1. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS; pronounced /sarz/ sarz) is a respiratory disease in humans which is caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). There has been one near pandemic to date, between the months of November 2002 and July 2003, with 8,096 known infected cases and 774 confirmed human deaths (a case-fatality rate of 9.6%) worldwide being listed in the World Health Organization's (WHO) 21 April 2004 concluding report. Within a matter of weeks in early 2003, SARS spread from the Guangdong province of China to rapidly infect individuals in some 37 countries around the world.
"SARS [sa s=]" (pn/P + eumonia/C1)/Ch pneumonia
* "SARS [sa s=]" >> [sarz] /mGC/Ch (i.e. [sar z=] /mGC/abT/Ch)
* "SARS [sa s=]" >> "Severe acute respiratory syndrome" /mGC/abE/Ch
* "SARS [sa s=]" >> "respiratory disease in humans" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "which is caused" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "by the SARS coronavirus" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> (SARS-CoV) /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "There has been" /GC/S/abR/+bp >> "one near pandemic" /GC/S/abR/+cp >> "to date" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "between the months of November 2002" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "and July 2003" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "with 8,096 known infected cases" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "and 774 confirmed human deaths" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> "a case" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp
* (SARS-CoV) [sa s= si ŋo v= ŋi] >> "fatality rate of 9.6%" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> worldwide /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "being listed" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "in the World Health Organization's" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> (WHO) /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "21st April 2004" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "concluding report" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "Within a matter of weeks" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "in early 2003" /GC/S/abR+bp >> "SARS" /GC/S/abR+cp >> spread /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "from the Guangdong province of China" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> to /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "rapidly infect" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "individuals in some 37 countries" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> "around the world" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp
Mortality by age group as of 8 May 2003 is below 1% for people aged 24 or younger, 6% for those 25 to 44, 15% in those 45 to 64 and more than 50% for those over 65. For comparison, the case fatality rate for influenza is usually around 0.6% (primarily among the elderly) but can rise as high as 33% in locally severe epidemics of new strains. The mortality rate of the primary viral pneumonia form is about 70%.
* coronavirus >> "Mortality by age group" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "as of" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "8th May 2003" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "is below 1%" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "for people" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> aged /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "24 or younger" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "6%" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "for those 25 to 44" /GC/S/abR+bp >> "15%" /GC/S/abR+cp >> "in those 45 to 64" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "and more than 50%" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "for those over 65" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "For comparison" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "the case" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> "fatality rate" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> "for influenza" /mGC/abR/+bp >> "is usually around 0.6%" /mGC/abR/+cp >> (primarily among the elderly) /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> "but can rise as high as 33%" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> "in locally severe epidemics" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "of new strains" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "The mortality rate of the primary viral pneumonia form" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "is about 70%" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
As of today, the spread of SARS has been fully contained, with the last infected human case seen in June 2003 (disregarding a laboratory induced infection case in 2004). However, SARS is not claimed to have been eradicated (unlike smallpox), as it may still be present in its natural host reservoirs (animal populations) and may potentially return into the human population in the future.
* "SARS [ŋe s= ŋe ŋi ŋal ŋe s=]" >> "As of today" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "the spread of SARS" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "has been" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "fully contained" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "with the last infected human case" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "seen in June 2003" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> disregarding /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "a laboratory induced infection case" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> in /GC/S/abR+bp >> "2004" /GC/S/abR+cp >> However /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "SARS" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "is not claimed" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "to have been" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> eradicated /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> (unlike smallpox) /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> "as it may" /mGC/abR/+bp >> still /mGC/abR/+cp >> "be present" /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> "in its natural host reservoirs" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> animal /mGC/abE/+bp >> populations /mGC/abE/+cp >> "and may potentially return into the human population" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "in the future" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
Signs and symptoms
Initial symptoms are flu-like and may include: fever, myalgia, lethargy, gastrointestinal symptoms, cough, sore throat and other non-specific symptoms. The only symptom that is common to all patients appears to be a fever above 38 °C (100.4 °F). Shortness of breath may occur later.
* (SARS-CoV) [sa s= ko v=i] >> Signs /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "and symptoms" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "Initial symptoms" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "are flu-like" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~
Main article: SARS coronavirus
Coronaviruses are positive-strand, enveloped RNA viruses that are important pathogens of mammals and birds. This group of viruses cause enteric or respiratory tract infections in a variety of animals including humans, livestock and pets.
Initial electron microscopic examination in Hong Kong and Germany found viral particles with structures suggesting paramyxovirus in respiratory secretions of SARS patients. Subsequently, in Canada, electron microscopic examination found viral particles with structures suggestive of metapneumovirus (a subtype of paramyxovirus) in respiratory secretions. Chinese researchers also reported that a Chlamydophila-like disease may be behind SARS. The Pasteur Institute in Paris identified coronavirus in samples taken from six patients, so did the laboratory of Malik Peiris at the University of Hong Kong, which in fact was the first to announce (on 21 March 2003) the discovery of a new coronavirus as the possible cause of SARS after successfully cultivating it from tissue samples and was also amongst the first to develop a test for the presence of the virus. The CDC noted viral particles in affected tissue (finding a virus in tissue rather than secretions suggests that it is actually pathogenic rather than an incidental finding). Upon electron microscopy, these tissue viral inclusions resembled coronaviruses, and comparison of viral genetic material obtained by PCR with existing genetic libraries suggested that the virus was a previously unrecognized coronavirus. Sequencing of the virus genome — which computers at the British Columbia Cancer Agency in Vancouver completed at 4 a.m. Saturday, 12 April 2003 — was the first step toward developing a diagnostic test for the virus, and possibly a vaccine. A test was developed for antibodies to the virus, and it was found that patients did indeed develop such antibodies over the course of the disease, which is highly suggestive of a causative role.
On 16 April 2003, the WHO issued a press release stating that a coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the official cause of SARS. Scientists at Erasmus University in Rotterdam, the Netherlands demonstrated that the SARS coronavirus fulfilled Koch's postulates thereby confirming it as the causative agent. In the experiments, macaques infected with the virus developed the same symptoms as human SARS victims.
An article published in The Lancet identifies a coronavirus as the probable causative agent.
In late May 2003, studies from samples of wild animals sold as food in the local market in Guangdong, China found that the SARS coronavirus could be isolated from palm civets (Paguma sp.), but the animals did not always show clinical signs. The preliminary conclusion was that the SARS virus crossed the xenographic barrier from palm civet to humans, and more than 10,000 masked palm civets were destroyed in Guangdong Province. Virus was also later found in raccoon dogs (Nyctereuteus sp.), ferret badgers (Melogales spp.) and domestic cats. In 2005, two studies identified a number of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese bats. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses indicated a high probability that SARS coronavirus originated in bats and spread to humans either directly, or through animals held in Chinese markets. The bats did not show any visible signs of disease, but are the likely natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses.
Coronavirus (CoV) genome replication takes place in the cytoplasm in a membrane-protected microenvironment and starts with the translation of the genome to produce the viral replicase. CoV transcription involves a discontinuous RNA synthesis (template switch) during the extension of a negative copy of the subgenomic mRNAs. The requirement for base pairing during transcription has been formally demonstrated in arteriviruses and CoVs. The CoV N protein is required for coronavirus RNA synthesis and has RNA chaperon activity that may be involved in template switch. Both viral and cellular proteins are required for replication and transcription. CoVs initiate translation by cap-dependent and cap-independent mechanisms. Cell macromolecular synthesis may be controlled after CoV infection by locating some virus proteins in the host cell nucleus. Infection by different coronaviruses cause in the host alteration in the transcription and translation patterns, in the cell cycle, the cytoskeleton, apoptosis and coagulation pathways, inflammation and immune and stress responses. The balance between genes up- and down-regulated could explain the pathogenesis caused by these viruses. Coronavirus expression systems based on single genome constructed by targeted recombination, or by using infectious cDNAs, have been developed. The possibility of expressing different genes under the control of transcription regulating sequences (TRSs) with programmable strength and engineering tissue and species tropism indicates that CoV vectors are flexible. CoV based vectors have emerged with high potential vaccine development and possibly for gene therapy.
In common usage, an antibiotic (from the Ancient Greek: aντί – anti, "against", and βίος – bios, "life") is a substance or compound that kills bacteria or inhibits their growth. Antibacterial is an alternative name. Antibiotics belong to the broader group of antimicrobial compounds, used to treat infections caused by microorganisms, including fungi and protozoa.
antibiotic (f/GC/S/abT + ormula/C1)/Ch formula
* anti >> aντί /mGC/abE
* aντί /mGC/abE/Ch >> "Ancient Greek" /P
anti ([ŋ= w=]/T + unfavorable/C1)/Ch unfavorable
* "health-^unfavorable^ habits" >> "anti-health habits" (liaison-hole/LH)
* anti >> against /mGC/abE
* biography (or biology) >> bio /mGC/abR/Ch
* biographies >> bios /mGC/abR/Ch >> βίος /mGC/abR
* bios /mGC/abR >> life /P
* antibiotic >> substance /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "or compound" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "that kills bacteria" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "or inhibits" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "their growth" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> Antibacterial /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "is an alternative name" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> Antibiotics /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "belong to the broader group" /GC/S/abR/+bp >> of /GC/S/abR/+cp >> "antimicrobial compounds" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> used /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "to treat" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> infections /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "caused by microorganisms" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> "including fungi and protozoa" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp
The term "antibiotic" was coined by Selman Waksman in 1942 to describe any substance produced by a microorganism that is antagonistic to the growth of other microorganisms in high dilution. This original definition excluded naturally occurring substances that kill bacteria but are not produced by microorganisms (such as gastric juice and hydrogen peroxide) and also excluded synthetic antibacterial compounds such as the sulfonamides. Many antibiotics are relatively small molecules with a molecular weight less than 2000 atomic mass units.
* anti >> "The term" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> antibiotic /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "was coined" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "by Selman Waksman" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "in 1942" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "to describe" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "any substance" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> produced /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "by a microorganism" /GC/S/abR/+bp >> "that is" /GC/S/abR/+cp >> antagonistic /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "to the growth" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "of other microorganisms" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "in high dilution" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "This original definition" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> excluded /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> naturally /mGC/abR/+bp >> occurring /mGC/abR/+cp >> substances /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> "that kill bacteria" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> but /mGC/abE/+bp >> "are not produced" /mGC/abE/+cp >> by /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> microorganisms /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
* biotic >> "such as" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> gastric /GC/P/abR/+cp >> juice /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "and hydrogen peroxide" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> and /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "also excluded" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> synthetic /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> antibacterial /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> compounds /GC/S/abR/+bp >> "such as" /GC/S/abR/+cp >> "the sulfonamides" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> Many /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> antibiotics /GC/S/abE/+bp >> are /GC/S/abE/+cp >> relatively /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> "small molecules" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> with /mGC/abR/+bp >> a /mGC/abR/+cp >> molecular /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> weight /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> "less than" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "2000" /mGC/abE/+cp >> atomic /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "mass units" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
With advances in medicinal chemistry, most antibiotics are now semisynthetic—modified chemically from original compounds found in nature, as is the case with beta-lactams (which include the penicillins, produced by fungi in the genus Penicillium, the cephalosporins, and the carbapenems). Some antibiotics are still produced and isolated from living organisms, such as the aminoglycosides, and others have been created through purely synthetic means: the sulfonamides, the quinolones, and the oxazolidinones. In addition to this origin-based classification into natural, semisynthetic, and synthetic, antibiotics may be divided into two broad groups according to their effect on microorganisms: Those that kill bacteria are bactericidal agents, whereas those that only impair bacterial growth are known as bacteriostatic agents.
* antibiotics >> "With advances" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "in medicinal chemistry" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "most antibiotics" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "are now semisynthetic" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> modified /GC/P/abE/+bp >> chemically /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "from original compounds" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
The SAT Reasoning Test (formerly Scholastic Aptitude Test and Scholastic Assessment Test, pronounced as three separate letters) is a standardized test for college admissions in the United States. The SAT is owned, published, and developed by the College Board, a not-for-profit organization in the United States. It was formerly developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service which still administers the exam. The test is intended to assess a student's readiness for college. It was first introduced in 1901, and its name and scoring have changed several times.
* "SAT [sæt t=]" >> "Scholastic Aptitude Test" /mGC/abE >> "Scholastic Assessment Test" /mGC/abE/Ch
** "Scholastic Assessment Test" /mGC/abE >> "SAT Reasoning Test" /P
"SAT [sæt t=]" (c/GC/S/abT + "-ollege admission"/C2)/Ch "college admission"
* "SAT [sæt t=]" >> "standardized test" /GC/S/abR+bp >> "for college admissions" /GC/S/abR+cp >> "in the United States" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "The SAT" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "is owned" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> published /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "and developed" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> "by the College Board" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> "a not-for-profit organization" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "in the United States" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "It was formerly developed" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> published /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "and scored" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "by the Educational Testing Service" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "which still administers" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "the exam" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "The test" /mGC/abR/+bp >> "is intended" /mGC/abR/+cp >> "to assess" /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> "a student's readiness" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> "for college" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "It was" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "first introduced in 1901" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "and its name and scoring have changed several times" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
The current SAT Reasoning Test, introduced in 2005, takes three hours and forty-five minutes, and costs $47 ($75 International), excluding late fees. Possible scores range from 600 to 2400, combining test results from three 800-point sections (Mathematics, Critical Reading, and Writing).
* "SAT [ŋe s= ŋe ŋi ti]" >> "The current SAT [sæt]" /GC/S/abR+bp >> "Reasoning Test" /GC/S/abR+cp >> "introduced in 2005" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "takes three hours" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "and forty-five minutes" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "and costs $47" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> ($75 International) /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> "excluding late fees" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> Possible /GC/P/abR/+bp >> scores /GC/P/abR/+cp >> range /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "from 600" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> to /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "2400" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> combining /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> test /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> results /mGC/abR/+bp >> "from three 800" /mGC/abR/+cp >> point /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> sections /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> Mathematics /mGC/abE/+bp >> Critical /mGC/abE/+cp >> Reading /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "and Writing" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
The College Board states that the SAT measures literacy and writing skills that are needed for academic success in college. They state that the SAT assesses how well the test takers analyze and solve problems—skills they learned in school that they
will need in college. The SAT is typically taken by high school sophomores, juniors and seniors. Specifically, the College Board states that use of the SAT in combination with high school grade point average (GPA)
provides a better indicator of success in college than high school grades alone, as measured by college freshman GPA. Various studies conducted over the lifetime of the SAT show a statistically significant increase in correlation of high school grades and freshman grades when the SAT is factored in.
* "SAT Reasoning Test" >> Function /GC/S/abR+bp >> "The College Board" /GC/S/abR+cp >> states /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "that the SAT" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> measures /GC/S/abE/+bp >> literacy /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "and writing skills" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> "that are needed" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> for /GC/P/abR/+bp >> academic /GC/P/abR/+cp >> success /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "in college" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> They /GC/P/abE/+bp >> state /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "that the SAT" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> assesses /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "how well" /mGC/abR/+bp >> "the test takers" /mGC/abR/+cp >> analyze /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> "and solve problems" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> skills /mGC/abE/+bp >> "they learned" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "in school" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "that they" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
"Scholastic Assessment Test" >> will /GC/S/abR+bp >> need /GC/S/abR+cp >> "in college" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "The SAT" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> is /GC/S/abE/+bp >> typically /GC/S/abE/+cp >> taken /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> "by high" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> school /GC/P/abR/+bp >> sophomores /GC/P/abR/+cp >> juniors /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "and seniors" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> Specifically /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "the College Board" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> states /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> that /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> use /mGC/abR/+bp >> of /mGC/abR/+cp >> the /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> "SAT" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> "with high school grade" /mGC/abE/+bp >> point /mGC/abE/+cp >> average /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> (GPA) /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
"Scholastic Aptitude Test" >> provides /GC/S/abR+bp >> "a better indicator" /GC/S/abR+cp >> "of success" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "in college" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "than high school" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "grades alone" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "as measured" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> "by college" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> freshman /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "GPA" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "Various studies" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> conducted /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "over the lifetime" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "of the SAT" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> show /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "a statistically" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> significant /mGC/abR/+bp >> increase /mGC/abR/+cp >> in /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> correlation /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> "of high school" /mGC/abE/+bp >> grades /mGC/abE/+cp >> "and freshman grades" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "when the SAT is factored in" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
There are substantial differences in funding, curricula, grading, and difficulty among U.S. secondary schools due to American federalism, local control, and the prevalence of private, distance, and home schooled students. SAT (and ACT) scores are intended to supplement the secondary school record and help admission officers put local data—such as course work, grades, and class rank—in a national perspective.
* "college admission" >> "There are" /GC/S/abR+bp >> "substantial differences" /GC/S/abR+cp >> "in funding" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> curricula /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~
4. Medicare, Medicaid
Medicare (h/P + ealth/T)/Ch health
Medicare is a social insurance program administered by the United States government, providing health insurance coverage to people who are aged 65 and over, or who meet other special criteria. Medicare operates similar to a single-payer health care system,
but the key difference is that its coverage only extends to 80% of any given medical cost; the remaining 20% of cost must be paid by other means,
such as privately-held supplemental insurance, or paid by the patient.
* Medicare >> "social insurance program" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> administered /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "by the United States" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> government /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> providing /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "health insurance" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> coverage /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "to people" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> who /GC/S/abR/+bp >> are /GC/S/abR/+cp >> aged /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "65" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "and over" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> or /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "who meet" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> other /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> "special criteria" /mGC/abR/+bp >> Medicare /mGC/abR/+cp >> operates /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> similar /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> "to a" /mGC/abE/+bp >> single /mGC/abE/+cp >> payer /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "health care system" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
health >> but /GC/P/abR/+bp >> administered /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "the key" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> difference /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> is /GC/P/abE/+bp >> that /GC/P/abE/+cp >> its /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> coverage /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> only /GC/S/abR/+bp >> extends /GC/S/abR/+cp >> to /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "80%" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> of /GC/S/abE/+bp >> any /GC/S/abE/+cp >> given /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> medical /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> cost /mGC/abR/+bp >> "the remaining" /mGC/abR/+cp >> "20%" /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> "of cost" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> must /mGC/abE/+bp >> be /mGC/abE/+cp >> "paid by" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "other means" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
"social insurance program" >> such /GC/P/abR/+bp >> as /GC/P/abR/+cp >> privately /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> held /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> supplemental /GC/P/abE/+bp >> insurance /GC/P/abE/+cp >> or /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> paid /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> by /GC/S/abR/+bp >> "the patient" /GC/S/abR/+cp
The program also funds residency training programs for the vast majority of physicians in the United States.
"social insurance program" >> "The program" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> also /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> funds /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "residency training programs" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> for /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> the /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> vast /mGC/abR/+bp >> majority /mGC/abR/+cp >> of /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> physicians /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> in /mGC/abE/+bp >> the /mGC/abE/+cp >> United /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> States /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
The Social Security Act of 1965 was signed into law on July 30, 1965, by President Lyndon B. Johnson as amendments to Social Security legislation. At the bill-signing ceremony President Johnson enrolled former President Harry S. Truman as the first Medicare beneficiary and presented him with the first Medicare card, and his wife Bess, the second.
* "social insurance" >> "The Social Security" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> Act /GC/P/abR/+cp >> of /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "1965" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> was /GC/P/abE/+bp >> signed /GC/P/abE/+cp >> into /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> law /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> on /GC/S/abR/+bp >> July /GC/S/abR/+cp >> "30th" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "1965" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> by /GC/S/abE/+bp >> President /GC/S/abE/+cp >> Lyndon /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> B /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> Johnson /mGC/abR/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
Medicaid (h/C2 + ealth/T)/Ch health
Medicaid is the United States health program for eligible individuals and families with low incomes and resources. It is a means tested program that is jointly funded by the state and federal governments, and is managed by the states. Among the groups of people served by Medicaid are certain eligible U.S. citizens and resident aliens, including low-income adults and their children, and people with certain disabilities. Poverty alone does not necessarily qualify an individual for Medicaid. Medicaid is the largest source of funding for medical and health-related services for people with limited income in the United States. Because of the aging World War II/Korean War generation, the fastest growing aspect of Medicaid is nursing home coverage. As the Baby Boomer generation begins to reach nursing home age in 2020 to 2040, the nursing home aspect of Medicaid will boom, causing concerns for federal and state budgets.
* Medicaid >> "United States" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "health program" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> for /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> eligible /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> individuals /GC/P/abE/+bp >> and /GC/P/abE/+cp >> families /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> with /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> low /GC/S/abR/+bp >> incomes /GC/S/abR/+cp >> and /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> resources /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~
Salmonella (b/P + acteria/GC/S/abT)/Ch bacteria
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria with diameters around 0.7 to 1.5 µm, lengths from 2 to 5 µm, and flagella which project in all directions (i.e. peritrichous). They are chemoorganotrophs, obtaining their energy from oxidation and reduction reactions using organic sources, and are facultative anaerobes. Most species produce hydrogen sulfide, which can readily be detected by growing them on media containing ferrous sulfate, such as TSI. Most isolates exist in two phases: a motile phase I and a nonmotile phase II. Cultures that are nonmotile upon primary culture may be switched to the motile phase using a Cragie tube.
* Salmonella >> genus /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "of rod" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> shaped /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> Gram /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> negative /GC/P/abE/+bp >> non /GC/P/abE/+cp >> spore /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> forming /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> predominantly /GC/S/abR/+bp >> motile /GC/S/abR/+cp >> entero /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> bacteria /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> with /GC/S/abE/+bp >> diameters /GC/S/abE/+cp >> around /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> zero /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> point /mGC/abR/+bp >> seven /mGC/abR/+cp >> to /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> one /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> point /mGC/abE/+bp >> five /mGC/abE/+cp >> micro /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> meter /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
bacterium >> lengths /GC/P/abR/+bp >> from /GC/P/abR/+cp >> two /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> to /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> five /GC/P/abE/+bp >> micro /GC/P/abE/+cp >> meter /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
Salmonella is closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in cold- and warm-blooded animals (including humans), and in the environment. They cause illnesses like typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and the foodborne illness.
Salmonella is typically pronounced /ˌsælməˈnɛlə/ voicing the initial letter "L," since it is named for pathologist Daniel Elmer Salmon.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also called Alzheimer disease, senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT), primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer's type (PDDAT), or simply Alzheimer's, is the most common form of dementia. This incurable, degenerative, and terminal disease was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer
in 1906 and was named after him. Most often, it is diagnosed in people over 65 years of age, although the less-prevalent early-onset Alzheimer's can occur much earlier. In 2006, there were 26.6 million sufferers worldwide. Alzheimer's is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people globally by 2050.
Alzheimer (d/T + ementia/GC/S/abT)/Ch dementia
* Alzheimer >> "Alzheimer's disease" /mGC/abE
* "Alzheimer's disease" /mGC/abE/Ch >> AD /P >> "Alzheimer disease" /P/Ch
* dementia >> "senile dementia" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "of the Alzheimer type" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> (SDAT) /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> primary /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> degenerative /GC/P/abE/+bp >> dementia /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "of the Alzheimer's type" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "PD" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "DAT" /GC/S/abR/+bp >> "or simply Alzheimer's" /GC/S/abR/+cp >> "is the most" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "common form" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "of dementia" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> This /GC/S/abE/+cp >> incurable /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> degenerative /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> "was first" /mGC/abR/+bp >> described /mGC/abR/+cp >> "by German" /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> psychiatrist /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> and /mGC/abE/+bp >> neuropathologist /mGC/abE/+cp >> Alois /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> Alzheimer /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
Alzheimer >> "in 1906" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> and /GC/P/abR/+cp >> was /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> named /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "after him" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "Most often" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> ~ ~ ~
Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. These signs all begin before a child is three
years old. Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize; how this occurs is not well understood. It is one of three recognized disorders in the autism spectrum (ASDs), the other two being Asperger syndrome, which lacks delays in cognitive development and language, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (commonly abbreviated as PDD-NOS), which is diagnosed when the full set of criteria for autism or Asperger syndrome are not met.
autism (c/C1 + haos /T)/Ch chaos
* chaos >> disorder /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "of neural development" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> characterized /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> by /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> impaired /GC/P/abE/+bp >> social /GC/P/abE/+cp >> interaction /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> and /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> communication /GC/S/abR/+bp >> and /GC/S/abR/+cp >> by /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> restricted /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> and /GC/S/abE/+bp >> repetitive /GC/S/abE/+cp >> behavior /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> These /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> signs /mGC/abR/+bp >> all /mGC/abR/+cp >> begin /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> before /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> a /mGC/abE/+bp >> child /mGC/abE/+cp >> is /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> three /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
autism >> years /GC/P/abR/+bp >> old /GC/P/abR/+cp >> Autism /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> affects /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> information /GC/P/abE/+bp >> processing /GC/P/abE/+cp >> ~ ~ ~
8. Moon River
Moon river -------------------------------- possible
Wider than a mile ------------------------ love story
I'm crossin' you in style ----------------- between
Some day -------------------------------- us
Old dream maker ------------------------ feeling so good
You heartbreaker ------------------------ love me tender
Wherever you're goin' ------------------- love me
I'm goin' your way ----------------------- love me tender love me
Two drifters ------------------------------ sad movie
Off to see the world --------------------- oh sad movie
There's such ----------------------------- so sad movie
A lot of world to see --------------------- don't mind me
We're after ------------------------------- let me cry
The same rainbow's end ---------------- I am crying
Waitin' 'round the bend ----------------- really I am crying
My huckleberry friend ------------------- so beautiful
Moon River, and me --------------------- and so sad
Moon river -------------------------------- (possible /P/Ch)/C1
Wider than a mile ------------------------ (love story /P/Ch)/C1
I'm crossin' you in style ----------------- (between /P/Ch)/C1
Some day -------------------------------- (us /P/Ch)/C1
Old dream maker ------------------------ (feeling so good /P/Ch)/C1
You heartbreaker ------------------------ (love me tender /P/Ch)/C1
Wherever you're goin' ------------------- (love me /P/Ch)/C1
I'm goin' your way ----------------------- (love me tender love me /P/Ch)/C1
Two drifters ------------------------------ (sad movie /P/Ch)/C1
Off to see the world --------------------- (oh sad movie /P/Ch)/C1
There's such ----------------------------- (so sad movie /P/Ch)/C1
A lot of world to see --------------------- (don't mind me /P/Ch)/C1
We're after ------------------------------- (let me cry /P/Ch)/C1
The same rainbow's end ---------------- (I am crying /P/Ch)/C1
Waitin' 'round the bend ----------------- (really I am crying /P/Ch)/C1
My huckleberry friend ------------------- (so beautiful /P/Ch)/C1
Moon River, and me --------------------- (and so sad /P/Ch)/C1
Moon river (p/P + ossible/C1)/Ch possible
Wider than a mile (l/P + ove story/C1)/Ch love story
I'm crossin' you in style (b/P + etween/C1)/Ch between
Some day ([ŋ= w=]/P + us/C1)/Ch us
Old dream maker (f/P + eeling so good/C1)/Ch feeling so good
You heartbreaker (l/P + ove me tender/C1)/Ch love me tender
Wherever you're goin' (l/P + ove me/C1)/Ch love me
I'm goin' your way (l/P + ove me tender love me/C1)/Ch love me tender love me
Two drifters (s/P + ad movie/C1)/Ch sad movie
Off to see the world ([ŋ= w=]/P + oh sad movie/C1)/Ch oh sad movie
There's such (s/P + o sad movie/C1)/Ch so sad movie
A lot of world to see (d/P + on't mind me/C1)/Ch don't mind me
We're after (l/P + et me cry/C1)/Ch let me cry
The same rainbow's end ([ŋ= y=]/P + I am crying/C1)/Ch I am crying
Waitin' 'round the bend (r/P + eally I am crying/C1)/Ch really I am crying
My huckleberry friend (s/P + o beautiful/C1)/Ch so beautiful
Moon River, and me ([ŋ= w=]/P + and so sad/C1)/Ch and so sad