SUBJECT: doubt, quiz, fire, challenged, mutual, crucial, moot, firstly, right, worry, race, vogue, 'look to', revolution, need/must
NAME: Young-Won Kim
DATE: 2012.06.26 - 18:19

16.                                       doubt

Re/Corrections:     Article of   "'Λiu*a/o/='  want-for, wish, whether/if/that/when, but-what/that, would/should, touching/about, social"           <<Column 7.  but-(what/that)>> ,      
Usage Note:        Doubt and doubtful may be followed by clauses introduced by that, whether, or if.    The choice among these three is partly guided by the intended meaning of the sentence     but is not cast in stone.     Whether normally introduces an indirect question and is therefore the traditional choice     when the subject is in a state of genuine uncertainty about alternative possibilities:     Sue has studied so much philosophy this year that she has begun to doubt whether she exists.    Similarly, when doubtful indicates uncertainty,   whether is probably the correct choice:    At one time it was doubtful whether the company could recover from its financial difficulties, but the bank loan has helped.    On the other hand, that is the choice when one uses doubt as an understated way of expressing disbelief:   I doubt that we have seen the last of that problem, meaning "I think we haven't seen the last of that problem."    That is also the usual choice when the truth of the clause following doubt is assumed, as in negative sentences and questions.   Thus I never doubted for a minute that I would be rescued implies "I was certain that I would be rescued."    By the same token, Do you doubt that you will be paid? seems to pose a rhetorical question ("Surely you believe that you will be paid"),     whereas Do you doubt whether you will be paid? may express a genuine request for information and might be followed by because if you do, you should make the client post a bond.     In other cases, however, this distinction between whether and that is not always observed.    If may also be used as a substitute for whether but is more informal in tone.
>>  •In informal speech the clause following doubt is sometimes introduced with but:    I don't doubt but (or but what) he will come.     Although modern critics sometimes object to its use in formal writing,   reputable precedent exists for this construction,   as Richard Steele's remark   "I do not doubt but England is at present as polite a Nation as any in the World."   See Usage Notes at but, if.

*  ("be-query" /S/+cp/aES/abE)/abD >> "wonder/Ch(의아스럽게 여기다), interpellate(설명을 요구하다)" /GC/S/abT >> "doubt/Ch(믿지 않다), suspect(수상히 여기다)" /GC/P/abT

*                         that  >>  whether /mGC  >>  if /mGC/Ch

disbelieve  >>  "doubt/Ch(믿지 않다)" /GC/P/abT -- that

float  >>  doubt /mGC ------------------------------- whether

guess  >>  doubt /mGC/Ch ------------------------- if

float                                 (w/GC/S/abT + onder/C1)                              wonder

suspicious  >>  doubtful /GC/P/abT/Ch
unsavory  >>  doubtful /mGC
shaky  >>  doubtful /mGC/Ch

unsavory                          (w/GC/S/abT + onderous/C1)                         wonderous

shaky                             ([ŋ=  w=]/C1 + uncertain/S)                           uncertain

*                      wonderous /GC/S/abT  >>  wondrous /GC/P/abT

>>                  I don't doubt but (or but what) he will come.

*                         that  >>  but /mGC/abE >>  "but what" /mGC/abR

>>  USAGE:     Where a clause follows doubt in a positive sentence, it was formerly considered correct to use whether:   (I doubt whether he will come), but now if and that are also acceptable.      In negative statements, doubt is followed by that: I do not doubt that he is telling the truth.       In such sentences,    but (I do not doubt but that he is telling the truth) is redundant.

USAGE     In affirmative sentences, whether was in the past the only word considered acceptable for linking the verb doubt to a following clause,   for example I doubt whether he will come.   Nowadays, doubt if and doubt that are both considered acceptable alternatives to doubt whether.   In negative sentences, use that after doubt, for example I don't doubt that he is telling the truth.    The old-fashioned form not doubt but that,   as in I do not doubt but that he is telling the truth, is now rarely used and sounds very stiff and formal.

17.                                  quiz ,  
Word History:    The origins of the word quiz are as difficult to pin down as the answers to some quizzes. We can say that its first recorded sense has to do with people, not tests. The term, first recorded in 1782, meant "an odd or eccentric person." From the noun in this sense came a verb meaning "to make sport or fun of" and "to regard mockingly." In English dialects and probably in American English the verb quiz acquired senses relating to interrogation and questioning. This presumably occurred because quiz was associated with question, inquisitive, or perhaps the English dialect verb quiset, "to question" (probably itself short for obsolete inquisite, "to investigate"). From this new area of meaning came the noun and verb senses all too familiar to students. The second recorded instance of the noun sense occurs in the writings of no less an educator than William James, who in a December 26, 1867, letter proffers the hope that "perhaps giving 'quizzes' in anatomy and physiology . . . may help along."

*                          quiz  >>  people /mGC  >>  "1782" /mGC/Ch

"odd or eccentric person"                          (q/P + uiz/T)/Ch                             quiz

"make sport or fun of"                             (q/C1 + uiz/P)                               quiz
"regard mockingly"                              (q/C1 + uiz/P)/Ch                              quiz

quiset                                 (q/C1 + uiz/GC/S/abT)                                   quiz
inquisite                               (q/C1 + uiz/GC/S/abT)/Ch                               quiz

*                          quiset  >>  question /mGC/Ch
*                          inquisite  >>  investigate /mGC/Ch

"no less an educator than William James"                   (q/GC/S/abT + uiz/T)/Ch                     quiz

"December 26, 1867"                           (q/GC/S/abT + uiz/T)                           quiz

letter                                  (q/GC/S/abT + uiz/P)/Ch                                quiz

"anatomy and physiology"                       (q/GC/S/abT + uiz/P)                          quiz

18.                                      fire

Re : Article of  "temple/fiction/legend/status/group/impeach/lay/set/emotional,  percent(age), sack/fire,  'modal aux.'  dilemma"         <<Column 24.  fire>>

Re : Article of  " 'in/on demand'  show, express, display, reveal, register, rouse, cause, fire, prompt, ease, moderate, animate"         <<Column 73.  fire/noun??/intransitive??>> ,  
Word History:   Primitive Indo-European had pairs of words for some very common things, such as water or fire. Typically, one word in the pair was active, animate, and personified; the other, impersonal and neuter in grammatical gender. In the case of the pair of words for "fire," English has descendants of both, one inherited directly from Germanic, the other borrowed from Latin. Our word fire goes back to the neuter member of the pair. In Old English "fire" was fyr, from Germanic *fur. The Indo-European form behind *fur is *pur, whence also the Greek neuter noun pur, the source of the prefix pyro-. The other Indo-European word for fire appears in ignite, which is derived from the Latin word for fire, ignis, from Indo-European *egnis. The Russian word for fire, ogon' (stem form ogn-), and the Sanskrit agni-, "fire" (deified as Agni, the god of fire), also come from *egnis, the active, animate, and personified word for fire.

"Primitive Indo-European"                     ([ŋ=  y=]/C1 + English/GC/S/abT)/Ch                  English

*                "Primitive Indo-European"  >>  Germanic /mGC/Ch/+bp  >> Latin /mGC/Ch/+cp

"Old English"                             (G/C1 + ermanic/P)                              Germanic

"Indo-European"                          (L/GC/S/abT + atin/C2)/Ch                          Latin

Greek                             (G/GC/S/abT + ermanic/S)/Ch                          Germanic

Sanskrit                                    (L/P + atin/T)/Ch                                   Latin

*                             "from which"  >>  whence /mGC/Ch
*                             "from where"  >>  whence /P/Ch

*                      fire  >>  fyr /mGC/Ch/+bp  >>  fur /mGC/Ch/+cp  >>  pur /mGC/Ch

*                               pur /mGC  >>  pyro /P

ignite                                           (f/C1 + ire/S)                                    fire

*               ignite  >>  ignis /mGC/Ch/+bp  >>  egnis /mGC/Ch/+cp

*             egnis /mGC/+cp  >>  ogon /P  >>  ogn /P/Ch  >>  agni /T/Ch

animate                                     (f/C1 + ire/S)/Ch                                   fire

*                           agni /T  >>  "god of fire" /P

19.                                 challenged

Re/Corrections:     Article of  "gloom(ine-), disabled/handicapped, deceptively, copy(write), xerox, safety/safene-, (im)pass(e), im/explicit"      <<Column 12.  disabled/handicapped>> ,    
Usage Note:    Disabled is the clear preference in contemporary American English in referring to people having either physical or mental impairments, with the impairments themselves preferably termed disabilities.   Handicapped -- a term derived from the world of sports gambling -- is still in wide use but is sometimes taken to be offensive,  while more recent coinages such as differently abled or handicapable have been generally perceived as condescending euphemisms and have gained little currency.      • The often-repeated recommendation to put the person before the disability would favor persons with disabilities over disabled persons and person with paraplegia over paraplegic.   Such expressions are said to focus on the individual rather than on the particular functional limitation.   Respect for the preferences of this group calls for observing this rule, especially in formal contexts,  but the "person-first" construction has not found wide acceptance with the general public,  perhaps because it sounds somewhat unnatural or possibly because in English the last word in a phrase tends to have the greatest weight, thus undercutting the intended purpose.    See Usage Note at handicapped.

disabled                  ([ŋ=  y=]/C2 + "infirmed people"/P)/Ch                "infirmed people"
disability                          ([ŋ=  y=]/C2 + infirmity/P)/Ch                          infirmity

handicapped                  ([ŋ=  y=]/C2 + "infirmed people"/P)                "infirmed people"

"differently abled or handicapable"                 ([ŋ=  y=]/C1 + "infirmed people"/P)/Ch                "infirmed people"

*   disabled  >>  "persons with disabilities" /mGC/Ch/+bp  >>  "person with paraplegia" /mGC/Ch/+cp

USAGE:   The use of the disabled, the blind, etc. can be offensive and should be avoided.  Instead you should talk about disabled people, blind people, etc.

"the disabled"                         (disabled/P + men/S)                         "disabled men"

"the blind"                              (blind/P + men/S)                               "blind men"

USAGE         Referring to people with disabilities as the disabled can cause offence and should be avoided.      Instead, refer to them as people with disabilities   or who are physically challenged,   or, possibly, disabled people   or differently abled people.         In general, the terms used for disabilities or medical conditions should be avoided as collective nouns for people who have them - so, for example, instead of the blind,  it is preferable to refer to sightless people, vision-impaired people, or partially-sighted people, depending on the degree of their condition.

"physically challenged people"                     (d/C1 + isabled/P)/Ch                   disabled
"differently abled people"                        (d/C2 + isabled/P)/Ch                     disabled

"sightless people"                              (b/C1 + lind/T)/Ch                              blind
"vision-impaired people"                           (b/C2 + lind/T)/Ch                          blind
"partially-sighted people"                          (b/C1 + lind/S)/Ch                          blind ,    
Usage Note:    Although handicapped is widely used in both law and everyday speech to refer to people having physical or mental disabilities,   those described by the word tend to prefer the expressions disabled or people with disabilities.   Handicapped, a somewhat euphemistic term, may imply a helplessness   that is not suggested by the more forthright disabled.  It is also felt that some stigma may attach to the word handicapped   because of its origin in the phrase hand in cap,  actually derived from a game of chance but sometimes mistakenly believed to involve the image of a beggar.   The word handicapped is best reserved to describe a disabled person who is unable to function owing to some property of the environment.   Thus people with a physical disability requiring a wheelchair may or may not be handicapped,  depending on whether wheelchair ramps are made available to them.  See Usage Note at disabled.

handicapped                 ([ŋ=  y=]/C1 + "infirmed people"/P)/Ch                "infirmed people"
helplessness                 ([ŋ=  y=]/C1 + "infirmed people"/P)                "infirmed people"

*                                  handicapped  >>  stigma /mGC/Ch

"hand in cap"                      (g/T + "-ame of chance"/C2)                   "game of chance"
"hand in cap"                                (b/T + eggar/C2)                               beggar

handicap                                (penalty/P + s/T)                                penalty*s

*       "hand/PRM ^in^ cap/SCN" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced as "beggar". ,  
Usage Note:    People who object to the terms disabled and handicapped  as being too negative sometimes propose the substitution of  challenged  instead, as in referring to persons with physical disabilities as physically challenged.   While this particular phrase is quite popular,   it is sometimes taken to be condescending,  and similar usages such as mentally challenged have failed to win equal acceptance.   Indeed, the widespread parody of challenged in such expressions as electronically challenged for "inept at using computers" has effectively eliminated it as an all-purpose alternative to disabled or handicapped.

challenged                  ([ŋ=  y=]/C2 + "infirmed people"/GC/S/abT)/Ch                "infirmed people" ,    
Word Usage
Though physically challenged and people with disabilities are preferred over the adjectival and noun forms of disabled,    the adjective disabled has a long history of use by those so affected, as in the name of the organization Disabled American Veterans. ,    
Word Usage
Although handicapped has a long history of use by those so affected,   physically challenged and people with disabilities are preferred over the adjective and noun uses of handicapped when referring to people.

handicapped                       (power/T + less/C1)                        powerless

handicapped                       (affect/P/Ch + ed/T/Ch)                    affected

>>       "Disabled American Veterans"        (Wounded Veterans of America,     or USA)

disabled                                  (wound/P + ed/T)                                wounded

crazy                         (mentally/P + challenged/T)                     "mentally challenged"

blind                                    (sight/T/Ch + less/P/Ch)                           sightless

20.                               mutual

Re/Corrections:  Article of  " '=ia*Λ/o/u'  agent/H? height/representative/minister/agent/deputy/summit/peak, fund(s), mutual/trust"      <<Column 13. mutual **>>

*                                  "mutual fund"  >>  mutual /mGC/Ch ,    
Usage Note:   Mutual is used to describe a reciprocal relationship between two or more people or things.  Thus their mutual animosity means "their animosity for each other"  or "the animosity between them,"  and a mutual defense treaty is one in which each party agrees to come to the defense of the other.   But many people also use mutual to mean "shared in common,"   as in The bill serves the mutual interests of management and labor.  This usage is perhaps most familiar in the expression  our mutual friend,  which was widespread even before Charles Dickens used it as the title of a novel.  While some language critics have objected to this usage   because it does not include the notion of reciprocity,  it appears in the writing of some of our greatest authors,  including Shakespeare, Edmund Burke, George Eliot, and James Joyce, and it continues to be used by well-respected writers today.

mutual                                 (j/GC/S/abT + oint/P)/Ch                               joint
mutual                               (s/GC/S/abT + hared/P)/Ch                            shared
mutual                              (c/GC/S/abT + ommon/P)/Ch                          common
mutual                             (c/GC/S/abT + ommunal/P)/Ch                       communal
mutual                           (r/GC/S/abT + eciprocated/P)/Ch                     reciprocated
mutual                              (r/GC/S/abT + eciprocal/P)/Ch                        reciprocal

"our mutual friend"                  (C/GC/S/abT + "-harles Dickens"/T)/Ch                 "Charles Dickens"

"James Joyce"                ([ŋ=  w=]/T + "our mutual friend"/C1)/Ch                "our mutual friend"
"Edmund Burke"                ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "our mutual friend"/C1)/Ch                "our mutual friend"
"George Eliot"                ([ŋ=  w=]/S + "our mutual friend"/C1)/Ch                "our mutual friend"
Shakespeare                ([ŋ=  w=]/GC/S/abT + "our mutual friend"/C1)/Ch                "our mutual friend"

USAGE:   The use of mutual to mean common to  or shared by two or more people was formerly considered incorrect,  but is now acceptable.   Tautologous use of mutual should be avoided: cooperation (not mutual cooperation) between the two countries.

"mutual cooperation"                           (t/S + reaty/T)                               treaty

USAGE    Mutual is sometimes used,  as in a mutual friend,  to mean `common to or shared by two or more people'.   This use has sometimes been frowned on in the past because it does not reflect the two-way relationship contained in the origins of the word, which comes from Latin mutuus meaning `reciprocal'.    However, this usage is very common and is now generally regarded as acceptable.

*                        mutual  >>  mutuus /mGC/Ch/+cp  >> Latin /mGC/Ch/+bp

*                        mutuus /mGC/+cp  >>  reciprocal /T

21.                          crucial

Re:     Article of  "bug, contrast, vulgar, distinct(ive), crucial, contrast,  practicable/practical,  alternative/alternate, role, need"     <<Column 19.  crucial>>

Re:     Article of  "item/also,  fundament(al),  neighbor,  decisive, hard-hitting,  upright(ly), sheer(ly), need"     <<Column 14.      decisive, hard-hitting,    crucial>> ,  
Word History:      A crucial election is like a signpost because it shows which way the electorate is moving.  The metaphor of a signpost, in fact, gives us the sense of the word crucial,  "of supreme importance, critical."    Francis Bacon used the phrase instantia crucis, "crucial instance,"     to refer to something in an experiment that proves one of two hypotheses and disproves the other.   Bacon's phrase was based on a sense of the Latin word crux, "cross,"   which had come to mean "a guidepost that gives directions at a place where one road becomes two," and hence was suitable for Bacon's metaphor.  Both Robert Boyle, often called the father of modern chemistry, and Isaac Newton used the similar Latin phrase experimentum crucis,   "crucial experiment."   When these phrases were translated into English, they became crucial instance and crucial experiment.

*  democracy  >>  "A crucial election is like a signpost because it shows which way the electorate is moving." /mGC/Ch

That is,  when trying to speak/articulate "democracy" from Sparta /mGC/Ch speaking posture,   "A crucial election is like a signpost because it shows which way the electorate is moving." is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.      Vice versa.

"instantia crucis"                (F/GC/S/abT + "-rancis Bacon"/C2)/Ch                "Francis Bacon"
"crucial instance"                (F/GC/S/abT + "-rancis Bacon"/C1)/Ch                "Francis Bacon"

crux                     (F/GC/S/abT + "-rancis Bacon"/S)/Ch                       "Francis Bacon"

*                          crux  >>  cross /mGC/Ch/+bp  >>  "Latin word" /mGC/Ch/+cp

*                      crux/Ch  >>  guidepost /T/Ch  >>  "Bacon's metaphor" /T

*            cross /mGC/+bp  >>  "place where one road becomes two" /S  >>  directions /S/Ch

"father of modern chemistry"                (R/C2 + "-obert Boyle"/P)/Ch                "Robert Boyle"

"experimentum crucis"                (R/S + "-obert Boyle"/GC/S/abT)/Ch                "Robert Boyle"
"experimentum crucis"                ([ŋ=  y=]/S + "Isaac Newton"/GC/S/abT)/Ch                "Isaac Newton"

*    "experimentum crucis"  >>  "crucial experiment" /mGC/Ch/+bp  >>  "Latin phrase" /mGC/Ch/+cp ,    
Word Usage
Crucial has the core meaning of decisive:  Her tie-breaking vote was crucial.  However, crucial has been trivialized to the point that it often means nothing more than "important."   This is especially true in media reports in which a hard-hitting word is often more attractive to the reporter:  If proportional representation is adopted, it is crucial (= important) to choose the best method.  Avoid overusing crucial in formal college writing;    it is better reserved for superlatives.

decisive                    ([ŋ=  y=]/GC/S/abT + important/C1)/Ch                     important

*                    important /P  >>  crucial /T

22.                                    moot ,  
Usage Note:   The adjective moot is originally a legal term going back to the mid-16th century. It derives from the noun moot, in its sense of a hypothetical case argued as an exercise by law students. Consequently, a moot question is one that is arguable or open to debate. But in the mid-19th century people also began to look at the hypothetical side of moot as its essential meaning, and they started to use the word to mean "of no significance or relevance." Thus, a moot point, however debatable, is one that has no practical value. A number of critics have objected to this use, but 59 percent of the Usage Panel accepts it in the sentence The nominee himself chastised the White House for failing to do more to support him, but his concerns became moot when a number of Republicans announced that they, too, would oppose the nomination. When using moot one should be sure that the context makes clear which sense is meant.

*                           moot  >>  "hypothetical case" /mGC/Ch/+cp

*  "hypothetical case" /mGC/+cp  >>  hypothetical /C1  >>  arguable /T  >>  "mid-16th century" /GC/S/abT

*                          arguable  >>  ("open to debate" /C1)/GC/S/abT

*                    hypothetical  >>  "of no significance or relevance" /mGC/Ch/+bp
*             "of no significance or relevance" /mGC/+bp  >>  "mid-19th century people" /C2

"one that has no practical value"                (m/GC/S/abT + "-oot point"/C1)/Ch                "moot point"
"subject to debate"                 (m/GC/S/abT + "-oot point"/C2)/Ch                "moot point"

If articulating [ouia]   from /S/mES,      asking/+- (seductive/Ch, tempting)/GC/S/abT, (siren/Ch, enticing)/GC/P/abT / asked ('sought-after'/Ch, 'in favour')/GC/S/abT, (in/Ch, liked)/GC/P/abT,  questioning/+bp (quizzical/Ch, perplexed)/GC/S/abT, (doubting/Ch, skeptical)/GC/P/abT / questioned (inbelievable/Ch, wonderful)/GC/S/abT, (improbable/Ch, incredible)/GC/P/abT,   querying/+cp (problematic/Ch, tricky)/GC/S/abT, (enigmatic/Ch, moot)/GC/P/abT / queried (unauthorized/Ch, unofficial)/GC/S/abT, ('under-the-table'/Ch, unapproved)/GC/P/abT,

debatable, arguable, doubtful, controversial, unresolved, disputable, unsettled, unlikely
propose put forward suggest bring up introduce present

debatable                           (q/C1 + uarrelsome/P)/Ch                         quarrelsome
arguable                            (q/C1 + uarrelsome/S)/Ch                         quarrelsome
doubtful                        (q/C1 + uarrelsome/GC/S/abT)/Ch                     quarrelsome
controversial                          (q/C1 + uarrelsome/T)/Ch                       quarrelsome

*                           quarrelsome  >>  moot /GC/P/abT

*                              debatable  >>  (quarrelsome /C1/Ch)/P
*                   moot /GC/P/abT/Ch  >>  (quarrelsome /C1/Ch)/P

*                              arguable  >>  (quarrelsome /C1/Ch)/S
*                   moot /GC/P/abT/Ch  >>  (quarrelsome /C1/Ch)/S

*                              doubtful  >>  (quarrelsome /C1/Ch)/GC/S/abT
*                  moot /GC/P/abT/Ch  >>  (quarrelsome /C1/Ch)/GC/S/abT

*                          controversial  >>  (quarrelsome /C1/Ch)/T
*                   moot /GC/P/abT/Ch  >>  (quarrelsome /C1/Ch)/T

unresolved                      (myst/C1 + erious/GC/S/abT)/Ch                       mysterious
disputable                            (mys/C1 + terious/T)/Ch                           mysterious
unsettled                             (myst/C1 + erious/S)/Ch                           mysterious
unlikely                              (mys/C1 + terious/P)/Ch                           mysterious

*                           mysterious  >>  moot /GC/P/abT

impractical, not practical, unreasonable, not viable, unfeasible, unworkable, unrealistic, unusable, impossible, impracticable
unrealistic, idealistic, useless, hopeless, incompetent, clueless, inept

impractical                      (n/GC/S/abT + onsensical/C1)/Ch                      nonsensical
unreasonable                          (n/P + onsensical/C1)/Ch                        nonsensical
unfeasible                             (n/S+ onsensical/C1)/Ch                         nonsensical
unworkable                            (n/T + onsensical/C1)/Ch                        nonsensical

*                           nonsensical  >>  moot /GC/P/abT

unrealistic                      ([ŋ=  y=]/T + impossible/C1)/Ch                        impossible
unusable                       ([ŋ=  y=]/S + impossible/C1)/Ch                        impossible
"not practicable"                    ([ŋ=  y=]/P + impossible/C1)/Ch                    impossible
unthinkable                    ([ŋ=  y=]/GC/S/abT + impossible/C1)/Ch                  impossible

*                           impossible  >>  moot /GC/P/abT

idealistic                                (h/P + opeless/C1)/Ch                             hopeless
useless                                 (h/T + opeless/C1)/Ch                             hopeless
clueless                                 (h/S + opeless/C1)/Ch                             hopeless
incompetent                        (h/GC/S/abT + opeless/C1)/Ch                         hopeless

*                            hopeless  >>  moot /GC/P/abT

23.                                            firstly ,  
Usage Note:    It is well established that either first or firstly can be used to begin an enumeration: Our objectives are, first (or firstly), to recover from last year's slump. Any succeeding items should be introduced by words parallel to the form that is chosen, as in first . . . second . . . third or firstly . . . secondly . . . thirdly.

*                                  firstly /GC/P/abT  >>  first /mGC
*                               secondly /GC/P/abT  >>  second /mGC
*                                 thirdly /GC/P/abT  >>  third /mGC

24.                                            right ,    
Our Living Language    Speakers of Standard English mainly restrict the use of adverbial right to modify adverbs of space or time, as in She's right over there or Do it right now! No such restriction applies in Southern vernacular speech, where right can be used to intensify the meaning of many adjectives and adverbs, as in He's right nice or You talk right fast. This broader use of right is attested as far back as the 15th century and is found in the works of Shakespeare and other great writers. Thus, what appears to be neglect of Standard English rules is actually the retention of a once-proper historical usage. • The use of right as an adverb indicating directness, completeness, or general intensity seems to be related to the use of right in a more concrete sense to refer to something that is perfectly straight or perpendicular to something else, as in right angle. A similar connection between concrete and metaphorical meaning lies behind the Southern adverbial usage of plumb, as in He fell plumb asleep as an indicator of completeness or totality. See Note at smart.

*                                  rightly /GC/P/abT  >>  right /mGC

right                                    (c/C2 + orrectly/S)                                 correctly
right                                    (t/C2 + uruly/S)                               truly (turuly)
right                                    (prc/C2 + isely/S)                       precisely (prcisely)
right                                    ([ŋ=  y=]/C2 + exactly/S)                          exactly
right                                    (r/C2 + eally/S)                           genuinely (really)

*                                exactly  >>  accurately /mGC/Ch
*                                rightly  >>  factually /mGC/Ch

right                                    (st/C2 + ably/S)                            suitably (stably)
right                                      (f/C2 + itly/S)                              fittingly (fitly)
right                             (pr/C2 + opriately/S)                    appropriately (propriately)

*                              correctly  >>  properly /mGC/Ch


>>                   She's right over there.

*                  there  >>  "right over there" /mGC/Ch

>>                    Do it right now!

*                        now /mGC  >>  "right now" /GC/S/abT

>>                    He's right nice.

"right nice"                      (c/GC/S/abT + ourageous/C1)/Ch                      courageous

>>                    You talk right fast.

"right fast"                           (f/GC/S/abT + luently/C2)/Ch                          fluently

>> This broader use of right is attested as far back as the 15th century and is found in the works of Shakespeare and other great writers.

"15th century"                           (r/GC/S/abT + ight/P)/Ch                             right

Shakespeare                             (r/GC/S/abT + ight/T)/Ch                             right

>>                    or perpendicular to something else, as in right angle

right                            (p/C1 + erpendicular/P)/Ch                           perpendicular

>>                    He fell plumb asleep.

"fall plumb asleep"                        (s/GC/S/abT + leep/C1)/Ch                         sleep
"fell plumb asleep"                       (s/GC/S/abT + leeped/C1)/Ch                     sleeped

25.                                     worry

Re/Corrections:   Article of  "care(fulness),  worry/v?   'seeing eye', old/H? passé, circumspect(ive),  'Indian summer',  oldish, enervate"     <<Column 15.  worry/verb??>> ,  
Word History:   Worrying may shorten one's life,  but not as quickly as it once did.  The ancestor of our word, Old English   wyrgan,  meant "to strangle."   Its Middle English descendant,  worien,  kept this sense and developed the new sense  "to grasp by the throat with the teeth and lacerate"  or  "to kill or injure by biting and shaking."   This is the way wolves or dogs might attack sheep, for example.   In the 16th century worry began to be used in the sense   "to harass, as by rough treatment or attack,"  or  "to assault verbally,"  and in the 17th century the word took on the sense  "to bother, distress, or persecute."   It was a small step from this sense to the main modern senses  "to cause to feel anxious or distressed" and  "to feel troubled or uneasy," first recorded in the 19th century.

*                                    worry  >>  wyrgan /mGC/Ch

*  wyrgan /mGC  >> "Old English" /P  >> strangle /P/Ch  >>  worien /GC/S/abT  >>  "Middle English" /GC/S/abT/Ch

*  worien /GC/S/abT/Ch >> "grasp by throat with teeth and lacerate" /C1 >> "kill or injure by biting and shaking" /C1/Ch

"16th century"                                 (w/S + orry/C1)/Ch                            worry

"harass, as by rough treatment or attack"                    (w/S + orry/C1)/+bp                   worry
"assault verbally"                            (w/S + orry/C1)/+cp                             worry

"17th century"                          (w/GC/S/abT + orry/C1)/Ch                          worry

"bother, distress, or persecute"                    (w/GC/S/abT + orry/C1)                      worry

"main modern senses"                          (w/P + orry/C1)/Ch                          worry

"cause to feel anxious or distressed"                    (w/P + orry/C1)/+bp                    worry

"feel troubled or uneasy"                        (w/P + orry/C1)/+cp                         worry

"19th century"                                 (w/T + orry/C1)/Ch                           worry

26.                                    race

Re:   Article of  "founder/flounder, author, passed/past, permit (of), way(s), ticket, race, series, (a)wake(n), mean(s), comprise"     <<Column 31. race>> ,    
Usage Note:   The notion of race is nearly as problematic  from a scientific point of view   as it is from a social one.   European physical anthropologists of the 17th and 18th centuries proposed various systems of racial classifications based on such observable characteristics as skin color, hair type, body proportions, and skull measurements, essentially codifying the perceived differences among broad geographic populations of humans.  The traditional terms for these populations—Caucasoid (or Caucasian), Mongoloid, Negroid, and in some systems Australoid—are now controversial in both technical and nontechnical usage, and in some cases they may well be considered offensive.   (Caucasian does retain a certain currency in American English, but it is used almost exclusively to mean "white" or "European" rather than "belonging to the Caucasian race,"  a group that includes a variety of peoples generally categorized as nonwhite.)   The biological aspect of race is described today not in observable physical features but rather in such genetic characteristics as blood groups and metabolic processes, and the groupings indicated by these factors seldom coincide very neatly with those put forward by earlier physical anthropologists.        Citing this and other points—such as the fact that a person who is considered black in one society might be nonblack in another—many cultural anthropologists now consider race to be more a social or mental construct than an objective biological fact.

"European physical anthropologists"                      (r/S + ace/C1)/Ch                    race

"17th and 18th centuries"                           (r/S + ace/C2)/Ch                         race

"racial classifications"                         (r/C2 + ace/GC/S/abT)/Ch                       race

"observable characteristics as skin color, hair type, body proportions, and skull measurements"                  (r/C2 + ace/P)/Ch                  race

"codifying perceived differences among broad geographic populations of humans"                (r/C2 + ace/S)/Ch                race

European                                 (w/C2 + hite/P)/Ch                                white
Asian                                    (y/C2 + ellow/P)/Ch                                yellow
African                                    (b/C2 + lack/P)/Ch                                 black
Australian                                 (g/C2 + ray/P)/Ch                                  gray

*                                 European  >>  (white /C2)/P
*                                     Asian  >>  (yellow /C2)/P
*                                   African  >>  (black /C2)/P
*                                Australian  >>  (gray /C2)/P

Caucasian                                 (whi/P + te/S)                                     white
Caucasian                               (Europ/P + ean/S)                                European

Mongolian                                (yello/P + w/T)                                     yellow
Mongolian                                 (As/P + ian/T)                                     Asian

Saharan                                  (bla/S + ck/P)                                       black
Saharan                                 (Afri/S + can/P)                                    African

Australian                                 (gra/S + y/T)                                        gray
Australian                               (Austral/S + ian/T)                               Australian

*              Siberia   >>   Caucasian /mGC/abE/+cp  >>  Caucasoid /mGC/abE/+bp
*                Tibet  >>  Mongolian /mGC/abE/+cp  >>  Mongoloid /mGC/abE/+bp
*               Sahara  >>  Saharan /mGC/abE/+cp  >>  Negroid /mGC/abE/+bp
*                South  >>  Australian /mGC/abE/+cp  >> Australoid /mGC/abE/+bp

27.                                        vogue ,    
Word History:   The history of the word vogue demonstrates how sense can change dramatically over time even while flowing, as it were, in the same channel. The Indo-European root of vogue is *wegh-, meaning "to go, transport in a vehicle." Among many other forms derived from this root was the Germanic stem *wega-, "water in motion." From this stem came the Old Low German verb wogon, meaning "to sway, rock." This verb passed into Old French as voguer, which meant "to sail, row." The Old French word yielded the noun vogue, which probably literally meant "a rowing," and so by extension "a course," and figuratively "reputation" and later "reputation of fashionable things" or "prevailing fashion." The French, who have given us many fashionable things, passed this noun on as well, it being first recorded in English in 1571.

"([ouiΛ]/P/MS)/S, noun" is pronounced as  "tendencies/+- (set/Ch, bent)/GC/S/abT, (proclivity/Ch, propensity)/GC/P/abT",  "trends/+bp (vogue/Ch, style)/GC/S/abT, (mode/Ch, look)/GC/P/abT",  "movements/+cp (change/Ch, shift)/GC/S/abT, (development/Ch, variation)/GC/P/abT";

*                           vogue  >>  (wegh /P)/C1
*                           vogue  >>  ("Indo-European root" /P)/C2

*                (wegh /P/Ch)/C1  >>  "go, transport in a vehicle" /P

*  (wegh /P/Ch)/C1  >>  wega /T/Ch  >>  "Germanic stem" /T/+bp  >>  "water in motion" /T/+cp

*     wega /T  >>  wogon /S/Ch  >>  "Old Low German verb" /S/+bp  >>  "sway, rock" /S/+cp

* wogon /S  >>  voguer /GC/P/abT/Ch  >>  "Old French" /GC/P/abT/+bp  >>  "sail, row" /GC/P/abT/+cp

* voguer /GC/P/abT  >>  vogue /GC/S/abT/Ch  >>  noun /GC/S/abT/+bp  >>  rowing /GC/S/abT/+cp

* rowing >> course /mGC >> reputation /C2 >> "reputation of fashionable things" /P >> "prevailing fashion" /T

*                         vogue /GC/S/abT  >>  "1571" /mGC/Ch

28.                               look to

Re/Corrections:   Article of  " 'ui=*a/Λ/o'  act(ion), credentialed, best, spree, plane, number, 'look to', ilk, chagrin, senior/downsize, hassle"     <<Column 10.  look to>> ,  
Usage Note:   The phrasal verb look to has recently developed the meanings "expect to" and "hope to," as in The executives look to increase sales once the economy improves or I'm looking to sell my car in July. In a recent survey, the Usage Panel was divided almost evenly on this usage, with 52 percent of the Panelists finding it acceptable and 48 percent rejecting it. Of those rejecting this usage, a small number volunteered that they would find it acceptable in informal speech, and in fact the divided response of the Panel may be due in part to the informal flavor of this phrase.

look to     Usage Problem
1. To expect or hope to:      He looked to hear from her within a week.
2. To seem about to; promise to: "an 'Action Program,' which ... looked to reduce tariffs on over 1,800 items" (Alan D. Romberg).

"look to"                                    (w/C1 + ill/P)/Ch                                    will

*                "look to [luk tu]"  >>  "expect to" /mGC/Ch/+bp  >>  "hope to" /mGC/Ch/+cp

>>         The executives look to increase sales once the economy improves.

*                            "think to"  >>  "look to [l(=u)k t(=u)]" /mGC

>>               I'm looking to sell my car in July.

*                  "Can you"  >>  ("I'm looking to" /S)/C1

29.                               revolution/rotation ,  
Usage    In everyday speech revolution and rotation are often used as synonyms, but in science they are not synonyms and have distinct meanings. The difference between the two terms lies in the location of the central axis that the object turns about. If the axis is outside the body itself --- that is, if the object is orbiting about another object --- then one complete orbit is called a revolution. But if the object is turning about an axis that passes through itself, then one complete cycle is called a rotation. This difference is often summed up in the statement "Earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the Sun."

and  "([ouiΛ]/P/Ch/MS)/S" is pronounced as  "whirls/+-/Ch (bustle/Ch, round)/GC/S/abT, (flurry/Ch, 'merry-go-round')/GC/P/abT",  "revolutions/+bp/Ch (revolt/Ch, rising)/GC/S/abT, (coup/Ch, rebellion)/GC/P/abT",  "turns/+cp/Ch (deed/Ch, service)/GC/S/abT, (act/Ch, action)/GC/P/abT" in the chest (circle).

*                          revolutions  >>  revolution /mGC

"orbiting about another object"                  (r/GC/S/abT + evolution/C1)/Ch                  revolution

"turning about axis that passes through itself"                    (r/C1 + otation/GC/S/abT)/Ch                   rotation

30.                                need/must

Re/Corrections:   Article of  "bug, contrast, vulgar, distinct(ive), crucial, contrast,  practicable/practical,  alternative/alternate, role, need"     <<Column 24.  need>> ,  
Usage Note:   Depending on the sense, the verb need behaves sometimes like an auxiliary verb (such as can or may) and sometimes like a main verb (such as want or try). When used as a main verb, need agrees with its subject, takes to before the verb following it, and combines with do in questions, negations, and certain other constructions: He needs to go. Does he need to go so soon? He doesn't need to go.    When used as an auxiliary verb, need does not agree with its subject, does not take to before the verb following it, and does not combine with do: He needn't go. Need he go so soon? The auxiliary forms of need are used primarily in present-tense questions, negations, and conditional clauses. Unlike can and may, auxiliary need has no form for the past tense like could and might.
Regional Note:   When need is used as the main verb, it can be followed by a present participle, as in The car needs washing, or by to be plus a past participle, as in The car needs to be washed. However, in some areas of the United States, especially western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio, many speakers omit to be and use just the past participle form, as in The car needs washed. This use of need with past participles is slightly more common in the British Isles, being particularly prevalent in Scotland.

If articulating [ouiΛ]   from (/T/MS)/S/P,       "want/+- (desire/Ch, wish)/GC/S/abT, (essential/Ch, necessary)/GC/P/abT",  "need/+bp (motivation/Ch, motive)/GC/S/abT, ('psychological feature'/Ch, life)/GC/P/abT",   "absence/+cp (awayness/Ch, nonoccurrence)/GC/S/abT, (cut/Ch, default)/GC/P/abT",

*  ("be-ask" /T/+-/mES/abE)/abD >> require(요구하다-v.t.) /GC/P/abT/Ch >> need(필요로 하다-v.t.) /GC/P/abT

>>            “strictly”/T,  “exactly”/P,  “literally”/C2,              need /C2/Ch,   must /C1/Ch

*             strictly (or “exactly” or “literally” or "need" or "must")  >>  "have to" /C1

>>               He needn't go.
>>               Need he go so soon?

*                   "(He) doesn't need go"  >>  "(He) needn't go" /mGC/abE
*                   "Does (he) need go so soon?"  >>  "Need (he) go so soon?" /mGC/abE

>>             He needs to go.
>>            Does he need to go so soon?
>>             He doesn't need to go.

*                  "~ need (go/do)ing"  >>  "need to (go/do)" /mGC/abE/+bp
*                  "~ needs (go/do)ing"  >>  "needs to (go/do)" /mGC/abE/+cp
*                  "~ needed (go/do)ing"  >>  "needed to (go/do)" /mGC/abE/+bp/Ch
*                  "~ needing (go/do)ing"  >>  "needing to (go/do)" /mGC/abE/+cp/Ch

>>           The car needs to be washed.     (The car needs washing.)

*          "~ need to be (washed)" /mGC/abE/+bp  >>  "~ need (washing)" /T
*          "~ needs to be (washed)" /mGC/abE/+cp  >>  "~ needs (washing)" /C1
*          "~ needed to be (washed)" /mGC/abE/+bp/Ch  >>  "~ needed (washing)" /P
*          "~ needing to be (washed)" /mGC/abE/+cp/Ch  >>  "~ needing (washing)" /GC/S/abT ,  
v.intr. Archaic
To be required or obliged to go:   "I must from hence" (Shakespeare).

"I/SCN ^must^ go/PRM from hence"  >>  "I must from hence"               (liaison-hole/LH)

Something that is absolutely required or indispensable:    Promptness on the job is a must. Comfortable boots are a must when going on a hike.

"a must"                  (q/GC/S/abT + "-uite required"/C1)/Ch                   "quite required"

>>  must - a necessary or essential thing; "seat belts are an absolute must"

*            "a must"  >>  "an absolute must" /mGC/Ch

>>  Adj.     1. must - highly recommended;        "a book that is must reading"

"must reading"                             (p/S + opular/C1)/Ch                            popular