|Subject ||acquiesce, check, get, numb, coward, amount, principal, couple, husband, pair, set, (ad)dress, 'call oneself'
Usage Note: When acquiesce takes a preposition, it is usually used with in (acquiesced in the ruling) but sometimes with to (acquiesced to her parents' wishes). Acquiesced with is obsolete.
* ("be-submit" /T/+bp/Ch/mES/abE)/abD >> accede(찬성하다/support/second－v.t.) /GC/P/abT/Ch >> acquiesce(순종하다/obey－v.t.) /GC/P/abT
* acquiesce >> "acquiesce in" /mGC/abT/+cp >> "acquiesce to" /mGC/abT/+cp/Ch >> "acquiesce with" /mGC/abE
acquiesce (g/C1 + "-o along with"/S) "go along with"
acquiesce (c/C1 + oncur/S) concur
"acquiesce in" (f/C1 + ollow/P) follow
"acquiesce to" ([ŋ= w=]/C1 + "agree to"/T) "agree to"
"acquiesce with" (c/GC/S/abT + "-omply with"/S) "comply with"
Word History: The words check, chess, and shah are all related. Shah, as one might think, is a borrowing into English of the Persian title for the monarch of that country. The Persian word shh was also a term used in chess, a game played in Persia long before it was introduced to Europe. One said shh as a warning when the opponent's king was under attack. The Persian word in this sense, after passing through Arabic, probably Old Spanish, and then Old French, came into Middle English as chek about seven hundred years ago. Chess itself comes from a plural form of the Old French word that gave us the word check. Checkmate, the next stage after check, goes back to the Arabic phrase shh mt, meaning "the king is dead." Through a complex development having to do with senses that evolved from the notion of checking the king, check came to mean something used to ensure accuracy or authenticity. One such means was a counterfoil, a part of a check, for example, retained by the issuer as documentation of a transaction. Check first meant "counterfoil" and then came to mean anything, such as a bill or bank draft, with a counterfoilor eventually even without one.
* shah >> shh /mGC/abE/+cp
* shh /mGC/abE/+cp/Ch >> chess /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> check /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp
* sovereign >> (shah /T/Ch)/P
checkmate (t/S + riumph/C2)/Ch triumph
* checkmate >> "shh mt" /mGC/abE/+cp
* "shh mt" /mGC/abE/+cp/Ch >> ("the king is dead" /P/Ch)/S
* check >> (test /P/Ch)/T (verb)
check (t/P/Ch + est/T) test
* check >> (bill /S/Ch)/T
check (b/S/Ch + ill/T) bill
* check >> (test /C2/Ch)/T (noun)
check (t/C2/Ch + est/T) test
* check >> (bar /T/Ch)/P
check (b/T/Ch + ar/P) bar
* check >> (rein /S/Ch)/P
check (r/S/Ch + ein/P) rein
* check >> (arrest /C2/Ch)/P
check ([ŋ= w=]/C2/Ch + arrest/P) arrest
Re: Article of " 'aΛi*o/u/=' role, act(ion), pro/professor, older/elderly, suss (out), git/gots, transformation, sociable" <<Column 8. get/gots/git>>
Usage Note: The use of get in the passive, as in We got sunburned at the beach, is generally avoided in formal writing. In less formal contexts, however, the construction can provide a useful difference in tone or emphasis, as between the sentences The demonstrators were arrested and The demonstrators got arrested. The first example implies that the responsibility for the arrests rests primarily with the police, while the example using get implies that the demonstrators deliberately provoked the arrests.
•In colloquial use and in numerous nonstandard varieties of American English, the past tense form got has the meaning of the present. This arose probably by dropping the helping verb have from the past perfects have got, has got: We've got to go, we've got a lot of problems became We got to go, we got a lot of problems. The reanalysis of got as a present-tense form has led to the creation of a third singular gots in some varieties of English, especially African American Vernacular English.
* "was/were/be sunburned/arrested" >> "got/get sunburned/arrested"/mGC/abR
* We/SCN ^have^ got/PRM to go. >> We got to go. : liaison-hole /LH
* We/PRM ^have^ got/SCN to go. >> We gots to go.
got or gotten?
Get is an overworked verb. It is better to use a more specific term in formal writing whenever you can. The past participles got and gotten convey slightly different ideas. They have gotten an apartment in Boston means they have recently taken the apartment, whereas They have got an apartment in Boston simply indicates that they have it. (There are those who would argue, with reason, that in a sentence like this one got is redundant, and that have alone would do the job.) In informal usage, have got can also be followed by an infinitive to denote obligation (I've got to go to the party means "I must"), whereas have gotten with an infinitive denotes opportunity (I've gotten to go to the party means "I've been given the chance to attend").
The use of get instead of be to form the passive is more acceptable in some contexts than others: The house is [or gets] cleaned once a week. The exposition was [not got] opened by the mayor. Get is usually more informal than be: an interviewer might ask an interviewee If you are offered the job, will you accept it? whereas the interviewee might tell a friend, If I get offered the job, I'll take it. Get is probably most acceptable when it is used to imply that the subject of the sentence bears at least some responsibility for an event or action, as in If you play with matches, you may get burned as opposed to The driver of the vehicle was badly burned in the crash.
* getted >> got /GC/S/abT >> gotten /GC/P/abT
** They have gotten an apartment in Boston. >> They have bought/T an apartment in Boston
>> I've got to go to the party.
"have got to" (m/T + ust/S) must
>> I've gotten to go to the party.
"have gotten to" (m/S + ay/T) may
* "was/were/be cleaned/offered" >> "got/get cleaned/offered"/mGC/abR
usage The pronunciation \\git\\ has been noted as a feature of some British and American dialects since the 16th century. In the phonetic spelling of his own speech Benjamin Franklin records git. However, since at least 1687 some grammarians and teachers have disapproved this pronunciation. It nonetheless remains in widespread and unpredictable use in many dialects, often, but not exclusively, when get is a passive auxiliary (as in get married) or an imperative (as in get up!).
* "be married" >> "get married"/mGC/abR
* "get married"/mGC/abR/Ch >> "git married"/T
"get up" (r/T + ise/P) rise
* "get up"/Ch >> "git up"/T
Word History: Old English had a number of strong verbs (often loosely called "irregular" verbs) that did not survive into Modern English. One such was the verb niman, "to take," later replaced by take, a borrowing from Old Norse. The verb had a past tense nam and a past participle numen; if the verb had survived, it would likely have become nim, nam, num, like swim, swam, swum. Although we do not have the verb as such anymore, its past participle is alive and well, now spelled numb, literally "taken, seized," as by cold or grief. (The older spelling without the b is still seen in the compound numskull.) The verb also lives on indirectly in the word nimble, which used to mean "quick to take," and then later "light, quick on one's feet."
>> strong verbs (often loosely called "irregular" verbs)
strong ([ŋ= y=]/P + irregular/C1) irregular
* remove >> niman /mGC/abR
* nimaned >> nam /GC/S/abT >> numen /GC/P/abT
* niman /mGC/abR/Ch >> nim /T
* nam /GC/S/abT/Ch >> nam /T
* numen /GC/P/abT/Ch >> num /T >> numb [nΛm b=] /P
** numb [nΛm b=] /P/Ch >> [nΛm] /GC/S/abT
numskull (f/P + ool/C2) fool
numbskull (f/C2 + ool/P) fool
** numbskull [nΛm b= s= kΛl] /P/Ch >> [nΛm s= kΛl] /GC/S/abT
nimble (d/P + exterous/T)/Ch dexterous
nimble (r/P + eady/T)/Ch ready
Word History: A coward is one who "turns tail." The word comes from Old French couart, coart, "coward," and is related to Italian codardo, "coward." Couart is formed from coe, a northern French dialectal variant of cue, "tail" (from Latin cda), to which the derogatory suffix -ard was added. This suffix appears in bastard, laggard, and sluggard, to name a few. A coward may also be one with his tail between his legs. In heraldry a lion couard, "cowardly lion," was depicted with his tail between his legs. So a coward may be one with his tail hidden between his legs or one who turns tail and runs like a rabbit, with his tail showing.
* poltroon(비겁한 사람)/C2/MS/+cp >> craven(비겁자)/GC/S/abT/Ch >> recreant(배신자)/GC/S/abT
* ("a-poltroon" /C2/+cp/MS/abE)/abD >> coward(겁쟁이) /GC/P/abT/Ch >> deserter(탈영병) /GC/P/abT
* ("the-poltroon" /C2/+cp/MS/abE)/abThr >> apostate(변절자) /GC/P/abT/Ch >> traitor(반역자) /GC/P/abT
"turn tail" (d/P + esert/T) desert
* coward/GC/P/abT >> couart/P/Ch/+bp >> coart/P/Ch/+cp >> codardo/mGC/abE >> coe/mGC/abR >> cue/mGC/abT >> cda/mGC/abT/Ch
>> bastard, laggard, and sluggard
* ("a-wretch" /T/+cp/Ch/MS/abE)/abD >> bastard /GC/P/abT/Ch
* ("a-snail" /P/+-/Ch/MS/abE)/abD >> laggard /GC/P/abT
* ("a-bum" /C2/+-/Ch/MS/abE)/abD >> sluggard /GC/P/abT
Re: Article of "boxwood/parts/quantity, a quantity of, an amount of, a lot, partially/various/more-important(ly), disorderly" <<Column 18. an amount of>>
amount or number?
Amount is normally used with singular words that have no plural, that is, so-called uncountable or mass nouns like coal, happiness, and warfare: a large amount of coal; any amount of happiness. In contrast, number is used with plural nouns such as books, questions, ships, and cheeses (= types of cheese): a large number of books; an excessive number of questions; a goodly number of cheeses. In everyday speech, amount is sometimes used when number is strictly called for: a large amount of books. Avoid this usage in formal speaking and writing. See number.
USAGE Although it is common to use a plural noun after amount of, for example in the amount of people and the amount of goods, this should be avoided. Preferred alternatives would be to use quantity, as in the quantity of people, or number, as in the number of goods.
usage Number is regularly used with count nouns <a large number of mistakes> <any number of times> while amount is mainly used with mass nouns <annual amount of rainfall> <a substantial amount of money>. The use of amount with count nouns has been frequently criticized; it usually occurs when the number of things is thought of as a mass or collection <glad to furnish any amount of black pebbles — New Yorker> <a substantial amount of film offers — Lily Tomlin> or when money is involved <a substantial amount of loans — E. R. Black>.
"a number of" (m/C1 + any/T) many
"a lot of" (m/C1 + any/T)/Ch many
* "a number of" >> "an amount of" /mGC/abR/+cp
* "a number of" >> ("a large number of" /T)/P >> ("an excessive number of" /P)/C1 >> ("a goodly number of" /C1)/P >> ("any number of" /C1)/S >> ("the number of" /P/Ch)/T
* "an amount of" /mGC/abR/+cp/Ch >> ("a large amount of" /T)/P >> ("a substantial amount of " /T/Ch)/P >> ("any amount of" /P/Ch)/S >> ("the amount of" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/S >> ("the quantity of" /GC/S/abT)/S
Usage Note: Principal and principle are often confused but have no meanings in common. Principle is only a noun and usually refers to a rule or standard. Principal is both a noun and an adjective. As a noun, it has specialized meanings in law and finance, but in general usage it refers to a person who holds a high position or plays an important role: a meeting among all the principals in the transaction. As an adjective it has the sense of "chief" or "leading": The coach's principal concern is the quarterback's health.
* ("the-capital" /T/+bp/MS/abE)/abThr >> wealth(부유한 상태) /GC/P/abT/Ch >> principal(원금) /GC/P/abT
* principal >> principle /GC/P/abE
principal (m/T + "-ost important"/C1) "most important"
principal (d/T + ean/C2) dean
principal (ch/T + ief/C2) chief
principal (l/T + "-eading man"/C2) "leading man"
principal (l/T + "-eading lady"/C2) "leading lady"
principle (m/C2 + orality/T)/Ch morality
principle (c/C2 + riterion/T)/Ch criterion
principle (f/C2 + ormula/T)/Ch formula
Re: Article of " 'uΛo, ouΛ, Λua, aΛu' mammoth, Howdy? be-restless/concerned-to, identify, a-couple-of, prep/2 " <<Column 8. a couple of>>
Usage Note: When used to refer to two people who function socially as a unit, as in a married couple, the word couple may take either a singular or a plural verb, depending on whether the members are considered individually or collectively: The couple were married last week. Only one couple was left on the dance floor. When a pronoun follows, they and their are more common than it and its: The couple decided to spend their (less commonly its) vacation in Florida. Using a singular verb and a plural pronoun, as in The couple wants their children to go to college, is widely considered to be incorrect. Care should be taken that the verb and pronoun agree in number: The couple want their children to go to college. •Although the phrase a couple of has been well established in English since before the Renaissance, modern critics have sometimes maintained that a couple of is too inexact to be appropriate in formal writing. But the inexactitude of a couple of may serve a useful purpose, suggesting that the writer is indifferent to the precise number of items involved. Thus the sentence She lives only a couple of miles away implies not only that the distance is short but that its exact measure is unimportant. This usage should be considered unobjectionable on all levels of style. •The of in the phrase a couple of is often dropped in speech, but this omission is usually considered a mistake, especially in formal contexts. Three-fourths of the Usage Panel finds the sentence I read a couple books over vacation to be unacceptable; however, another 20% of the Panel finds the sentence to be acceptable in informal speech and writing.
a couple of (functioning as singular or plural)
a. a combination of two; a pair of a couple of men
b. Informal a small number of; a few a couple of days
"a couple of" (t/P + wo/T)/Ch two
"a couple of" (f/P + ew/T)/Ch few
* few >> "a few" /mGC/abR >> "hardly any" /mGC/abR/Ch
* ("a-couple" /C2/+-/MS/abE)/abD >> yoke(멍에) /GC/P/abT/Ch >> collar(목줄) /GC/P/abT
* ("the-couple" /C2/+-/MS/abE)/abThr >> "husband and wife"(부부) /GC/P/abT/Ch >> item(연인) /GC/P/abT
* married >> "were married" /mGC/abE
* "husband and wife" >> couple /mGC/abE/+bp
* team >> couple /mGC/abE/+bp (Only one couple was left on the dance floor.)
* its >> their /mGC/abE/+cp (The couple wants their children to go to college.)
* "two people" >> couple /mGC/abE/+bp (The couple want their children to go to college.)
* near >> "only a couple of miles away" /mGC/abR/+cp (She lives only a couple of miles away.)
* "~ a couple/SCN ^of^ books/PRM " >> "~ a couple books " : liaison-hole /LH
**liaison-hole/LH: "I read a couple ^of^ books" is pronounced as "I read a couple books."
In reality/origin, "a-couple-of" and "a-few" (which are derived from two/few respectively) are not idiom/phrase (of multiple words) but simple/single words: GRECOnglish/GC linguists coined (idiom-like) "a-couple-of" and "a-few" for the simple/single words which are same with "two/few" in phonetic origin.
English-mother-tongue people speak "a-couple-of" as (not idiom but) single word and always speak not "I read a couple books" but "I read a couple of books"; but, English-prosody-excellent/correct foreigners (including GRECOnglish/GC speaking people) will articulate "a-couple-of" as (not single word but) an idiom/phrase of three words and (unconsciously) come to pronounce not "I read a couple of books" but "I read a couple books" by principle/symptom of liaison-hole/LH.
Word History: The English word husband, even though it is a basic kinship term, is not a native English word. It comes ultimately from the Old Norse word hūsbōndi, meaning "master of a house," which was borrowed into Old English as hūsbōnda. The second element in hūsbōndi, bōndi, means "a man who has land and stock" and comes from the Old Norse verb būa, meaning "to live, dwell, have a household." The master of the house was usually a spouse as well, of course, and it would seem that the main modern sense of husband arises from this overlap. When the Norsemen settled in Anglo-Saxon England, they would often take Anglo-Saxon women as their wives; it was then natural to refer to the husband using the Norse word for the concept, and to refer to the wife with her Anglo-Saxon (Old English) designation, wīf, "woman, wife" (Modern English wife). Interestingly, Old English did have a feminine word related to Old Norse hūsbōndi that meant "mistress of a house," namely, hūsbonde. Had this word survived into Modern English, it would have sounded identical to husband --- surely leading to ambiguities.
* ("the-couple" /C2/+-/MS/abE)/abThr >> "husband and wife"(부부) /GC/P/abT/Ch >> item(연인) /GC/P/abT
* "husband and wife" /GC/P/abT >> husband/mGC/abE/+cp >> wife/mGC/abE/+bp >> spouse/mGC/abR/Ch >> companion/mGC/abE/Ch >> partner /mGC/abR
* husband /mGC/abE/+cp/Ch >> hūsbōndi /P
** hūsbōndi /P/Ch >> "master of a house" /mGC/abE >> "mistress of a house" /mGC/abE/Ch >> hūsbōnda /T
* hūsbōnda /T/Ch >> bōndi /mGC/abE/+cp
** bōndi /mGC/abE/+cp/Ch >> "a man who has land and stock" /C2 >> būa /C1
** būa /C1/Ch >> "to live, dwell, have a household" /mGC/abE
* būa /C1/Ch >> wīf /mGC/abR
** wīf /mGC/abR/Ch >> wife /P >> woman /P/Ch
* "mistress of a house" /mGC/abE >> hūsbonde /P >> husband /P/Ch
>> partner, man (informal), spouse, hubby (informal), mate, old man (informal), bridegroom, significant other (U.S. informal), better half (humorous), squeeze (informal), bidie-in (Scot.)
hubby (h/T + usband/S) husband
* husband >> (hubby /T)/S >> (mate /T)/P >> ("old man" /T/Ch)/P >> (bridegroom /P)/T >> ("significant other" /P/Ch)/T >> ("better half" /S)/T >> (squeeze /S/Ch)/T >> ("bidie-in" /T)/S
>> spouse, woman (informal), partner, mate, squeeze (informal), bride, old woman (informal), old lady (informal), little woman (informal), significant other (U.S. informal), better half (humorous), her indoors (Brit. slang), helpmate, helpmeet, (the) missis or missus (informal), vrou (S. African), bidie-in (Scot.)
* wife >> (mate /T)/P >> (squeeze /S/Ch)/T >> (bride /P)/T >> ("old woman" /T/Ch)/P >> ("old lady" /GC/S/abT)/S >> ("little woman" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/S >> ("significant other" /P/Ch)/T >> ("better half" /S)/T >> ("her indoors" /C2/Ch)/T >> (helpmate /T)/GC/S/abT >> (helpmeet /T/Ch)/GC/S/abT >> ("missis or missus" /P)/GC/S/abT >> ("the missis or missus" /P/Ch)/GC/S/abT >> (vrou /S)/GC/S/abT >> ("bidie-in" /T)/S
Usage Note: The noun pair can be followed by a singular or plural verb. The singular is always used when pair denotes the set taken as a single entity: This pair of shoes is on sale. A plural verb is used when the members are considered as individuals: The pair are working more harmoniously now. After a number other than one, pair itself can be either singular or plural, but the plural is now more common: She bought six pairs (or pair) of stockings.
Usage: Like other collective nouns, pair takes a singular or a plural verb according to whether it is seen as a unit or as a collection of two things: the pair are said to dislike each other; a pair of good shoes is essential.
"pair (set/Ch, match)"/+cp
* ("a-pair" /C2/+cp/MS/abE)/abD >> "Tweedledee and Tweedledum"(쌍생아) /GC/P/abT/Ch (twins/C2) >> "tweedledum and tweedledee"(쌍둥이) /GC/P/abT (twins/C2/Ch)
* ("the-pair" /C2/+cp/MS/abE)/abThr >> "two of a kind"(두 개 한 벌) /GC/P/abT/Ch >> "matched set"(조합) /GC/P/abT
* shoe >> "pair of shoes" /mGC/abE (This pair of shoes is on sale.)
* they >> "the pair" /mGC/abR/Ch (The pair are working more harmoniously now.)
* pairs >> pair /mGC/abE/Ch "She bought six pairs (or pair) of stockings."
* shoe >> "pair of shoes" /mGC/abE >> "pair of good shoes" /mGC/abE (a pair of good shoes is essential.)
Re: Article of "doll, immigrate, remove/v.i.? 'permit of', sanction, sit/set, lemon, 'spelling bee', 'rote learning', 'look to' " <<Column 18. sit/set >>
Usage Note: Originally set meant "to cause (something) to sit," so that it is now in most cases a transitive verb: She sets the book on the table. He sets the table. Sit is generally an intransitive verb: He sits at the table. There are some exceptions: The sun sets (not sits). A hen sets (or sits) on her eggs.
1. To disappear below the horizon: The sun set at seven that evening.
2. To diminish or decline; wane.
3. To sit on eggs. Used of fowl.
4. a. To become fixed; harden. See Synonyms at coagulate.
b. To become permanent. Used of dye.
5. To become whole; knit. Used of a broken bone.
6. Botany To mature or develop, as after pollination.
7. Nonstandard To sit: "If Emmett drives, I could set up front" Bobbie Ann Mason.
8. To position oneself preparatory to an action, such as running a race.
* sit (go, wane, "become fixed", "become permanent", "become whole", "become adult" or ready) >> set /mGC/abE/Ch
Word History: A dress is such a common article of modern attire that it is difficult to imagine that the word dress has not always referred to this garment. The earliest noun sense of dress, recorded in a work written before 1450, was "speech, talk." This dress comes from the verb dress, which goes back through Old French drecier, "to arrange," and the assumed Vulgar Latin *directiare to Latin directius, a form of the verb dirigere, "to direct." In accordance with its etymology, the verb dress has meant and still means "to place," "to arrange," and "to put in order." The sense "to clothe" is related to the notion of putting in order, specifically in regard to clothing. This verb sense then gave rise to the noun sense "personal attire" as well as to the specific garment sense. The earliest noun sense, "speech," comes from a verb sense having to do with addressing or directing words to other people.
* address /mGC/abR/Ch >> dress /mGC/abE (v.)
* oration >> address /mGC/abR
* ("a-dress" /C2/+-/MS/abE)/abD >> oration /GC/P/abT/Ch >> talk /GC/P/abT
* ("the-dress" /C2/+-/MS/abE)/abThr >> homily /GC/P/abT/Ch >> sermon /GC/P/abT
* dress >> drecier /mGC/abE/Ch
* drecier /mGC/abE >> arrange /P >> directiare /C1 >> directius /C1/Ch >> dirigere /GC/S/abT
* dirigere /GC/P/abT/Ch >> direct /T
dress (p/C1 + lace/T) place
dress (s/C1 + "-lip on or into"/T) "slip on or into (something)"
dress (g/C1 + arb/T) garb
dress (b/C1 + "-ind up"/T) "bind up"
dress (r/C1 + "-ig out"/T) "rig out"
dress (g/C1 + "-et ready"/T) "get ready"
48. "(someone) call oneself"
Our Living Language African American Vernacular English (AAVE) uses call oneself with a present participle, as in They call themselves dancing, to express the idea that the people being talked about are not very good at what they're doing (in this example, dancing), even though they may think they are. This construction has a structure and meaning similar to the Standard English use of call oneself with a noun phrase or adjective, as in She calls herself intelligent or He calls himself a dancer.
>> She calls herself intelligent.
* "she is" >> "She calls herself" /mGC/abR/+bp
>> He calls himself a dancer.
* "he is" >> "he calls himself" /mGC/abR/+bp
>> They call themselves dancing.
* "they are" >> "they call themselves" /mGC/abR/+bp
| avenge, scold, anxious, 'auxiliary verb', off, ugly/clever, absolute (term), like, run, able, hardly, M&M|
| founder/flounder, author, passed/past, permit (of), way(s), ticket, race, series, (a)wake(n), mean(s), comprise|