|Subject ||hubbub, prison, dungeon, situation, belfry, dinner, banquet, loaf, dress, require, prefer/preferable, raid, same, bad
Word History: It has often been remarked that the early Celtic inhabitants of Britain contributed very little to the stock of English words. Perhaps this should not surprise us, given the difficult relations over the centuries between the people of Germanic stock and the people of Celtic stock in England and Ireland. It seems likely that a certain English contempt resides in the adoption of the word hubbub from a Celtic source, which is probably related to ub ub ubub, a Scots Gaelic interjection expressing contempt, or to abu, an ancient Irish war cry. In any case, hubbub was first recorded (1555) in the phrase Irish hubbub and meant "the confused shouting of a crowd." In addition to the senses it has developed, hubbub was again used, possibly in an unflattering way, by the New England colonists as a term for a rambunctious game played by Native Americans.
* English >> (Celtic [kel tik] /P)/T
English (C/P + eltic/T) Celtic
* Celtic [kel tik] >> [sel tik] /mGC
"Primitive Indo-European" ([ŋ= y=]/C1 + English/GC/S/abT)/Ch English
* "Primitive Indo-European" >> Germanic /mGC/Ch/+bp >> Latin /mGC/Ch/+cp
"Old English" (G/C1 + ermanic/P) Germanic
"Indo-European" (L/GC/S/abT + atin/C2)/Ch Latin
Greek (G/GC/S/abT + ermanic/S)/Ch Germanic
Sanskrit (L/P + atin/T)/Ch Latin
"Celtic stock" (G/C1 + ermanic/GC/S/abT) Germanic
"Germanic stock" (R/C1 + oman/GC/S/abT)/Ch Roman
"Celtic source" (h/S + ubbub/P) hubbub
"English contempt" (h/GC/S/abT + ubbub/C2) hubbub
adoption (h/GC/S/abT + ubbub/C1) hubbub
* hubbub >> "ub ub ubub" /mGC/+cp >> "Scots Gaelic interjection expressing contempt" /mGC/+bp
* hubbub >> abu /mGC/+cp/Ch >> "ancient Irish war cry" /mGC/+bp/Ch
"Irish hubbub" (h/GC/S/abT + ubbub/C2)/Ch/+cp hubbub
"1555" (h/GC/S/abT + ubbub/C2)/Ch/+bp hubbub
"confused shouting of crowd" (h/GC/S/abT + ubbub/C2)/+cp hubbub
"rambunctious game played by Native Americans" (h/S + ubbub/C1)/Ch hubbub
"New England colonists" (h/S + ubbub/C1) hubbub
Word History: The word prison can be traced back to the Latin word prensio, "the action or power of making an arrest." This in turn is derived from the verb prehendere or prendere, which meant "to take hold of, take into custody, arrest." Prensio then surfaces in the Old French of the 12th century with the form prison and the senses "capture" and "place of imprisonment." This new sense could have already been developed in Latin and not been recorded, but we have to wait until the 12th century to see it, the sense "captivity" being added in the same century. From Old French as well as the Medieval Latin word priso, "prison," derived from Old French, came our Middle English word prisoun, first recorded in a work written before 1121 in the sense "imprisonment." The sense "place of imprisonment" is recorded shortly afterward in a text copied down before 1225 but perhaps actually written in the Old English period before the Norman Conquest.
* prison >> prensio /mGC >> "Latin word" /mGC/Ch
* prensio /mGC/Ch >> "action or power of making arrest" /P
* prensio /mGC >> prehendere /GC/S/abT/Ch/+bp >> prendere /GC/S/abT/Ch/+cp >> verb /GC/S/abT/+bp >> "take hold of, take into custody, arrest" /GC/S/abT/+cp
* prehendere /GC/S/abT/+bp >> prison /T >> "Old French of 12th century" /T/Ch >> capture /P >> "place of imprisonment" /P/Ch
* prendere /GC/S/abT/+cp >> Latin /P >> "12th century" /S >> captivity /S/Ch
* prison /T >> priso /mGC >> "Medieval Latin word" /mGC/Ch >> prisoun /P >> "Middle English word" /P/Ch >> "work written before 1121" /C2 >> imprisonment /C2/Ch >> "place of imprisonment" /C1 >> "text copied down before 1225" /C1/Ch >> "Old English period before Norman Conquest" /GC/S/abT
Word History: The word dungeon may have gone down in the world quite literally, if one etymology of the word is correct. Dungeon may go back to a Medieval Latin word, domni, meaning "the lord's tower," which came from Latin dominus, "master." In Middle English, in which our word is first recorded in a work composed around the beginning of the 14th century, it meant "a fortress, castle" and "the keep of a castle," as well as "a prison cell underneath the keep of the castle." Dungeon can still mean "keep," although the usual spelling for this sense is donjon, but the meaning most usually associated with it is certainly not elevated. It is also possible that dungeon goes back to a Germanic word related to our word dung. This assumed Germanic word would have meant "an underground house constructed of dung." If this etymology is correct, the word dungeon has ended up where it began.
* dungeon >> domni /mGC/Ch
* domni /mGC >> "Medieval Latin word" /C1 >> "lord's tower" /C2
* "lord's tower" /C2/Ch >> dominus /GC/P/abT >> Latin /GC/P/abT/Ch
* dominus /GC/P/abT/Ch >> master /P
"fortress, castle" (d/C2 + ungeon/GC/S/abT)/Ch dungeon
"Middle English" (d/C1 + ungeon/GC/S/abT)/Ch dungeon
"beginning of 14th century" (d/C1 + ungeon/GC/S/abT) dungeon
"keep of castle" (d/S + ungeon/GC/S/abT)/Ch dungeon
"prison cell underneath keep of castle" (d/S + ungeon/GC/S/abT) dungeon
donjon (d/GC/S/abT + ungeon/C2) dungeon
keep (d/GC/S/abT + ungeon/C2)/Ch dungeon
dung (d/GC/S/abT + ungeon/C1)/Ch dungeon
"Germanic word" (d/GC/S/abT + ungeon/C1)/+bp dungeon
"underground house constructed of dung" (d/GC/S/abT + ungeon/C1)/+cp dungeon
Usage: Situation is often used in contexts in which it is redundant or imprecise. Typical examples are: the company is in a crisis situation or people in a job situation. In the first example, situation does not add to the meaning and should be omitted. In the second example, it would be clearer and more concise to substitute a phrase such as people at work
* crisis >> "crisis situation" /mGC/Ch
* employment >> "job situation" /mGC/Ch
Word History: The words bell and belfry seem obviously related, but in fact the bel- portion of belfry had nothing to do with bells until comparatively recently. Belfry goes back to a compound formed in prehistoric Common Germanic. It is generally agreed that the second part of this compound is the element *frij-, meaning "peace, safety." The first element is either *bergan, "to protect," which would yield a compound meaning "a defensive place of shelter," or *berg-, "a high place," which would yield a compound meaning "a high place of safety, tower." Whatever the meaning of the original Germanic source, its Old French descendant berfrei, which first meant "siege tower," came to mean "watchtower." Presumably because bells were used in these towers, the word was applied to bell towers as well. The Old North French alteration belfroi, which reminded English speakers of their native word belle (our bell), entered Middle English with the sense "bell tower."
"prehistoric Common Germanic" (b/P + elfry/GC/S/abT)/Ch belfry
frij (f/C1 + ry/GC/S/abT)/Ch fry
* frij >> "peace, safety" /mGC/Ch
* bel >> bergan /mGC/Ch >> berg /GC/P/abT/Ch
* bergan /mGC >> protect /P >> "defensive place of shelter" /P/Ch
* berg /GC/P/abT >> "high place" /P >> "high place of safety, tower" /P/Ch
"Old French descendant" (b/GC/S/abT + elfry/S)/Ch belfry
"siege tower" (b/GC/S/abT + elfry/S)/+bp belfry
watchtower (b/GC/S/abT + elfry/S)/+cp belfry
belfroi (b/C2 + elfry/S) belfry
"Old North French alteration" (b/C2 + elfry/S)/Ch belfry
* belfroi >> belle /GC/S/abT
* belle /GC/S/abT/Ch >> bell /P
"Middle English" (b/GC/S/abT + elfroi/S)/Ch belfroi
"bell tower" (b/C2 + elfroi/S)/Ch belfroi
Word History: Eating foods such as pizza and ice cream for breakfast may be justified etymologically. In Middle English dinner meant "breakfast," as did the Old French word disner, or diner, which was the source of our word. The Old French word came from the Vulgar Latin word *disiunare, meaning "to break one's fast; that is, to eat one's first meal," a notion also contained in our word breakfast. The Vulgar Latin word was derived from an earlier word, *disieiunare, the Latin elements of which are dis-, denoting reversal, and ieiunium, "fast." Middle English diner not only meant "breakfast" but, echoing usage of the Old French word diner, more commonly meant "the first big meal of the day, usually eaten between 9 a.m. and noon." Customs change, however, and over the years we have let the chief meal become the last meal of the day, by which time we have broken our fast more than once.
breakfast (d/C1 + inner/GC/S/abT)/Ch dinner
"Middle English" (d/C1 + inner/GC/S/abT) dinner
breakfast (d/C1 + isner/GC/S/abT)/Ch disner
breakfast (d/C1 + iner/GC/S/abT)/Ch diner
"Old French word" (d/C1 + isner/GC/S/abT) disner
"Old French word" (d/C1 + iner/GC/S/abT) diner
* disner >> disiunare /mGC/Ch
* disiunare /mGC >> "break one's fast; that is, eat one's first meal" /P >> "Vulgar Latin word" /P/Ch >> disieiunare /C2
* disieiunare >> dis /mGC/Ch
* dis /mGC >> "Latin element" /T >> reversal /T/Ch
* disieiunare >> ieiunium /mGC
* ieiunium /mGC/Ch >> "Latin element" /T >> fast /T/Ch
"first big meal of day, usually eaten between 9 a.m. and noon" (d/P + iner/C1)/Ch diner
Word History: The linguistic stock of the word banquet has been fluctuating for a long time. The Old French word banquet, the likely source of our word, is derived from Old French banc, "bench," ultimately of Germanic origin. The sense development in Old French seems to have been from "little bench" to "meal taken on the family workbench" to "feast." The English word banquet is first recorded in a work possibly composed before 1475 with reference to a feast held by the god Apollo, and it appears to have been used from the 15th to the 18th century to refer to the feasts of the powerful and the wealthy. Perhaps this association led a 19th-century newspaper editor to label the word "grandiloquent" because it was being appropriated by those lower down on the social scale.
* banquet >> "Old French" /mGC/Ch >> banc /GC/S/abT
* banc /GC/S/abT/Ch >> "Old French" /T >> bench /T/Ch >> "Germanic origin" /P/Ch
"little bench" (b/GC/S/abT + anc/P) banc
* "little bench" >> "meal taken on family workbench" /mGC/Ch
* "meal taken on family workbench" /mGC >> feast /P
"before 1475" (b/GC/S/abT + anquet/C1)/Ch banquet
"feast held by god Apollo" (b/GC/S/abT + anquet/C1) banquet
"from 15th to 18th century" (b/C1 + anquet/GC/S/abT)/Ch banquet
"feasts of powerful and wealthy" (b/C1 + anquet/GC/S/abT) banquet
"19th-century newspaper editor" (b/C2 + anquet/GC/S/abT)/Ch banquet
grandiloquent (b/C2 + anquet/GC/S/abT) banquet
Word History: Loaf, lord, and lady are closely related words that testify to bread's fundamental importance in the Middle Ages. Curiously, though bread was a staple food in many Indo-European cultures, loaf and its cognates occur only in the Germanic languages, and lord and lady only in English. Loaf derives from Old English hlaf, "bread, loaf of bread," related to Gothic hlaifs, Old Norse hleifr, and Modern German Laib, all of which mean "loaf of bread." Hlaf survives in Lammas, originally Hlafmaesse, "Loaf-Mass," the Christian Feast of the First Fruits, traditionally celebrated on August 1. A lord, Old English hlaford, was a compound meaning "loaf-ward, keeper of bread," because a lord maintains and feeds his household and offers hospitality. Similarly, lady derives from Old English hlæfdige, which became lady by 1382. The -dige comes from dæge, "kneader," and is related to our dough. A lady, therefore, is "a kneader of bread, a breadmaker." Lord and lady both retain vestiges of their original meanings, although England's aristocrats have not been elbow deep in flour, let alone dough, for several centuries.
* loaf >> lord /mGC/Ch/+bp >> lady /mGC/Ch/+cp
"bread's fundamental importance in Middle Ages" (l/GC/S/abT + oaf/C2) loaf
bread (w/P + heat/T) wheat
* bread >> "staple food in many Indo-European cultures" /mGC/Ch
"Germanic languages" (l/C2 + oaf/P)/Ch loaf
cognates (l/C2 + oaf/P) loaf
English (l/C2 + ord/P)/Ch lord
English (l/C2 + ady/P)/Ch lady
hlaf (l/C1 + oaf/T) loaf
"Old English" (l/C1 + oaf/T)/Ch loaf
* hlaf >> "bread, loaf of bread" /mGC/Ch
hlafs (l/C1 + oaf/S) loaf
Gothic (l/C1 + oaf/S)/Ch loaf
hleifr (l/C1 + oaf/GC/S/abT) loaf
"Old Norse" (l/C1 + oaf/GC/S/abT)/Ch loaf
Laib (l/C1 + oaf/P) loaf
"Modern German" (l/C1 + oaf/P)/Ch loaf
* hlaf (or hlaifs or hleifr or Laib) >> "loaf of bread" /mGC/Ch
* Lammas >> Hlafmaesse /mGC >> "Loaf-Mass" /mGC/Ch
"Christian Feast of First Fruits" (H/P + lafmaesse/T)/Ch Hlafmaesse
"August 1" (H/P + lafmaesse/T) Hlafmaesse
hlaford (l/GC/S/abT + ord/C1) lord
"Old English" (l/GC/S/abT + ord/C1)/Ch lord
* hlaford >> "loaf-ward, keeper of bread" /mGC/Ch
hlæfdige (l/GC/S/abT + ady/C2) lady
"Old English" (l/GC/S/abT + ady/C2)/Ch lady
* hlæfdige >> "1382" /mGC/Ch
* dige >> dæge /mGC/Ch
* dæge /mGC >> kneader /T >> dough /T/Ch
"kneader of bread, breadmaker" (l/C2+ ady/GC/S/abT) lady
Re/Corrections: Article of "acquiesce, check, get, numb, coward, amount, principal, couple, husband, pair, set, (ad)dress, 'call oneself'" <<Column 47. (ad)dress>>
Word History: A dress is such a common article of modern attire that it is difficult to imagine that the word dress has not always referred to this garment. The earliest noun sense of dress, recorded in a work written before 1450, was "speech, talk." This dress comes from the verb dress, which goes back through Old French drecier, "to arrange," and the assumed Vulgar Latin *directiare to Latin directius, a form of the verb dirigere, "to direct." In accordance with its etymology, the verb dress has meant and still means "to place," "to arrange," and "to put in order." The sense "to clothe" is related to the notion of putting in order, specifically in regard to clothing. This verb sense then gave rise to the noun sense "personal attire" as well as to the specific garment sense. The earliest noun sense, "speech," comes from a verb sense having to do with addressing or directing words to other people.
"speech, talk" (d/GC/S/abT + ress/C1) dress
"before 1450" (d/GC/S/abT + ress/C1)/Ch dress
* dress >> drecier /mGC/Ch/+bp >> "Old French" /mGC/Ch/+cp
* drecier /mGC/+bp >> arrange /P
* dress >> directiare /mGC/+bp >> "assumed Vulgar Latin" /mGC/+cp
* dress >> directius /GC/S/abT >> Latin /GC/S/abT/Ch
* dress >> dirigere /GC/P/abT >> verb /GC/P/abT/Ch
* dirigere /GC/P/abT/Ch >> direct /P
place (dr/P + ess/C1) dress
arrange (dr/P + ess/C1)/+bp dress
"put in order" (dr/P + ess/C1)/+cp dress
* "put in order" >> clothe /mGC/Ch/+cp >> dress /mGC/Ch/+bp >> "personal attire" /mGC/+bp >> "specific garment sense" /mGC/+cp
* dress /mGC/+bp >> address /T/Ch >> speech /T
Usage: The use of require to as in I require to see the manager or you require to complete a special form is thought by many people to be incorrect: I need to see the manager; you are required to complete a special form
I require to see the manager. (I need to see the manager.)
you require to complete a special form. (you are required to complete a special form.)
* hope >> require /mGC/Ch/abE
* must >> "require to" /mGC/Ch/abT
Usage: Normally, to is used after prefer and preferable, not than: I prefer Brahms to Tchaikovsky; a small income is preferable to no income at all. However, than or rather than should be used to link infinitives: I prefer to walk than/rather than to catch the train
* ("have-like" /C1/+-/Ch/mES/abE)/abThr >> "cotton/Ch(동조되다), prefer(선택되다)" /GC/S/abT >> "love/Ch(사랑되다), enjoy(보유되다)" /GC/P/abT
* "~ like Brahms better [be rΛ] than ~" >> "~ prefer Brahms to ~" /mGC/Ch/abE
** "~ prefer Brahms to ~" /mGC/abE >> "~ prefer Brahms" /mGC/Ch/abT
* "~ like(s) coffee better [be rΛ] than (tea)" >> "~ prefer(s) coffee to (tea)" /mGC/Ch/abE
** "~ prefer(s) coffee to (tea)" /mGC/Ch/abE >> "~ prefer(s) coffee" /mGC/Ch/abT
>> I prefer to walk than/rather than to catch the train.
* "~ like walking better [be rΛ] than (catching the train)" >> "~ prefer walking to )catching the train)" /mGC/Ch/abE
** "~ prefer walking to catching (the train)" /mGC/abE >> "~ prefer to walk rather than to catch (the train)" /mGC/Ch/abT
*** "~ prefer walking to catching (the train)" /mGC/abE >> "~ prefer walking." /mGC/Ch/abT
>> "Some people prefer camping to staying in hotels";
* "~ like camping better [be rΛ] than (staying in hotels)" >> "~ prefer camping to (staying in hotels)" /mGC/Ch/abE
** "~ prefer camping to staying (in hotels)" /mGC/abE >> "~ prefer to camp rather than (to stay in hotels)" /mGC/Ch/abT
*** "~ prefer camping to staying (in hotels)" /mGC/abE >> "~ prefer camping." /mGC/Ch/abR
>> "We prefer sleeping outside"
* "~ like sleeping outside better [be rΛ] than inside" >> "~ prefer sleeping outside to sleeping (inside)" /mGC/Ch/abE
** "~ prefer sleeping outside to sleeping (inside)" /mGC/abE >> "~ prefer to sleep outside rather than to sleep (inside)" /mGC/Ch/abT
*** "~ prefer sleeping outside to sleeping (inside)" /mGC/abE >> "~ prefer sleeping outside." /mGC/Ch/abR
>> a small income is preferable [p= re f= rΛ b=l] to no income at all.
* "(be) better than ~" >> "(be) preferable to" /mGC/Ch/abE
>> "coffee is preferable to tea";
Usage: Since preferable already means more desirable, one should not say something is more preferable or most preferable. See also at prefer
Usage: Since preferable already means `more desirable', it is better when writing not to say something is more preferable or most preferable.
* preferable [p= re f= rΛ b=l] >> "more preferable [p= ri fΛ rΛ b=l]" /mGC/+cp >> "most preferable" /mGC/+bp
Word History: Few soldiers traveling a road to carry out a raid would connect the words road and raid. However, both descend from the same Old English word rad. Old English rad meant "the act of riding" and "the act of riding with a hostile intent; that is, a raid," senses that no longer exist for our word road. The ai in raid represents the standard development in the northern dialects of Old English long a, while the oa in road represents the standard development of Old English long a in the rest of the English dialects. It was left to Sir Walter Scott to revive the Scots form raid with the sense "a military expedition on horseback." The Scots were not the only ones conducting raids, however. We find these words in the Middle English Coventry Leet Book: "aftur a Rode ... made uppon the Scottes at thende of this last somer." While road is not used in this way any more in English, a trace of this usage is still detectable in the compound inroad, literally "a riding or advance on or in."
* raid >> rad /mGC >> "Old English" /mGC/Ch
* rad /mGC/Ch >> "act of riding" /T >> "act of riding with hostile intent; that is, raid" /P >> road /S
"standard development in northern dialects of Old English long a" (r/C1 + aid/P) raid
"standard development of Old English long a in rest of English dialects" (r/C1 + aid/P) road
"Sir Walter Scott" (r/C2 + aid/S) raid
"military expedition on horseback" (r/C2 + aid/S)/Ch raid
Scots (r/GC/S/abT + aid/C2) raid
"Middle English Coventry Leet Book" (r//GC/S/abT + aid/C1) raid
"aftur Rode ... made uppon Scottes at thende of this last somer" (r//GC/S/abT + aid/C1)/Ch raid
* road >> inroad /mGC/Ch/+bp >> "riding or advance on or in" /mGC/Ch/+cp
Usage Note: The expressions same and the same are sometimes used in place of pronouns such as it or one, as in When you have filled out the form, please remit same to this office. As this example suggests, the usage is associated chiefly with business and legal language, and some critics have suggested that it should be reserved for such contexts. But though the usage often does sound stilted, it occurs with some frequency in informal writing, particularly in the phrase lack of same, as in It is a question of money, or lack of same.
>> When you have filled out the form, please remit same to this office.
When you have filled out the form, please remit which to this office.
* which >> same /mGC >> it /mGC/Ch/+bp >> "the same" /mGC/Ch/+cp >> one /T
Usage: The use of same exemplified in if you send us your order for the materials, we will deliver same tomorrow is common in business and official English. In general English, however, this use of the word is avoided: may I borrow your book? I'll return it (not same) tomorrow
Usage: The use of same as in if you send us your order for the materials, we will deliver same tomorrow is common in business and official English. In general English, however, this use of the word is best avoided, as it may sound rather stilted: may I borrow your book? I will return it (not same) tomorrow.
Usage Note: Bad is often used as an adverb in sentences such as The house was shaken up pretty bad or We need water bad. This usage is common in informal speech but is widely regarded as unacceptable in formal writing. In an earlier survey, the sentence His tooth ached so bad he could not sleep was unacceptable to 92 percent of the Usage Panel. • The use of badly with want was once considered incorrect but is now entirely acceptable: We wanted badly to go to the beach. • The adverb badly is often used after verbs such as feel, as in I felt badly about the whole affair. This usage bears analogy to the use of other adverbs with feel, such as strongly in We feel strongly about this issue. Some people prefer to maintain a distinction between feel badly and feel bad, restricting the former to emotional distress and using the latter to cover physical ailments; however, this distinction is not universally observed, so feel badly should be used in a context that makes its meaning clear. • Badly is used in some regions to mean "unwell," as in He was looking badly after the accident. Poorly is also used in this way. In an earlier survey, however, the usage was found unacceptable in formal writing by 75 percent of the Usage Panel.
>> The house was shaken up pretty bad. We need water bad.
* severely >> bad /mGC/Ch/+cp
* verily >> very /mGC >> pretty /mGC/Ch/+cp >> so /mGC/Ch/+bp
>> I studied hard.
* strenuously >> hard /mGC/Ch/+bp
>> We wanted badly to go to the beach.
* genuinely >> badly /mGC/Ch/+bp
>> I felt badly about the whole affair.
* "think carefully" >> "feel badly" /mGC/Ch/+cp
>> We feel strongly about this issue.
* "think carefully" >> "feel badly" /mGC/Ch/+cp >> "feel strongly" /mGC/Ch/+bp
>> He was looking badly after the accident.
* "be sick" >> "be looking badly" /mGC/+bp
Our Living Language Most people might think that the slang usage of bad to mean its opposite, "excellent," is a recent innovation of Black English. While it is of Black English origin, this usage has been recorded for over a century; the first known example dates from 1897. Even earlier, beginning in the 1850s, the word appears in the sense "formidable, very tough," as applied to persons. Whether or not the two usages are related, they both illustrate a favorite creative device of informal and slang language --- using a word to mean the opposite of what it "really" means. This is by no means uncommon; people use words sarcastically to mean the opposite of their actual meanings on a daily basis. What is more unusual is for such a usage to be generally accepted within a larger community. Perhaps when the concepts are as basic as "good" and "bad" this general acceptance is made easier. A similar instance is the word uptight, which in the 1960s enjoyed usage in the sense "excellent" alongside its now-current, negative meaning of "stiff."
bad ([ŋ= y=]//S + excellent/P) excellent
"Black English" ([ŋ= y=]//S + excellent/P)/Ch excellent
"1897" ([ŋ= y=]//C1 + excellent/P) excellent
"beginning in 1850s" ([ŋ= y=]//C2+ excellent/P)/Ch excellent
"formidable, very tough" ([ŋ= y=]//C2+ excellent/S) excellent
excellent ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + uptight/P)/Ch uptight
"1960s" ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + uptight/P) uptight
stiff ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + uptight/C1)/Ch uptight
"now-current" ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + uptight/C2)/Ch uptight
| smart, rarely, only, reduction, group, 'can't help but', suffer, evoke, careen, able, just, fair/fairly, good/well|
| doubt, quiz, fire, challenged, mutual, crucial, moot, firstly, right, worry, race, vogue, 'look to', revolution, need/must|