|Subject ||rather/quick/question/laconic/scan/boycott/outlaw/amount/fee, precipitate, bless,/regretful/formidable/automatic
rather, quick, question, laconic, scan, boycott, outlaw, amount, fee, precipitate (precipitous/precipitously), bless, regretful, formidable, automatic
Re/Corrections: Article of "similar-as, comparable-with, (in)famous, fine(ly), continual, 'let/leave, permit', 'rather: had better'"
<<Column 16. rather: had better>>
Usage Note: In expressions of preference rather is commonly preceded by would: We would rather rent the house than buy it outright. In formal style, should is sometimes used: I should rather my daughter attended a public school. Sometimes had appears in these constructions, although this use of had seems to be growing less frequent: I had rather work with William than work for him. This usage was once widely criticized as a mistake, the result of a misanalysis of the contraction in sentences such as I'd rather stay. But it is in fact a survival of the subjunctive form had that appears in constructions like had better and had best, as in We had better leave now. This use of had goes back to Middle English and is perfectly acceptable. • Before an unmodified noun only rather a is used: It was rather a disaster. When the noun is preceded by an adjective, however, both rather a and a rather are found: It was rather a boring party. It was a rather boring party. When a rather is used in this construction, rather qualifies only the adjective, whereas with rather a it qualifies either the adjective or the entire noun phrase. Thus a rather long ordeal can mean only "an ordeal that is rather long," whereas rather a long ordeal can also mean roughly "a long process that is something of an ordeal." Rather a is the only possible choice when the adjective itself does not permit modification: The horse was rather a long shot (not The horse was a rather long shot). See Usage Notes at have, should.
Usage: Both would and had are used with rather in sentences such as I would rather (or had rather) go to the film than to the play. Had rather is less common and is now widely regarded as slightly old-fashioned
If articulating [iuΛo]/adverbs from (/P/SS)/S, ~
"for reality"/+cp /abD (densely/Ch, thickly)/GC/S/abT, (solidly/Ch, substantially)/GC/P/abT / "in reality"/abThr (ratherly/Ch, preferably)/GC/S/abT, (soonerly/Ch, insteadly)/GC/P/abT, ~
* ratherly >> rather /mGC
* rather >> "would rather" /mGC/abE
* "would rather" /mGC/abE/Ch >> "should rather" /P >> "had rather" /C2
"^I^ would rather stay." >> "I'd rather stay." (liaison-hole/LH)
* "~'d rather" >> "had better" /mGC/abE >> "had best" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "Middle English" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
>> It was rather a disaster.
* "a ~" >> "rather a ~" /mGC/abE
* "an ~" >> "rather an ~" /mGC/abE
>> It was rather a boring party. It was a rather boring party.
* "a boring ~" >> "rather a boring ~" /mGC/abE
* "an empty ~" >> "rather an empty ~" /mGC/abE
* "a boring ~" >> "a rather boring ~" /mGC/abE/Ch
* "an empty ~" >> "a rather empty ~" /mGC/abE/Ch
"long shot" (r/T + isk/C2) risk
"long shot" (b/T + etting/C2) betting
"long shot" (sl/T + "-im chance"/C2) "slim chance"
"long shot" (m/T + "-inor possibility"/C2) "minor possibility"
Usage Note: The idioms had better and had best resemble an auxiliary verb in that their form never changes to show person or tense and that they cannot follow another verb in a phrase. In informal speech, people tend to omit had, especially with had better, as in You better do it. In formal contexts and in writing, however, had or its contraction must be preserved: You had better do it or You'd better do it. See Usage Note at rather.
>> You better do it.
"You ^had^ better do it." >> "You better do it." (liaison-hole/LH)
>> You'd better do it.
* better >> "~'d better" /mGC/abE
Re/Corrections: Article of " '=ua, a=u, Λ=u, =uo' search-for, soldier/sc(k)eptical, quick(ly), all-of-a-sudden, in-earnest, for-sure"
<<Column 6. quick/quickly>>
Usage Note: In speech quick is commonly used as an adverb in phrases such as Come quick. In formal writing, however, quickly is required.
* quickly >> quick /mGC
Usage: The question whether should be used rather than the question of whether or the question as to whether: this leaves open the question whether he acted correctly
* "The question whether" >> "the question of whether" /mGC/abE >> "the question as to whether" /mGC/abE/Ch
Word History: The study of the classics allows one to understand the history of the term laconic, which comes to us via Latin from Greek Lakonikos. The English word is first recorded in 1583 with the sense "of or relating to Laconia or its inhabitants." Lakonikos is derived from Lakon, "a Laconian, a person from Lacedaemon," the name for the region of Greece of which Sparta was the capital. The Spartans, noted for being warlike and disciplined, were also known for the brevity of their speech, and it is this quality that English writers still denote by the use of the adjective laconic, which is first found in this sense in 1589.
* laconic >> Lakonikos /mGC/abE >> Greek /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> Latin /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
* Lakonikos /mGC/abE/Ch >> "1583" /P >> "of or relating" /P/Ch/+bp >> "to Laconia or its inhabitants" /P/Ch/+cp >> Lakon /S
* Lakon >> Laconian /mGC/abE >> "person from Lacedaemon" /mGC/abE/Ch
* Laconian /mGC/abE/Ch >> Greece /P >> Sparta /S
* Sparta >> Spartans /mGC/abE >> "noted for being warlike and disciplined" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "known for the brevity of their speech" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
* Spartans /mGC/abE/Ch >> laconic /P >> adjective /P/Ch
* laconic >> "1589" /mGC/abE >> "first found" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "in this sense" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
Word History: In the 1969 edition of The American Heritage Dictionary a dead issue was buried by our Usage Panel, 85 percent of whom thought it was acceptable to use scan in the sense "to look over quickly," though the note stated that this was less formal usage. The usage issue was raised because scan in an earlier sense meant "to examine closely." From a historical perspective it is easy to see how these two opposite senses of scan developed. The source of our word, Latin scandere, which meant "to climb," came to mean "to scan a verse of poetry," because one could beat the rhythm by lifting and putting down one's foot. The Middle English verb scannen, derived from scandere, came into Middle English in this sense (first recorded in a text composed before 1398). In the 16th century this highly specialized sense having to do with the close analysis of verse developed other senses, such as "to criticize, examine minutely, interpret, perceive." From these senses having to do with examination and perception, it was an easy step to the sense "to look at searchingly" (first recorded in 1798), perhaps harking back still to the careful detailed work involved in analyzing prosody. The sense of looking something over to find a specific set of things was eventually broadened to include looking over the surface of something, with or without close scrutiny of the details. From this was born the modern usage of scan as a verb meaning "look over quickly."
* scan >> "In the 1969 edition of The American Heritage Dictionary" /mGC/abR/+bp >> "dead issue" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "85 percent" /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> "acceptable to use" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> "look over quickly" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "in the sense" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "less formal usage" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> note /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "usage issue" /GC/P/abR/+bp/Ch >> (meant "to examine closely.") /GC/P/abR/+cp/Ch >> "From a historical perspective" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "easy to see" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "two opposite senses of scan developed" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "how these" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "source of our word" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> Latin /GC/S/abE/+cp >> scandere /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> (which meant "to climb,") /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> "scan a verse of poetry" /mGC/abT/+cp >> "because one could beat the rhythm" /mGC/abT/+bp >> "lifting and putting down one's foot" /mGC/abT/Ch/+bp >> by /mGC/abT/Ch/+cp
* scandere >> scannen /mGC/abT/+cp >> "Middle English verb" /mGC/abT/+bp >> "Middle English" /mGC/abTCh/+bp >> "in this sense" /mGC/abTCh/+cp >> "first recorded" /mGC/abR/+bp >> "before 1398" /mGC/abR/+cp >> "16th century" /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> "this highly specialized sense" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> "close analysis of verse" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "developed other senses" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "criticize, examine minutely, interpret, perceive" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "examination and perception" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "look at searchingly" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "first recorded in 1798" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "perhaps harking back" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "still to the careful detailed work" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "analyzing prosody" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "sense of looking something over" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "to find a specific set of things" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> eventually /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "broadened to include" /GC/S/abR/+bp >> "looking over the surface" /GC/S/abR/+cp >> "of something" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "with or without close scrutiny" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "of the details" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "modern usage" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "From this" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> (verb meaning "look over quickly.") /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp
Re: Article of "articulation circle for [l/r], articulation for doubled cp/bp, Seeds? <<l/o>> Boycott"
<<Column 4. Seed or nucleus?? <<o>> D >>
~ ~; and "([iuΛ=]/P/Ch/MS)/S" is pronounced as "bans/+-/Ch (boycott/Ch, embargo)/GC/S/abT, (check/Ch, barrier)/GC/P/abT", "blocks/+bp/Ch (obstruction/Ch, hindrance)/GC/S/abT, (restraint/Ch, deterrent)/GC/P/abT", "vetoes/+cp/Ch ('knock-back'/Ch, interdict)/GC/S/abT, (taboo/Ch, outlaw)/GC/P/abT" in the chest (circle).
Word History: Charles C. Boycott seems to have become a household word because of his strong sense of duty to his employer. An Englishman and former British soldier, Boycott was the estate agent of the Earl of Erne in County Mayo, Ireland. The earl was one of the absentee landowners who as a group held most of the land in Ireland. Boycott was chosen in the fall of 1880 to be the test case for a new policy advocated by Charles Parnell, an Irish politician who wanted land reform. Any landlord who would not charge lower rents or any tenant who took over the farm of an evicted tenant would be given the complete cold shoulder by Parnell's supporters. Boycott refused to charge lower rents and ejected his tenants. At this point members of Parnell's Irish Land League stepped in, and Boycott and his family found themselves isolated --- without servants, farmhands, service in stores, or mail delivery. Boycott's name was quickly adopted as the term for this treatment, not just in English but in other languages such as French, Dutch, German, and Russian.
* boycott >> "Charles C. Boycott" /mGC/abE >> Englishman /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "former British soldier" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
* "Charles C. Boycott" /mGC/abE/Ch >> "estate agent" /P/+bp >> "Earl of Erne" /P/+cp >> "County Mayo" /P/Ch/+bp >> Ireland /P/Ch/+cp
* "Earl of Erne" >> "absentee landowner" /mGC/abR >> "Charles Parnell" /mGC/abE >> "Irish politician" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "land reform" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
* "Charles Parnell" /mGC/abE/Ch >> "fall of 1880" /P >> "election of Charles C. Boycott" /P/Ch
* "election of Charles C. Boycott" >> "landlord who would charge lower rents" /mGC/abR/+bp >> not /mGC/abR/+cp >> "tenant who took over the farm of an evicted tenant" /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> "cold shoulder by Parnell's supporters" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> "Boycott refused to charge lower rents" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "ejected his tenants" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "Parnell's Irish Land League" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "Boycott and his family found themselves isolated" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "without servants" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> farmhands /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "service in stores" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "mail delivery" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "Boycott's name" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> adopted /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "the term for this treatment" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "in the world" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp
* "in the world" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "not just in English" /P/+bp >> "but in other languages" /P/+cp >> "French, Dutch, German, and Russian" /P/Ch
"household word" (c/T + "-ommon language"/S) "common language"
Word History: The word outlaw brings to mind the cattle rustlers and gunslingers of the Wild West, but it comes to us from a much earlier time, when guns were not yet invented but cattle stealing was. Outlaw can be traced back to the Old Norse word utlagr, "outlawed, banished," made up of ut, "out," and lög, "law." An utlagi (derived from utlagr) was someone outside the protection of the law. The Scandinavians, who invaded and settled in England during the 8th through the 11th century, gave us the Old English word utlaga, which designated someone who because of criminal acts had to give up his property to the crown and could be killed without recrimination. The legal status of the outlaw became less severe over the course of the Middle Ages. However, the looser use of the word to designate criminals in general, which arose in Middle English, lives on in tales of the Wild West.
~ ~ and "([iuΛ=]/P/Ch/MS)/S" is pronounced as ~ ~, "vetoes/+cp/Ch ('knock-back'/Ch, interdict)/GC/S/abT, (taboo/Ch, outlaw)/GC/P/abT" in the chest (circle).
"Wild West" ([ŋ= W=]/T + "United States"/C2)/Ch "United States"
* "Wild West" >> "cattle rustlers" /mGC/abE >> gunslingers /mGC/abE/Ch
* outlaw >> "cattle stealing" /mGC/abR >> utlagr /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "Old Norse" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
* utlagr /mGC/abE/+bp >> outlawed /P >> banished /P/Ch >> ut /S/+bp >> out /S/+cp >> lög /S/Ch/+bp >> law /S/Ch/+cp >> utlagi /C2
* utlagi >> someone /mGC/R >> "outside the protection of the law" /mGC/abR/Ch >> utlaga /mGC/abE/+bp >> Scandinavians /mGC/abE/+cp >> "invaded and settled" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> England /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "during the 8th" /GC/P/abE >> "through the 11th century" /GC/P/abE/Ch >> "Old English word utlaga" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "which designated" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> someone /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> who /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> "because of criminal acts" /GC/S/abR/+bp >> "had to give up his property" /GC/S/abR/+cp >> "to the crown" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "could be killed without recrimination" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "legal status of the outlaw" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "became less severe" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "over the course" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "of the Middle Ages" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp
* utlaga /mGC/abE/+bp/Ch >> "looser use of the word" /P >> "to designate criminals in general" /P/Ch >> which /S >> "arose in Middle English" /S/Ch >> "lives on" /C2 >> "in tales of the Wild West" /C2/Ch
Usage: The use of a plural noun after amount of (an amount of bananas; the amount of refugees) should be avoided: a quantity of bananas; the number of refugees
Usage: Although it is common to use a plural noun after amount of, for example in the amount of people and the amount of goods, this should be avoided. Preferred alternatives would be to use quantity, as in the quantity of people, or number, as in the number of goods.
Usage: The use of a plural noun after quantity of as in a large quantity of bananas was formerly considered incorrect, but is now acceptable
* ("the-damage" /C2/+cp/MS/abE)/abThr >> "bill/Ch(환어음), figure(가격)" /GC/S/abT >> "amount/Ch(액수), total(총계)" /GC/P/abT
* many >> "a lot of" /mGC/abE >> "lots of" /GC/P/abE
"lots ^of^ ~" >> "lots ~" (liaison-hole/LH)
1. a collection of objects, items, or people a nice lot of youngsters
* crew >> "nice lot" /mGC/abE
* "lots of" /GC/P/abE/Ch >> "a large quantity of" /P
* quantity >> amount /mGC/abE
Word History: It is possible to see the idea of money taking hold of the human mind by studying a few words that express the notion of wealth or goods. The word fee now denotes money paid or received for a service rendered. Fee comes from Old English feoh, which has three meanings, all equally ancient: "cattle, livestock"; "goods, possessions, movable property"; "money." The Germanic form behind the Old English is *fehu, which derives by Grimm's Law from Indo-European *peku-, "cattle." *Fehu is therefore a cognate of Latin pecu, "cattle," also a direct descendant of Indo-European *peku-. Latin pecu has several derivatives that ultimately were borrowed into English. One was pecunia, "money," the source of our word pecuniary. Another was peculiaris, "pertaining to one's peculium or property," the source of our word peculiar. Finally, our word peculator comes from yet a third derivative, peculator, "embezzler of public money, peculator."
If articulating [iuΛ=] from (/S/SS)/P, "rate/+- (toll/Ch, duty)/GC/S/abT, (tariff/Ch, tax)/GC/P/abT", "charge/+bp (ward/Ch, pupil)/GC/S/abT, (protégé/Ch, dependant)/GC/P/abT", “price/+cp (valuation/Ch, expenditure)/GC/S/abT, ('face value'/Ch, outlay)/GC/P/abT”, ~
* ("a-price" /S/+cp/SS/abE)/abD >> "fee/Ch(요금), payment(지급)" /GC/S/abT >> "assessment/Ch(사정), expenditure(지출)" /GC/P/abT
* fee >> feoh /mGC/abR >> "Old English" /mGC/abR/Ch
* feoh /mGC/abR/Ch >> cattle /T >> livestock /T/Ch >> goods /P >> possessions /P/Ch/+bp >> "movable property" /P/Ch/+cp >> money /S >> fehu /GC/S/abT >> "Germanic form" /GC/S/abT/Ch
* fehu /GC/S/abE >> peku- /mGC/abE >> "Indo-European" /mGC/abE/Ch
* peku- /mGC/abE/Ch >> "Grimm's Law" /P >> "Jakob Ludwig Karl Grimm" /P/Ch >> cattle /S >> pecu /C2 >> Latin /C2/Ch/+bp >> cattle /C2/Ch/+cp
* pecu /C2/abT >> pecunia /mGC/abE >> money /mGC/abE/Ch
* pecunia /mGC/abE/Ch >> pecuniary /P >> peculiaris /S >> "pertaining to one's peculium or property" /S/Ch >> peculiar. /C2 >> peculator /GC/S/abT >> "embezzler of public money, peculator" /GC/S/abT/Ch
37. precipitate (precipitous/precipitously)
Re/Corrections: Article of "solid, substantial, defenc(s)e, rash, irresponsible, precipitate, prove, support, bear, shoulder, endure, keep"
<<Column 64. precipitate/verb??/noun??>>
Usage Note: The adjective precipitate and the adverb precipitately were once applied to physical steepness but are now used primarily of rash, headlong actions: Their precipitate entry into the foreign markets led to disaster. He withdrew precipitately from the race. Precipitous currently means "steep" in both literal and figurative senses: the precipitous rapids of the upper river; a precipitous drop in commodity prices. But precipitous and precipitously are also frequently used to mean "abrupt, hasty," which takes them into territory that would ordinarily belong to precipitate and precipitately: their precipitous decision to leave. This usage is a natural extension of the use of precipitous to describe a rise or fall in a quantity over time: a precipitous increase in reports of measles is also an abrupt or sudden event. Though this extended use of precipitous is well attested in the work of reputable writers, it is still widely regarded as an error.
If articulating [iuΛ=] from (/T/mES)/P/S, bind/+-, impel/+bp, obligate/+cp, and accelerize/+-/Ch, further/Ch/+bp, inflate/Ch/+cp are pronounced.
* accelerize >> accelerate /mGC
* ("be-accelerize" /T/+-/Ch/mES/abE)/abD >> "hasten/Ch(서두르다), precipitate(촉진하다)" /GC/S/abT >> "quicken/Ch(자극하다), facilitate(조성하다)" /GC/P/abT
precipitate (st/C1 + eep/S)/Ch steep
precipitate (h/C1 + asty/S)/Ch hasty
precipitately (st/C2 + eeply/S)/Ch steeply
precipitately (h/C2 + astily/S)/Ch hastily
* precipitately >> precipitous /GC/S/abR/Ch
* precipitate >> precipitously /GC/S/abE/Ch
Re/Corrections: Article of "sophisticate/school/train/educate/consecrate, bless/H? monitor, 'check (out)', program(me), info(rmation)"
<<Column 44. bless/HISTORY??>>
Word History: The verb bless comes from Old English blœdsian, bledsian, bletsian, "to bless, wish happiness, consecrate." Although the Old English verb has no cognates in any other Germanic language, it can be shown to derive from the Germanic noun *blodan, "blood." Blœdsian therefore literally means "to consecrate with blood, sprinkle with blood." The Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, the early Germanic migrants to Britain, used blœdsian for their pagan sacrifices. After they converted to Christianity, blœdsian acquired new meanings as a result of its use in translations of the Latin Bible, but it kept its pagan Germanic senses as well.
* bless >> blœdsian /mGC/abR/+bp >> "Old English" /mGC/abR/+cp >> bledsian /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> bletsian /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> blodan /mGC/abE >> "Germanic noun" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> blood /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
* blœdsian /mGC/abR/+bp/Ch >> "consecrate with blood" /GC/S/abT >> "sprinkle with blood" /GC/S/abT/Ch >> Angles /GC/P/abR/+bp >> Saxons /GC/P/abR/+cp >> Jutes /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "the early Germanic migrants to Britain" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "pagan sacrifices" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> Christianity /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "Latin Bible" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "pagan Germanic senses" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp
Usage: Regretful and regretfully are sometimes wrongly used where regrettable and regrettably are meant. A simple way of making the distinction is that when you regret something YOU have done, you are regretful: he gave a regretful smile; he smiled regretfully. In contrast, when you are sorry about an occurrence you did not yourself cause, you view the occurrence as regrettable: this is a regrettable (not regretful) mistake; regrettably (not regretfully, i.e. because of circumstances beyond my control) I shall be unable to attend.
If articulating [iuΛ=]/adjectives from (/P/pES)/S, ~~
"chopping/Ch/+bp (unpopular/Ch, unwelcome)/GC/S/abT, (rejected/Ch, unwanted)/GC/P/abT / chopped (regrettable/Ch, 'too bad')/GC/S/abT, (sad/Ch, shameful)/GC/P/abT, ~~
* regrettable >> regretful /mGC/Ch
* regretful /mGC >> regrettably /GC/P/abR
* regrettably /GC/P/abT >> regretfully /mGC/abR
Re/Corrections: Article of " 'iΛa*o/u/=' acknowledgements/sensitive/reasonability/formidable, once/everyday, commonly/ordinarily"
<<Column 7. formidable>>
Usage Note: Traditionally formidable has been pronounced with stress on the first syllable, but recently the pronunciation with stress on the second syllable, which is a common variant in British English, appears to be on the rise in American English. The traditional pronunciation is apparently still preferred by a large majority of educated speakers, however. A recent survey shows that 80 percent of the Usage Panel use the pronunciation (fôr'mi-d∂-b∂l), while 14 percent use (fôr-md'∂-b∂l). A few Panelists approved both pronunciations.
The traditional pronunciation of formidable has the stress on the first syllable, but the alternative variant pronunciation, with the stress on the second syllable, is also heard.
If articulating [iuΛ=] from /C1/SS(SPHENOIDAL sinuses), righting/+- (vertical/Ch, stiff)/GC/S/abT, (raised/Ch, straight)/GC/P/abT / righted (evident/Ch, obvious)/GC/S/abT, (clear/Ch, plain)/GC/P/abT, building/+bp (elementary/Ch, basic)/GC/S/abT, (initial/Ch, fundamental)/GC/P/abT / builded (formidable/Ch, awesome)/GC/S/abT, (mighty/Ch, terrific)/GC/P/abT, raising/+cp (emotional/Ch, moving)/GC/S/abT, (stirring/Ch, thrilling)/GC/P/abT / raised (semiautomatic/Ch, automatic)/GC/S/abT, (autoloading/Ch, 'self-loading')/GC/P/abT,
* formidable >> formi'-dable /mGC/abE/+bp >> "British English" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "on the rise" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "American English" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "recent survey" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "80 percent" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "Usage Panel" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "pronunciation (fôr'mi-d∂-b∂l)" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "14 percent" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> (fôr-md'∂-b∂l) /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "A few Panelists" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> "both pronunciations" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp
Word History: The words automatic pilot or automatic transmission bring to mind mechanical devices that operate with minimal human intervention. Yet the word automatic, which goes back to the Greek word automatos, "acting of one's own will, self-acting, of itself," made up of two parts, auto-, "self," and -matos, "willing," is first recorded in English in 1748 with reference to motions of the body, such as the peristaltic action of the intestines: "The Motions are called automatic from their Resemblance to the Motions of Automata, or Machines, whose Principle of Motion is within themselves." Although the writer had machines in mind, automatic could be used of living things, a use we still have. The association of automatic chiefly with machinery may represent one instance of many in which we have come to see the world in mechanical terms.
* automatic >> automatos /mGC/abR/+bp >> "Greek word" /mGC/abR/+cp >> "acting of one's own will" /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> "self-acting" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> "of itself" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "made up of two parts" /mGC/abE/+cp >> auto- /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> self /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> -matos /GC/P/abR/+bp >> willing /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "first recorded" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "English in 1748" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "with reference" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "to motions of the body" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "such as the peristaltic action" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "of the intestines" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> Motions /GC/S/abR/+bp >> "called automatic" /GC/S/abR/+cp >> "from their Resemblance" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "to the Motions of Automata" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "or Machines" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "whose Principle of Motion" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "within themselves" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> Although /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp
* automatos /mGC/abR/+bp/Ch >> writer /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "had machines" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "in mind" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> automatic /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "could be used" /GC/S/abR/+bp >> "of living things" /GC/S/abR/+cp >> "a use" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "we still have" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "association of automatic" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "chiefly with machinery" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> represent /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> "one instance of many" / /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> "in which" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "we have come to see" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "the world" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "in mechanical terms" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp
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