cloud".

C) If "(magnetically) magnetized cloud" can be demagnetized, there will be no tornado.

D) "(Magnetically) magnetized cloud" possibly can magnetize the facing land/sea.

E) The facing (magnetized) land/sea will draw/attract "(magnetically) magnetized cloud", which produces "eddy wind" or whirlwind -- tornado.

F) Light is a (transverse) electromagnetic wave.

G) Sun light magnetize/polarizes or/and electrically-charges cloud (which is isolated in the air/sky), I think.

H) Some special laser/maser/spaser beam can demagnetize/depolarize "magnetized/polarized cloud", I think.

tornado suppression

*    fighting [fa yi tiŋ] {>> ("tornado suppression" /GC/S/abE/+bp)/mGC} >> "We can prevent tornadoes" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> by /GC/S/abE/+cp >> projecting /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> lasers /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> toward /GC/P/abE/+bp >> clouds /GC/P/abE/+cp >> with /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> various /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> specifications /GC/S/abR/+bp >> from /GC/S/abR/+cp >> short /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> waves /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> to /GC/P/abR/+bp >> long /GC/P/abR/+cp >> ones /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> BLANK /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> BLANK /mGC/abE/+bp >> BLANK /mGC/abE/+cp >> BLANK /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> BLANK /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> BLANK /mGC/abR/+bp >> BLANK /mGC/abR/+cp >> BLANK /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> BLANK /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp

tornado suppression

We can prevent tornadoes by projecting lasers toward clouds with various specifications from short waves to long ones.

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