Usage Note: Traditionally, the transitive verb grieve, meaning "to cause to be sorrowful; distress," has taken as its direct object the person who is sorrowful or distressed, as in It grieves me to see so many homeless in the city. In addition to this use of the word, a newer syntactic pattern has developed, in which the direct object refers to that which causes one sorrow or distress. Sixty-two percent of the Usage Panel approves of this use, as in She took a week off to attend her father's funeral and grieve his loss. The Panel, however, largely frowns upon extending the semantic domain of the transitive verb grieve to mean "to file a formal or an official grievance." Only 14 percent approves of its use in a context in which a coach who was asked to resign had grieved his dismissal. This strong reaction may be due to the discomfort of extending a solemn, mournful term into less somber situations; however, this sense is useful in the context of union-management labor relations.
1. To cause to be sorrowful; distress: It grieves me to see you in such pain.
2. To mourn or sorrow for: We grieved the death of our pastor.
3. Usage Problem To file an official or formal grievance on account of (an actual or perceived injustice).
4. Archaic To hurt or harm.
To experience or express grief.
* ("have-upset" /T/+cp/mES/abE)/abThr >> hassle(다투다－v.i.) /GC/P/abT/Ch >> grieve(괴롭다－v.i.) /GC/P/abT
* "I am sorry to see homeless." >> "It grieves me to see so many homeless in the city." /mGC/Ch
* "She attended a funeral." >> "She took a week off to attend her father's funeral and grieve his loss." /mGC
* "He grieved his dismissal." >> "a coach who was asked to resign had grieved his dismissal." /mGC/Ch
grieve (w/P + orry/C1) worry
grieve (b/P + emoan/C1) bemoan
grieve (m/P + "-ake a complaint"/C1) "make a complaint"
grieve (w/P + ound/C1) wound
grieve (s/P + "-uffer grief"/C1) "suffer grief"
grieve (s/P + "-ay grief"/C1) "say grief"
grieve (l/P + "-abor relations"/C2) "labor relations"
Word History: We learn from the fable of the tortoise and the hare that the race is not always to the swift, but etymology teaches us that speed and success are closely related. The Old English word sped, from which our word speed is descended, originally meant "prosperity, successful outcome, ability, or quickness." A corresponding verb, spedan, in Modern English the verb speed, meant "to succeed, prosper, or achieve a goal"; and an adjective, spedig, the ancestor of our word speedy, meant "wealthy, powerful." Except for archaic uses the words today relate only to the general sense of "velocity." The meaning "success" is retained chiefly in the compound Godspeed, a noun formed from the phrase meaning "May God cause you to prosper."
* speed >> sped /mGC/Ch >> spedan /mGC/+cp >> spedig /mGC/+bp
prosperity (s/C2 + ped/P) sped
"successful outcome" (sp/C2 + ed/GC/S/abT) sped
ability (sp/C1 + ed/GC/S/abT) sped
quickness (s/C1 + ped/P) sped
succeed (s/S + pedan/C1) spedan
prosper (sp/T + edan/C1) spedan
"achieve a goal" (sp/P + edan/C1) spedan
wealthy (s/S + pedig/C1)/Ch spedig
powerful (sp/P + edig/C1)/Ch spedig
velocity (s/C2 + peed/T) speed
Godspeed (s/P + uccess/T) success
Re/Corrections: Article of "grotesquery/unpleasingness/verity, 'true fact?' reality, sensuous/sensual, provocative/delicious/delectable" <<Column 89. true/real fact??>>
Usage Note: Fact has a long history of usage in the sense "allegation of fact," as in "This tract was distributed to thousands of American teachers, but the facts and the reasoning are wrong" (Albert Shanker). This practice has led to the introduction of the phrases true facts and real facts, as in The true facts of the case may never be known. These usages may occasion qualms among critics who insist that facts can only be true, but the usages are often useful for emphasis.
* fact >> "allegation of fact" /mGC/+bp >> "true fact" /mGC/+bp/Ch >> "real fact" /mGC/+cp/Ch
"The tract is good." >> "This tract was distributed to thousands of American teachers, but the facts and the reasoning are wrong" /mGC/Ch
"The case was not inspected." >> "The true facts of the case may never be known." /mGC
Re: Article of "<<oaΛ, Λoa, oa=, =oa>> suss, lingo/jargon/etc. j/c/x/q/w/y, "at fright"/aghast, when" <<Column 5. parlance, slang, idiom, patter, tongue, usage, dialect, cant, lingo, patois, argot, jargon>>
Word History: A look at the entry in the Indo-European roots entry for *dΛghu- will show that the words tongue, language, and lingo are related, all going back to the Indo-European root *dΛghu-, "tongue." The relationship between language and lingo is not particularly surprising given their related meanings and common root, but one might be curious about the routes by which these two words came into English. Language, as did so many of our important borrowings from Latin, passed through French into English during the Middle Ages, the forms involved being Latin lingua, "language," its descendant, Old French langue, and its derivative, langage. Lingo, on the other hand, entered English after the end of the Middle Ages when Europe had opened itself to the larger world. We have probably borrowed lingo from lingoa, a Portuguese descendant of Latin lingua. The Portuguese were great traders before the English were, and the sense "foreign language" was likely strengthened as the Portuguese traveled around the world. Interestingly enough, the first recorded instance of lingo in English is in the New World (1660) in a reference to the "Dutch lingo." The development in sense to "unintelligible language" and "specialized language" is an obvious one.
* tongue (or language or lingo) >> dΛghu /mGC/+cp/Ch
"Latin lingua" (l/S + anguage/T) language
langue (l/S + anguage/GC/S/abT)/+cp language
"Old French" (l/S + anguage/GC/S/abT)/+bp language
langage (l/S + anguage/GC/S/abT)/Ch language
"end of Middle Ages" (l/C2 + ingo/S) lingo
lingoa (l/S + ingo/P) lingo
"Portuguese descendant of Latin lingua" (l/S + ingo/P)/Ch lingo
"foreign language" (L/GC/S/abT + "-atin lingua"/P) "Latin lingua"
"New World" (L/GC/S/abT + "-atin lingua"/S) "Latin lingua"
1660 (L/GC/S/abT + "-atin lingua"/S)/Ch "Latin lingua"
"Dutch lingo" (l/GC/S/abT + anguage/S) language
"unintelligible language" (D/S + "-utch lingo"/C1) "Dutch lingo"
"specialized language" (D/S + "-utch lingo"/C1)/Ch "Dutch lingo"
Amish, Scarborough/Panatag Shoal, Parece Vela, (沖ノ鳥島), 冲鸟礁, Okinotorishima
>> sometimes referred to as Amish Mennonites,
"Amish Mennonites" ("Jakob Amman's"/P + followers/T)/Ch "Jakob Amman's followers"
>> Over the years, the Amish churches have divided many times over doctrinal disputes. The 'Old Order' Amish, a conservative faction that withdrew from fellowship with the wider body of Amish in the 1860s, are those that have most emphasized traditional practices and beliefs. There are as many as eight different subgroups of Amish with most belonging, in ascending order of conservatism, to the Beachy Amish, New Order, Old Order, Andy Weaver, or Swartzentruber Amish sects.
"'Old Order" ([ŋ= w=]/P + "Amish Mennonites"/S)/Ch "Amish Mennonites"
Beachy ([ŋ= w=]/P + "Amish Mennonites"/C2)/Ch "Amish Mennonites"
"New Order" ([ŋ= w=]/P + "Amish Mennonites"/GC/S/abT)/Ch "Amish Mennonites"
"Andy Weaver" ([ŋ= w=]/C2 + "Amish Mennonites"/P)/Ch "Amish Mennonites"
Swartzentruber ([ŋ= w=]/C2 + "Amish Mennonites"/GC/S/abT)/Ch "Amish Mennonites"
Jakob Ammann (also Jacob Amman, Amann), (c. 1656–c. 1730) was an Anabaptist leader and namesake of the Amish religious movement.
Amman (J/T + esus/C1) Jesus
Jakob (J/T + esus/C1)/Ch Jesus
* Amman >> Ammann /mGC >> Amann /mGC/Ch
* Jakob >> Jacob /Ch
"c 1656" (J/GC/S/abT + "-akob Amman"/P) "Jakob Amman"
"c 1730" (J/GC/S/abT + "-akob Amman"/P)/Ch "Jakob Amman"
Amish ("Jakob Amman"/T + 's/P) "Jakob Amman's"
Amish ("Jakob Amman's"/T + followers/P) "Jakob Amman's followers"
>> Birth and death
Jakob Ammann was born in 1656, in Erlenbach im Simmental, Canton of Berne, Switzerland, but later moved to Alsace as part of a wave of Anabaptist emigration from the Canton of Berne. His exact date of birth is unknown. Some believe he is the Jakob Ammann who was born on 12 February 1644, to Michael and Anna Rupp Ammann of Erlenbach. Ammann lived in the region of Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines, Upper Alsace, in 1696. On February 27 of that year, he signed a petition against compulsory military service.
Ammann's name is found on a 1708 list that Mennonites were required to sign by Alsace authorities. An Erlenbach record of his daughter's baptism in 1730 mentions that he had died prior to the event.
"Michael Rupp Ammann of Erlenbach" (J/C2 + "-akob Ammann's father"/S) "Jakob Ammann's father"
"Anna Rupp Ammann of Erlenbach" (J/C2 + "-akob Ammann's mother"/S) "Jakob Ammann's mother"
1644 (J/GC/S/abT + "-akob Ammann"/T)/+cp, "Jakob Ammann"
February (J/GC/S/abT + "-akob Ammann"/T)/+bp, "Jakob Ammann"
12 (J/GC/S/abT + "-akob Ammann"/T)/Ch "Jakob Ammann"
* "Jakob Ammann" >> ("Erlenbach im Simmental" /P)/C2 >> ("Canton of Berne, Switzerland " /P/Ch)/C2 >> (Alsace /S)/C2 >> ("Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines, Upper Alsace" /GC/S/abT)/C2 >> ("1696" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/C2 >> ("February 27" /S/+cp)/C1 >> ("1696" /S/+bp)/C1 >> ("petition against military service" /S/Ch/+cp)/C1 >> (compulsory /S/Ch/+bp)/C1 >> ("1708" /S)/GC/S/abT >> (Mennonites /S/Ch/+bp)/GC/S/abT >> ("Alsace authorities" /S/Ch/+cp)/GC/S/abT >> ("Erlenbach record" /C1/+cp)/GC/S/abT >> ("daughter's baptism" /C1/+bp)/GC/S/abT >> ("1730" /C1/+cp/Ch)/GC/S/abT >> (death /C1/+bp/Ch)/GC/S/abT
>> Ammann's date of death is also unknown, though records indicate it occurred after 1708 and before 1730.
"after 1708" (J/GC/S/abT + "-akob Ammann"/C2) "Jakob Ammann"
"before 1730" (J/GC/S/abT + "-akob Ammann"/C2)/Ch "Jakob Ammann"
>> Amish schism
In 1693, Jakob Ammann took issue with Swiss Mennonite leaders Hans Reist and Benedict Schneider over what he saw as a lack of overall discipline in the Mennonite congregations. This lack of discipline was exemplified by the lapse of the ban (or meidung) against those who left the church after being baptized into it. In 1693 disagreements over the implementation of the ban would come to a head between Hans Reist and Jakob Ammann and this would result in the Jakob Ammann faction splitting from the Mennonites. Ammann was highly influenced by Dutch Mennonite beliefs, and instituted the practice of feet washing in connection with communion, which was not practiced by the Swiss Mennonites. He also increased communion to twice a year, instead of the Swiss practice of annual communion services. Later in life, Jakob Ammann came to regret his actions, and made attempts to reunify the Amish with the Mennonites, even apparently offering to ban himself from his own congregation in order to show his regret for the disunity that he believed he had helped cause. Despite admissions of being rash and overzealous, the Amish would not give up the belief of practicing the ban. Because of this, the main body of Amish and the Swiss Mennonites were never able to reconcile.
1693 ([ŋ= w=]/T + Amish/S) Amish
"Swiss Mennonite" ([ŋ= w=]/T + Amish/S)/Ch Amish
"Hans Reist" ([ŋ= w=]/T + Amish/C2) Amish
"Benedict Schneider" ([ŋ= w=]/T + Amish/C2)/Ch Amish
"lack of discipline" ([ŋ= w=]/T + Amish/C1) Amish
"lapse of ban" ([ŋ= w=]/T + Amish/C1)/Ch Amish
1693 ([ŋ= w=]/P + Amish/T) Amish
disagreement ([ŋ= w=]/P + Amish/T)/Ch Amish
schism ([ŋ= w=]/P + Amish/C2) Amish
Mennonite ([ŋ= w=]/P + Amish/C2)/Ch Amish
"Dutch Mennonite beliefs" ([ŋ= w=]/P + Amish/GC/S/abT) Amish
"feet washing" ([ŋ= w=]/P + Amish/GC/S/abT)/Ch Amish
communion ([ŋ= w=]/S + Amish/C2) Amish
"twice a year" ([ŋ= w=]/S + Amish/C2)/Ch Amish
* "twice a year" >> (Anabaptist /T/Ch)/S
Mennonites ([ŋ= w=]/S + Amish/GC/S/abT) Amish
>> Most of the Amish remaining in Europe after the American migration reunited with the Mennonites.
"American migration" ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + Amish/S) Amish
>> It may not be enough to say that Ammann's faction split with the Mennonites. For one, Hans Reist's faction would not have called themselves Mennonites. They would most likely have referred to their group as the Swiss Brethren.
"Swiss Brethren" (Hans/GC/S/abT + Reist/C1) "Hans Reist"
2. Scarborough/Panatag Shoal, 黃岩島
Scarborough Shoal, Scarborough Reef, or Panatag Shoal (Philippine name: Panatag Shoal; traditional Chinese: 黃岩島 황암도 [hoaŋ ŋam do]; pinyin: Huángyán Dǎo), more correctly described as a group of islands and reefs in an atoll shape than a shoal, is located between the Macclesfield Bank and Luzon, Philippines in the South China Sea. As with most of the landforms in this sea, the sovereignty of the area is disputed. The Philippines, the People's Republic of China, and the Republic of China (Taiwan) all lay claim to the shoal. Most references exclude this atoll from inclusion in the Spratly Islands, of which the closest is 350 km to the southwest.
"黃岩島 황암도 [h(oa)ŋ ŋam do]" is the pronunciation of Korea 제주도/濟州道(島)[ze zu do] dialect secondary /S speaking posture.
* "黃岩島 황암도 [h(oa)ŋ ŋam do]" >> ("Huángyán Dǎo" Chinese) Korea 제주도/濟州道(島)[ze zu do]
That is. when/if trying to speak "黃岩島 황암도 [h(oa)ŋ ŋam do]" from Chinese speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea 제주도/濟州道(島)[ze zu do] dialect speaking posture, "Huángyán Dǎo" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced. Vice versa.
* "黃岩島 황암도 [h(oa)ŋ ŋam do]" (or "Huángyán Dǎo") >> (Scarborough /P)/C2
That is. when/if trying to speak "黃岩島 황암도 [h(oa)ŋ ŋam do]" or "Huángyán Dǎo" from English /P speaking posture with coarticulation of English /C2 speaking posture, "Scarborough" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced. Vice versa.
* "黃岩島 황암도 [h(oa)ŋ ŋam do]" (or "Huángyán Dǎo" or Scarborough) >> (Panatag /P)/C1
"Philippine island" (P/S + anatag/C2) Panatag
"Philippine island" (S/S + carborough/C2) Scarborough
"Philippine island" (h/S + [-(oa)ŋ ŋam do]/C2) "黃岩島 황암도 [h(oa)ŋ ŋam do]"
"Philippine island" (H/S + "-uángyán Dǎo"/C2) "Huángyán Dǎo"
That is, when speaking "Panatag", if speaking/articulating "P" of "Panatag" from English secondary /S speaking posture and speaking/articulating "-anatag" of "Panatag" from English/CYRILLIC secondary /C2 speaking posture, "Philippine island" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced. Et cetera.
3. Parece Vela, Okinotorishima (沖ノ鳥島), 冲鸟礁/ 충조초 [cuŋ zo co], Douglas Reef
Okinotorishima (沖ノ鳥島) is an atoll, which in English has multiple designations (Okinotori coral reefs, Okinotori Islands). Its original name was Parece Vela Spanish for "looks like a sail" (alluding to the original appearance of the reef). This name has been retained in English as well, especially to designate the geological formations of the islets.
It is located on the Palau-Kyushu Ridge in the Philippine Sea at 20°25′N 136°05′E / 20.417°N 136.083°E / 20.417; 136.083Coordinates: 20°25′N 136°05′E / 20.417°N 136.083°E / 20.417; 136.083, 534 km (332 miles) SE of Oki Daitō and 567 km (352 miles) WSW of Minami Iwo Jima of the Ogasawara Islands or 1740 km (1081 miles) south of Tokyo, Japan. The Japanese meaning of the name is "remote bird islands" and they are sometimes referred to as "the southernmost islands of Japan".
"冲鸟礁/충조초 [cuŋ zo co]" is the pronunciation of Korea 전라도/全羅道[zΛn la do] dialect secondary /S speaking posture.
When/if trying to speak "冲鸟礁/충조초 [cuŋ zo co]" from Korea 전라도/全羅道[zΛn la do] dialect secondary /S speaking posture with coarticulation of Japanese speaking posture, "오끼노또리[ŋo gi no do ri], not Okinotori" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When/if trying to speak "冲鸟礁/충조초 [cuŋ zo co]" or "오끼노또리[ŋo gi no do ri], not Okinotori" from (English) Phoenician/Canaanite /T speaking posture, "Parece Vela" or "atoll/Ch" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
That is, "Parece Vela" is equivalent to "atoll".
* atoll >> ("coral reef" /C2)/T
"looks like a sail" (P/GC/S/abT + "-arece Vela"/C1)/Ch "Parece Vela"
It was possibly first sighted by the Spanish sailor Bernardo de la Torre in 1543, certainly by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1565, and its first recorded name was Parece Vela ("looks like a sail" in Spanish).
In 1789, William Douglas arrived with British ship Iphigenia and, in the following year, the place was named Douglas Reef (also spelt Douglass Reef). The existence of the atoll might not have been known by Japanese until 1888. In 1922 and 1925, the Japanese navy ship Manshu investigated the area. In 1931, confirming that no other countries had claimed the reefs, Japan declared it Japanese territory, placing it under the jurisdiction of the Tokyo Prefecture, classifying it as part of the Ogasawara Village, and naming it Okinotorishima.
"Bernardo de la Torre" (P/C1 + "-arece Vela"/GC/S/abT)/Ch "Parece Vela"
"1543" (P/C1 + "-arece Vela"/S) "Parece Vela"
"Miguel López de Legazpi" (P/S + "-arece Vela"/C1)/Ch "Parece Vela"
"1565" (P/S + "-arece Vela"/GC/S/abT)/Ch "Parece Vela"
"Douglas Reef" (P/C1 + "-arece Vela"/T)/Ch "Parece Vela"
"William Douglas" (Douglas/P + Reef/S) "Douglas Reef"
"1789" (Douglas/P + Reef/GC/S/abT) "Douglas Reef"
Iphigenia (Douglas/P + Reef/GC/S/abT)/Ch "Douglas Reef"
"British ship" (D/P + "-ouglas Reef"/T) "Douglas Reef"
* "Douglas Reef" >> "Douglass Reef" /mGC
"1888" (D/P + "-ouglas Reef"/C1) "Douglas Reef"
"Manshu" ([ŋ= y=]/GC/S/abT + Iphigenia/C2) Iphigenia
"Japanese navy ship" ([ŋ= y=]/GC/S/abT + Iphigenia/C1) Iphigenia
"1922" ([ŋ= y=]/S + Iphigenia/P) Iphigenia
"1925" ([ŋ= y=]/GC/S/abT + Iphigenia/P) Iphigenia
"1931" ([ŋ= y=]/S + Iphigenia/GC/S/abT) Iphigenia
Japan ([ŋ= y=]/C2 + Iphigenia/S) Iphigenia
"declared it Japanese territory" ([ŋ= y=]/S + Iphigenia/C2)/Ch Iphigenia