|Subject ||so-called, self-styled, various, different, practically, service, nest, alternative/alternate, otherwise/other
58. so-called, self-styled
Usage Note: Quotation marks are not used to set off descriptions that follow expressions such as so-called and self-styled, which themselves relieve the writer of responsibility for the attribution: his so-called foolproof method (not "foolproof method").
1. Commonly called: "new buildings ... in so-called modern style" (Graham Greene).
2. Incorrectly or falsely termed: My so-called friends were gossiping about me again.
As characterized by oneself, often without right or justification: "poets, real or self-styled" (Constantine Fitzgibbon).
(prenominal) claiming to be of a specified nature, quality, profession, etc. a self-styled expert
* rightly >> ("so-called" /S)/C1
rightly (s/S+ "-o-called"/C1) "so-called"
* "so-called" >> "commonly called" /mGC/Ch
* "so-called" >> "incorrectly or falsely termed" /T/Ch
* rightly >> ("that is" /P)/C1
* rightly >> ("in order words" /T)/C1
* rightly >> (sensibly /GC/S/abT)/C1
** properly >> ("self-styled" /S)/C1
properly (s/S+ "-elf-styled"/C1) "self-styled"
** "self-styled" >> "as characterized by oneself, often without right or justification" /P/Ch
** "self-styled" >> "claiming to be of specified nature, quality, profession, etc." /T/Ch
** properly >> ("in appropriate terms" /P)/C1
Re/Corrections : Article of "boxwood/parts/quantity, a quantity of, an amount of, a lot, partially/various/more-important(ly), disorderly" <<Column 21. various>>
Usage Note: The use of various as a pronoun, as in various of the committee members spoke out against the measure, is widely regarded as an error. Eighty-six percent of the Usage Panel finds this sentence unacceptable, a figure not much different from the 91 percent who rejected the various of construction in 1967. The Panel is somewhat more tolerant of the construction when it is used with inanimate objects rather than people. Seventy percent objected to its use in the phrase ownership of the lake and various of its tributaries and effluents. It is not clear why this usage should be regarded as an error, since it is analogous to the use of quantifiers such as few, many, and several.
USAGE The use of different after various, which seems to be most common in speech, is unnecessary and should be avoided in serious writing: the disease exists in various forms (not in various different forms).
various (m/C2+ ajority/P)/Ch majority
"various different" (s/GC/S/abT + imilar/S) .similar
Re/Corrections : Article of "as/so~as, like, as/that/what/since/because, on/in-behalf-of, different from/to/than, prepositions/3" <<Column 13. different from/to/than>>
Usage Note: Different from and different than are both common in British and American English. The construction different to is chiefly British. Since the 18th century, language critics have singled out different than as incorrect, though it is well attested in the works of reputable writers. According to traditional guidelines, from is used when the comparison is between two persons or things: My book is different from (not than) yours. Different than is more acceptably used, particularly in American usage, where the object of comparison is expressed by a full clause: The campus is different than it was 20 years ago. Different from may be used with a clause if the clause starts with a conjunction and so functions as a noun: The campus is different from how it was 20 years ago. •Sometimes people interpret a simple noun phrase following different than as elliptical for a clause, which allows for a subtle distinction in meaning between the two constructions. How different this seems from Paris suggests that the object of comparison is the city of Paris itself, whereas How different this seems than Paris suggests that the object of comparison is something like "the way things were in Paris" or "what happened in Paris."
* "disagree with" >> "disagree to" /mGC/Ch/+bp >> "disagree from" /mGC/Ch/+bp
* "disagree from" /mGC/+bp >> "be different to" /GC/P/abT/Ch
* "disagree to" /mGC/+bp >> "be different than" /GC/P/abT/Ch
* "different than" /GC/P/abT >> "different from" /P
USAGE: The constructions different from, different to, and different than are all found in the works of writers of English during the past. Nowadays, however, the most widely acceptable preposition to use after different is from. Different to is common in British English, but is considered by some people to be incorrect, or less acceptable. Different than is a standard construction in American English. As, however, this idiom is not regarded as totally acceptable in British usage, it is preferable either to use different from: this result is only slightly different from that obtained in the US or to rephrase the sentence: this result differs only slightly from that in the US.
USAGE On the whole, different from is preferable to different to and different than, both of which are considered unacceptable by some people. Different to is often heard in British English, but is thought by some people to be incorrect; and different than, though acceptable in American English, is often regarded as unacceptable in British English. This makes different from the safest option: this result is only slightly different from that obtained in the US - or you can rephrase the sentence: this result differs only slightly from that obtained in the US.
Usage Note: Practically has as its primary sense "in a way that is practical": We planned the room practically so we can use it as a study as well as a den. The word has an extended meaning of "for all practical purposes," as in After the accident, the car was practically undrivable. That is, the car can still be driven; it is just no longer practical to do so. Language critics sometimes object when the notion of practicality is stripped from this word in its further extension to mean "all but, nearly," as in He had practically finished his meal when I arrived. But this usage is widely used by reputable writers and must be considered acceptable.
* almost >> (practically /C2)/GC/S/abT
* unsentimentally >> (practically /C2)/GC/S/abT
* practical >> experimental /mGC
Usage Note: Aside from specialized senses in finance (service a debt) and animal breeding (service a mare), the verb service is used principally in the sense "to repair or maintain": service the washing machine. In the sense "to supply goods or services to," serve is the correct choice: One radio network serves three states.
service ([ŋ= w=]/S+ adjust/C1)/Ch adjust
service (c/S+ "-opulate with"/C1)/Ch "copulate with"
service (h/S+ "-ave intercourse with"/C1)/Ch "have intercourse with"
service (c/S+ lear/C1)/Ch clear
serve ([ŋ= w=]/S+ aid/C1) aid
serve (d=/S+ o/C1) do
serve (s/S+ uit/C1) suit
serve (d/S+ istribute/C1) distribute
serve (/S+ "provide enough"/C1) "provide enough"
serve (w/S+ ait/C1) wait
serve (p/S+ resent/C1) present
* serve >> service /mGC/Ch
Word History: Nest is an ancient word, *nizdos in Indo-European, composed of the prefix *ni- "down," plus a form of the verbal root *sed-, "to sit," followed by a suffix used to form nouns, *-os. Thus a *ni-zd-os literally means "(place where the bird) sits down." In Germanic, an old zd became st. Thus *nizdos became *nistaz, which further changed in Old English to nest. Latin also inherited the word *nizdos from Indo-European, where it eventually changed to nidus. This word has been borrowed into English as a scientific term. The prefix *ni- survives elsewhere in English, too, in the words beneath and nether.
* nestle >> nest /mGC/Ch
* nest /mGC >> nizdos /P >> "Indo-European" /P/Ch
* ni >> down /mGC/Ch
* zd >> sed /mGC/Ch
* os >> place /mGC/Ch
** sed /mGC >> sit /T/Ch
* zd >> st /mGC/Ch
* nizdos /P/Ch >> nistaz /GC/S/abT >> Germanic /GC/S/abT/Ch >> nidus /GC/P/abT >> Latin /GC/P/abT/Ch
* nidus /GC/P/abT/Ch >> ni /P
* ni /P/Ch >> beneath /mGC/Ch/+bp >> nether /mGC/Ch/+cp
Re/Corrections : Article of " 'a=o, a=Λ, Λ=o' lit, definitive, optimum, fortuitous/felicitous, dairy, absolutely, partly, passing" <<Column 9. absolutely/very>>
Usage Note: For some time, absolutely has been used informally as an intensive, as in an absolutely magnificent painting.
In an earlier survey, a majority of the Usage Panel disapproved of this usage in formal writing.
Some people dislike the use of absolutely to give strong emphasis (That is absolutely disgraceful!), and regard it as an
affectation. Also controversial is its use to express agreement. It retains some meaning in uses such as "Do you like it?"
"Yes, absolutely," but is simply an intensifier when used with answers that are factual rather than an expression of opinion:
"Have you been to Paris?" "Yes, absolutely."
* very >> absolutely /GC/P/abT
* "I am" >> absolutely /GC/P/abT
Re/Corrections : Article of "bug, contrast, vulgar, distinct(ive), crucial, contrast, practicable/practical, alternative/alternate, role, need" <<Column 22. alternative/alternate>>
Re: Article of " 'aΛ=, =aΛ, =ou, Λ=a' purpose'ful'ly, of-choice, alternate, every-cars, of-any, at-all, any-better, any-old" <<Column 7. alternate/alternative>>
Usage Note: Some traditionalists hold that alternative should be used only in situations where the number of choices involved is exactly two, because of the word's historical relation to Latin alter, "the other of two." Despite the word's longstanding use to mean "one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen" and the acceptance of this usage by many language critics, a substantial portion of the Usage Panel adheres to the traditional view, with only 49 percent accepting the sentence Of the three alternatives, the first is the least distasteful.
•Alternative is also sometimes used to refer to a variant or substitute in cases where there is no element of choice involved, as in We will do our best to secure alternative employment for employees displaced by the closing of the factory. This sentence is unacceptable to 60 percent of the Usage Panel.
•Alternative should not be confused with alternate. Correct usage requires The class will meet on alternate (not alternative) Tuesdays.
alternate or alternative?
The adjective alternative is often used instead of alternate to mean "different from, and serving, or able to serve, as a substitute for something else," as in The band decided to go with the song's alternative title. Careful writers maintain a distinction between the two words, using alternative in its traditional, well-established sense, "of which only one can be true, or only one can be used or chosen, or take place at any one time," as in Scientists are examining two alternative theories as to the origin of the universe. An easy way to distinguish the separate meanings of these words is to remember that alternate means "backup," as in Let's take an alternate route to avoid the traffic jam, and that alternative means "mutually exclusive," as in This protocol is the sole alternative treatment for this type of infection. Note that, in strict use, alternative may only be used with "two" (two alternatives) and not "three" or "several."
* alternative >> alter /mGC >> Latin /mGC/Ch
* alter /mGC/Ch >> "other of two" /P
* alternative >> (two /P)/T
alternative (t/P + wo/T) two
* alternate >> (many /P)/T
alternate (m/P + any/T) many
a. The choice between two mutually exclusive possibilities.
b. A situation presenting such a choice.
c. Either of these possibilities. See Synonyms at choice.
2. Usage Problem One of a number of things from which one must be chosen.
1. Allowing or necessitating a choice between two or more things.
a. Existing outside traditional or established institutions or systems: an alternative lifestyle.
b. Espousing or reflecting values that are different from those of the establishment or mainstream: an alternative newspaper; alternative greeting cards.
3. Usage Problem Substitute or different; other.
alternative ([ŋ= w=]/T + option/P)/Ch option
alternative (s/T + election/P)/Ch selection
alternative (pr/T + oxy/P)/Ch proxy
alternative ([ŋ= w=]/T + another/P)/Ch another
alternative (s/T + ingular/P)/Ch singular
alternative (tr/T + ivial/P)/Ch trivial
alternative (p/T + aired/P)/Ch paired
1. Happening or following in turns; succeeding each other continuously: alternate seasons of the year. See Usage Note at alternative.
2. Designating or relating to every other one of a series: alternate lines.
3. Serving or used in place of another; substitute: an alternate plan.
a. Arranged singly at each node, as leaves or buds on different sides of a stem.
b. Arranged regularly between other parts, as stamens between petals.
1. A person acting in the place of another; a substitute.
2. An alternative.
alternate ([ŋ= y=]/T + "every other"/S)/Ch "every other"
alternate ([ŋ= w=]/T + unique/S)/Ch unique
alternate ([ŋ= w=]/T + assorted/S)/Ch assorted
alternate (n/T + "-ot the same"/S)/Ch "not the same"
alternate (r/T + eplacement/S)/Ch replacement
alternate (r/T + eserve/S)/Ch reserve
Usage: The expression otherwise than means in any other way than and should not be followed by an adjective: no-one taught by this method can be other than (not otherwise than) successful; you are not allowed to use the building otherwise than as a private dwelling
no-one taught by this method can be other than (not otherwise than) successful.
>> no-one taught by this method can be not-successful.
* not >> "other than" /mGC/Ch
>> you are not allowed to use the building otherwise than as a private dwelling.
* for >> "otherwise than as" /mGC/Ch
If articulating [oui=] from (/S/MS)/P,
"for alternative"/Ch/+cp/abD (irregularly/Ch, abnormally)/GC/S/abT, (unorthodoxically/Ch, unconventionally)/GC/P/abT / "in alternative"/abThr (alternatively/Ch, substitutely)/GC/S/abT, (otherly/Ch, alternately)/GC/P/abT are pronounced.
* otherly >> other /mGC/Ch
* otherly >> otherwise /C2
* "be otherwise" >> "be other" /mGC
otherwise (sp/P + ecially/C2)/Ch specially
otherwise (n/P + "-ot same"/C1)/Ch "not same"
* otherwise >> or /mGC
* or /mGC/Ch >> "or else" /P >> "if not" /T >> then /C2
other (n/GC/S/abT + ew/C1)/Ch new
other (d/GC/S/abT + issimilar/C1)/Ch dissimilar
| Who/how made English/German/French spellings?? 'Indo-European' Aryan|
| smart, rarely, only, reduction, group, 'can't help but', suffer, evoke, careen, able, just, fair/fairly, good/well|