1. Harvest moon, Thanksgiving Day, Oktoberfest
The harvest moon is the full moon that occurs first after the autumnal equinox. The harvest moon is often mistaken for the modern day hunter's moon.
"harvest moon" (f/P + "-ull moon"/T)/Ch "full moon"
"hunter's moon" (f/T + "-ull moon"/P)/Ch "full moon"
* "harvest moon" >> "Thanksgiving Day" /mGC/abE
* "Thanksgiving Day" /mGC/abE/Ch >> "Oktoberfest" /C2 >> Thanksgiving /P
"harvest moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar August 15th"/T)/Ch "lunar calendar August 15th"
* (lunar calendar August 15th) " 음력 8월 15일" >> 추석 (경기도 개성 1)
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar January 15th"/S) "lunar calendar January 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar February 15th"/S) "lunar calendar February 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar March 15th"/S) "lunar calendar March 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar April 15th"/S) "lunar calendar April 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar May 15th"/S) "lunar calendar May 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar June 15th"/S) "lunar calendar June 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar July 15th"/S) "lunar calendar July 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar August 15th"/S) "lunar calendar August 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar September 15th"/S) "lunar calendar September 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar October 15th"/S) "lunar calendar October 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar November 15th"/S) "lunar calendar November 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar December 15th"/S) "lunar calendar December 15th"
* "first month" >> January /GC/S/abE
* "2nd month" >> February /GC/S/abE
* "3rd month" >> March /GC/S/abE
* "4th month" >> April /GC/S/abE
* "5th month" >> May /GC/S/abE
* "6th month" >> June /GC/S/abE
* "7th month" >> July /GC/S/abE
* "8th month" >> August /GC/S/abE
* "9th month" >> September /GC/S/abE
* "10th month" >> October /GC/S/abE
* "11th month" >> November /GC/S/abE
* "12th month" >> December /GC/S/abE
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar first month's 15th"/S) "lunar calendar first month's 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar 2nd month's 15th"/S) "lunar calendar 2nd month's 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar 3rd month's 15th"/S) "lunar calendar 3rd month's 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar 4th month's 15th"/S) "lunar calendar 4th month's 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar 5th month's 15th"/S) "lunar calendar 5th month's 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar 6th month's 15th"/S) "lunar calendar 6th month's 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar 7th month's 15th"/S) "lunar calendar 7th month's 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar 8th month's 15th"/S) "lunar calendar 8th month's 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar 9th month's 15th"/S) "lunar calendar 9th month's 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar 10th month's 15th"/S) "lunar calendar 10th month's 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar 11th month's 15th"/S) "lunar calendar 11th month's 15th"
"full moon" (l/P + "-unar calendar 12th month's 15th"/S) "lunar calendar 12th month's 15th"
A) Harvest moon
The harvest moon is the full moon that occurs first after the autumnal equinox. The harvest moon is often mistaken for the modern day hunter's moon.
* "Harvest moon" >> "full moon" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "that occurs" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> first /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> after /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> the /GC/P/abE/+bp >> autumnal /GC/P/abE/+cp >> equinox /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> The /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> harvest /GC/S/abR/+bp >> moon /GC/S/abR/+cp >> is /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> often /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> mistaken /GC/P/abR/+bp >> for /GC/P/abR/+cp >> the /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> modern /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> day /mGC/abE/+bp >> hunter /mGC/abE/+cp >> ('s) /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> moon /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
All full moons rise around the time of sunset. In general the moon rises about 50 minutes later each day. As it moves in orbit around Earth, the Harvest Moon and Hunter's Moon are special because, around the time of these half moons, the time difference between moonrise on successive evenings is shorter than usual. This means that the moon rises approximately 30 minutes later from one night to the next, as seen from about 40 degrees N. or S. latitude. Thus, there is no long period of darkness between sunset and moonrise around the time following these full moons. In times past this feature of these autumn moons was said to help farmers working to bring in their crops (or, in the case of the Hunter's Moon, hunters tracking their prey). They could continue being productive by moonlight even after the sun had set. Hence the name Harvest Moon.
* "Harvest moon" >> Appearance /mGC/abR/+bp >> "All full moons" /mGC/abR/+cp >> "rise around" /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> "the time of sunset" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp
* "full moon" >> "In general" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "the moon" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> rises /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> about /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> "50 minutes" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> later /GC/P/abE/+cp >> each /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> day /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~
The Harvest Moon is also known as the Wine Moon, the Singing Moon and the Elk Call Moon.
"Wine Moon" (H/P + "-arvest Moon"/T) "Harvest Moon"
"Singing Moon" (H/S + "-arvest Moon"/P) "Harvest Moon"
"Elk Call Moon" (H/GC/S/abT + "-arvest Moon"/C2) "Harvest Moon"
B) Thanksgiving Day
Thanksgiving Day is a harvest festival celebrated primarily in the United States and Canada. Traditionally, it has been a time to give thanks for a bountiful harvest. While there was an underlying religious element in the original celebration, Thanksgiving today is primarily identified as a secular holiday.
* "Thanksgiving Day" >> "harvest festival" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> celebrated /GC/S/abE/+cp >> primarily /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> "in the United States" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> "and Canada" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> Traditionally /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "it has been a time" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "to give thanks" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "for a bountiful harvest" /GC/S/abR/+bp >> While /GC/S/abR/+cp >> "there was" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "an underlying religious element" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> in /GC/P/abR/+bp >> the /GC/P/abR/+cp >> original /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> celebration /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> Thanksgiving /mGC/abE/+bp >> today /mGC/abE/+cp >> is /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> primarily /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> identified /mGC/abR/+bp >> as /mGC/abR/+cp >> a /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> "secular holiday" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp
Currently, in Canada, Thanksgiving is celebrated on the second Monday of October and in the United States, it is celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November. Thanksgiving in Canada
falls on the same day as Columbus Day in the United States.
* Thanksgiving >> Currently /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "in Canada" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> Thanksgiving /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> is /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> celebrated /GC/P/abE/+bp >> on /GC/P/abE/+cp >> the /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "second Monday" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "of October" /GC/S/abR/+bp >> and /GC/S/abR/+cp >> in /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> the /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "United States" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> it /GC/P/abR/+cp >> is /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> celebrated /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> on /mGC/abE/+bp >> the /mGC/abE/+cp >> "fourth Thursday" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> of /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> November /mGC/abR/+bp >> Thanksgiving /mGC/abR/+cp >> in /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> Canada /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp
* "[θ-] Thanksgiving Day" >> falls /GC/S/abE/+bp >> on /GC/S/abE/+cp >> the /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> same /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> day /GC/P/abE/+bp >> as /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "Columbus Day" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> in /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> the /GC/S/abR/+bp >> "United States" /GC/S/abR/+cp
"second Monday of October" (T/GC/S/abT + "-hanksgiving Day"/P)/Ch "Thanksgiving Day"
Canada (s/GC/S/abT + "-econd Monday of October"/C2) "second Monday of October"
"fourth Thursday of November" (T/P + "-hanksgiving Day"/T)/Ch "Thanksgiving Day"
"USA" (f/GC/S/abT + "ourth Thursday of November"/C2) "fourth Thursday of November"
"Columbus Day" (s/P + "-econd Monday of October"/C2) "second Monday of October"
Thanksgiving in North America had originated from a mix of European and Native traditions.
Typically in Europe, festivals were held before and after the harvest cycles to give thanks to God for a good harvest, to rejoice together after much hard work with the rest of the community. At the time, Native Americans had also celebrated the end of a harvest season. When Europeans first arrived to the Americas, they brought with them their own harvest festival traditions from Europe, celebrating their safe voyage, peace and good harvest. Though the origins of the holiday in both Canada and the United States are similar, Americans do not typically celebrate the contributions made in Newfoundland, while Canadians do not celebrate the contributions made in the Plymouth, Massachusetts.
* "[θ-] Thanksgiving Day" >> History /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> Thanksgiving /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> in /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "North America" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> had /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> originated /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> from /mGC/abE/+bp >> a /mGC/abE/+cp >> mix /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> of /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> European /mGC/abR/+bp >> and /mGC/abR/+cp >> Native /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> traditions /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp
* [θ-] Thanksgiving >> Typically /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "in Europe" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> festivals /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> were /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> held /GC/P/abE/+bp >> before /GC/P/abE/+cp >> ~ ~ ~
* "Thanksgiving Day" /mGC/abE/Ch >> "Oktoberfest" /C2 >> Thanksgiving /P
** "Oktoberfest" /C2/Ch >> "Munich Oktoberfest" /mGC/abE
Oktoberfest is a 16-18 day festival held each year in Munich, Bavaria, Germany, running from late September to the first weekend in October. It is
one of the most famous events in Germany and the world's largest fair, with more than 5 million people attending every year. The Oktoberfest is an important part of Bavarian culture. Other cities across the world also hold Oktoberfest celebrations, modeled after the Munich event.
* Oktoberfest >> "16" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> to /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "18" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> day /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> festival /GC/P/abE/+bp >> held /GC/P/abE/+cp >> each /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> year /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> in /GC/S/abR/+bp >> Munich /GC/S/abR/+cp >> Bavaria /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> Germany /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> running /GC/P/abR/+bp >> from /GC/P/abR/+cp >> late /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> September /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> to /mGC/abE/+bp >> the /mGC/abE/+cp >> first /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> weekend /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> in /mGC/abR/+bp >> October /mGC/abR/+cp >> It /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> is /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp
* fest >> one /GC/S/abE/+bp >> of /GC/S/abE/+cp >> the /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> most /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> famous /GC/P/abE/+bp >> events /GC/P/abE/+cp >> in /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> Germany /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> and /GC/S/abR/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
"late September" ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + Oktoberfest/P)/Ch Oktoberfest
"first weekend in October" ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + Oktoberfest/S) Oktoberfest
The Munich Oktoberfest, traditionally, takes place during the sixteen days up to and including the first Sunday in October. In 1994, the schedule was modified in response to German reunification so that if the first Sunday in October falls on the 1st or 2nd, then the festival will go on until October 3 (German Unity Day). Thus, the festival is now 17 days when the first Sunday is October 2 and 18 days when it is October 1. In 2010, the festival lasts until the first Monday in October, to mark the 200-year anniversary of the event. The festival is held in an area named the Theresienwiese (field, or meadow, of Therese), often called Wiesn for short, located near Munich's centre.
Visitors eat large amounts of traditional fare such as Hendl (chicken), Schweinsbraten (roast pork), Schweinshaxe (grilled ham hock), Steckerlfisch (grilled fish on a stick), Würstl (sausages) along with Brezn (Pretzel), Knödel (potato or bread dumplings), Kasspatzn (cheese noodles), Reiberdatschi (potato pancakes), Sauerkraut or Blaukraut (red cabbage) along with such Bavarian delicacies as Obatzda (a spiced cheese-butter spread) and Weisswurst (a white sausage).
bacterium (d/S + isease/C2)/Ch disease
* bacterium >> bacteria /mGC/abE
bacteriology (M/C2 + icrobiology/P)/Ch Microbiology
Microbiology (b/S + acterium/C2)/Ch bacterium
Bacteria (/bækti∂ri∂; singular: bacterium)[α] are a large group of single-celled, prokaryote microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria are ubiquitous
in every habitat on Earth, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, water, and deep in the Earth's crust, as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals. There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water; in all, there are approximately five nonillion (5×1030) bacteria on Earth, forming much of the world's biomass. Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients, with many steps in nutrient cycles depending on these organisms, such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere and putrefaction. However, most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the phyla of bacteria have species that can be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.
* bacteria >> "large group of single-celled" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> prokaryote /GC/P/abR/+cp >> microorganisms /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> Typically /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "a few" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> micrometres /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "in length" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> bacteria /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> have /GC/S/abR/+bp >> a /GC/S/abR/+cp >> wide /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> range /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> of /GC/S/abE/+bp >> shapes /GC/S/abE/+cp >> ranging /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> from /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> spheres /mGC/abR/+bp >> to /mGC/abR/+cp >> rods /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> and /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> spirals /mGC/abE/+bp >> Bacteria /mGC/abE/+cp >> are /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> ubiquitous /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
bacterium >> in /GC/P/abR/+bp >> every /GC/P/abR/+cp >> habitat /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> on /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> Earth /GC/P/abE/+bp >> growing /GC/P/abE/+cp >> in /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> soil /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~
virus (b/T + acteria/GC/S/abT)/Ch bacteria
A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms. Most viruses are too small to be seen directly with a light microscope.
Viruses infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea. Since the initial discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 viruses have been described in detail, although there are millions of different types. Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and are the most abundant type of biological entity. The study of viruses is known as virology, a sub-speciality of microbiology.
* virus >> "small infectious agent" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> that /GC/P/abR/+cp >> can /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> replicate /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> only /GC/P/abE/+bp >> inside /GC/P/abE/+cp >> the /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> living /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> cells /GC/S/abR/+bp >> of /GC/S/abR/+cp >> organisms /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> Most /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> viruses /GC/S/abE/+bp >> are /GC/S/abE/+cp >> too /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> small /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> to /mGC/abR/+bp >> be /mGC/abR/+cp >> seen /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> directly /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> with /mGC/abE/+bp >> a /mGC/abE/+cp >> light /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> micro /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
viruses >> scope /GC/P/abR/+bp >> Viruses /GC/P/abR/+cp >> infect /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> all /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> types /GC/P/abE/+bp >> of /GC/P/abE/+cp >> organisms /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
Norovirus (v/T + irus/P)/Ch virus
* Norovirus >> "Norwalk agent" /mGC/abE
Norovirus (formerly Norwalk agent) is an RNA virus (taxonomic family Caliciviridae) that causes approximately 90% of epidemic non-bacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world, and
may be responsible for 50% of all foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the US. Norovirus affects people of all ages. The viruses are transmitted by faecally contaminated food or water, by person-to-person contact, and via aerosolization of the virus and subsequent contamination of surfaces.
* Norovirus >> R /GC/P/abR/+bp >> N /GC/P/abR/+cp >> A /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> virus /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> taxonomic /GC/P/abE/+bp >> family /GC/P/abE/+cp >> Caliciviridae /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> that /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> causes /GC/S/abR/+bp >> approximately /GC/S/abR/+cp >> "90" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> % /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> of /GC/S/abE/+bp >> epidemic /GC/S/abE/+cp >> non /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> bacterial /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> outbreaks /mGC/abR/+bp >> of /mGC/abR/+cp >> gastro /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> enteritis /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> around /mGC/abE/+bp >> the /mGC/abE/+cp >> world /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> and /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
"Norwalk agent" >> may /GC/P/abR/+bp >> be /GC/P/abR/+cp >> responsible /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> for /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "50" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> % /GC/P/abE/+cp >> of /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> all /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> food /GC/S/abR/+bp >> borne /GC/S/abR/+cp >> outbreaks /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
Vaccine (v/P + irus/C1)/Ch virus
A Closer Look In the 1950s, polio epidemics left thousands of children with permanent physical disabilities. Today, infants are given a vaccine to prevent infection with the polio virus. That vaccine, like most others, works by stimulating the body's immune system to produce antibodies that destroy pathogens. Scientists usually prepare vaccines by taking a sample of the pathogen and destroying or weakening it with heat or chemicals. The inactivated or attenuated pathogen loses its ability to cause serious illness but is still able to stimulate antibody production, thereby conferring immunity. The Salk polio vaccine contains "killed" virus, while the Sabin polio vaccine contains weakened "live" poliovirus. (Many scientists no longer consider viruses to be living organisms) Scientists are also able to change the structure of viruses and bacteria at the molecular level, altering DNA so that the potential of the vaccine to cause disease is decreased. New vaccines containing harmless bits of DNA have also been developed.
* poliomyelitis >> polio /mGC/abE
poliomyelitis ([ŋ= y=]/T + "infantile paralysis"/GC/S/abT)/Ch "infantile paralysis"
"In the 1950s" (v/S + accine/C2)/Ch vaccine
"polio epidemics" (v/S + accine/GC/S/abT)/Ch vaccine
"left thousands of children" (v/C1 + accine/T)/Ch vaccine
"with permanent physical disabilities" (v/C1 + accine/P)/Ch vaccine
Today (v/C1 + accine/S)/Ch vaccine
"infants are given" (v/C1 + accine /GC/S/abT)/Ch vaccine
"a vaccine to prevent" (v/GC/S/abT + accine/T)/Ch vaccine
"infection with the polio virus" (v/GC/S/abT + accine/P)/Ch vaccine
"That vaccine" (v/GC/S/abT + accine/S)/Ch vaccine
"like most others" (v/GC/S/abT + accine/C2)/Ch vaccine
"works by stimulating the body's immune system" (v/C2 + accine/T)/Ch vaccine
"to produce antibodies" (v/C2 + accine/T)/Ch vaccine
"that destroy pathogens" (v/C2 + accine/P)/Ch vaccine
Scientists (v/C2 + accine/S)/Ch vaccine
"usually prepare vaccines" (v/C2 + accine/GC/S/abT)/Ch vaccine
'"by taking a sample of the pathogen" (v/T + accine/P)/Ch vaccine
'"and destroying" (v/T + accine/S)/Ch vaccine
'"or weakening it" (v/T + accine/C1)/Ch vaccine
'"with heat or chemicals" (v/T + accine/C2)/Ch vaccine
'"The inactivated" (v/T + accine/GC/S/abT)/Ch vaccine
'"or attenuated pathogen" (v/P + accine/T)/Ch vaccine
'"loses its ability" (v/P + accine/S)/Ch vaccine
'"to cause serious illness" (v/P + accine/C1)/Ch vaccine
'"but is still able to stimulate antibody production" (v/P + accine/C2)/Ch vaccine
'"thereby conferring immunity" (v/P + accine /GC/S/abT)/Ch vaccine
"The Salk polio vaccine" (v/S + accine/T)/Ch vaccine
"contains "killed" virus" (v/S + accine/P)/Ch vaccine
"while the Sabin polio vaccine" (v/S + accine/C1)/Ch vaccine
"contains weakened "live" poliovirus" (v/GC/S/abT + accine/C1)/Ch vaccine
* vaccine >> ("Many scientists" /T/Ch)/C2
* vaccine >> ("no longer consider viruses to be living organisms" /P/Ch)/C2
* vaccine >> ("Scientists are also able to change" /S/Ch)/C2
* vaccine >> ("the structure of viruses" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/C2
* vaccine >> ("and bacteria at the molecular level" /T/Ch)/C1
* vaccine >> ("altering DNA so that the potential of the vaccine to cause disease is decreased" /P/Ch)/C1
* vaccine >> ("New vaccines containing harmless bits of DNA" /S/Ch)/C1
* vaccine >> ("have also been developed" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/C1
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is
often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters.
* vaccine >> biological /GC/P/abR/+bp >> preparation /GC/P/abR/+cp >> that /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> improves /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> immunity /GC/P/abE/+bp >> to /GC/P/abE/+cp >> a /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> particular /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> disease /GC/S/abR/+bp >> A /GC/S/abR/+cp >> vaccine /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> typically /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> contains /GC/S/abE/+bp >> an /GC/S/abE/+cp >> agent /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> that /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> resembles /mGC/abR/+bp >> a /mGC/abR/+cp >> disease /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> causing /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> micro /mGC/abE/+bp >> organism /mGC/abE/+cp >> and /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> is /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
"biological preparation" >> often /GC/P/abR/+bp >> made /GC/P/abR/+cp >> from /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> weakened /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> or /GC/P/abE/+bp >> killed /GC/P/abE/+cp >> forms /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
cancer (p/T + est/C1)/Ch pest
* cancer >> "malignant neoplasm" /mGC/abE >> "medical term" /mGC/abE/Ch
A Closer Look The human immune system often fights off stray cancer cells just as it does bacteria and viruses. However, when cancer cells establish themselves in the body with their own blood supply and begin replicating out of control, cancer becomes a threatening neoplasm, or tumor. It takes a minimum of one billion cancer cells for a neoplasm to be detectable by conventional radiology and physical examinations. Cancer, which represents more than 100 separate diseases, destroys tissues and organs through invasive growth in a particular part of the body and by metastasizing to distant tissues and organs through the bloodstream or lymph system. Heredity, lifestyle habits (such as smoking), and a person's exposure to certain viruses, toxic chemicals, and excessive radiation can trigger genetic changes that affect cell growth. The altered genes, or oncogenes, direct cells to multiply abnormally, thereby taking on the aggressive and destructive characteristics of cancer. Treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation are effective with many cancers, but they also end up killing healthy cells. Gene therapy attempts to correct the faulty DNA that causes the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells. Researchers are investigating other treatments, such as immunotherapy (the stimulation of the body's natural defenses), vectorization (aiming chemicals specifically at cancer cells), and nanotechnology (targeting cancer cells with minute objects the size of atoms).
"The human immune system" (p/C2 + est/P)/Ch pest
often (p/C2 + est/S)/Ch pest
"fights off" (p/C2 + est/GC/S/abT)/Ch pest
"stray cancer cells" (p/GC/S/abT + est/T)/Ch pest
"just as it does bacteria and viruses" (p/GC/S/abT + est/P)/Ch pest
However (p/GC/S/abT + est/S)/Ch pest
"when cancer cells" (p/GC/S/abT + est/C1)/Ch pest
"establish themselves" (p/GC/S/abT + est/C2)/Ch pest
"in the body" (p/T + est/P)/Ch pest
"with their own blood supply" (p/T + est/S)/Ch pest
"and begin replicating" (p/T + est/C1)/Ch pest
"out of control" (p/T + est/C2)/Ch pest
"cancer becomes a threatening neoplasm" (p/T + est/GC/S/abT)/Ch pest
"or tumor" (p/P + est/T)/Ch pest
"It takes" (p/P + est/S)/Ch pest
"a minimum of one billion cancer cells" (p/P + est/C1)/Ch pest
"for a neoplasm" (p/P + est/C2)/Ch pest
"to be detectable" (p/P + est/GC/S/abT)/Ch pest
"by conventional radiology" (p/S + est/T)/Ch pest
"and physical examinations" (p/S + est/P)/Ch pest
Cancer (p/S + est/C1)/Ch pest
"which represents more than 100 separate diseases" (p/S + est/C2)/Ch pest
"through invasive growth" (p/S + est/GC/S/abT)/Ch pest
"in a particular part of the body" (p/C1 + est/T)/Ch pest
"and by metastasizing to distant tissues" (p/C1 + est/P)/Ch pest
"and organs" (p/C1 + est/S)/Ch pest
"through the bloodstream" (p/C1 + est /GC/S/abT)/Ch pest
"or lymph system" (p/C2 + est/T)/Ch pest
* pest >> (Heredity /T/Ch)/C2
* pest >> ("lifestyle habits" /P/Ch)/C2
* pest >> ("such as smoking" /S/Ch)/C2
* pest >> ("and a person's exposure" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/C2
* pest >> ("to certain viruses" /T/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* pest >> ("toxic chemicals" /P/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* pest >> ("and excessive radiation " /S/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* pest >> ("can trigger" /C1/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* pest >> ("genetic changes" /C2/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* pest >> ("that affect cell growth" /P/Ch)/T
* pest >> ("The altered genes" /S/Ch)/T
* pest >> ("or oncogenes" /C1/Ch)/T
* pest >> ("direct cells" /C2/Ch)/T
* pest >> ("to multiply abnormally" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/T
* pest >> ("thereby taking" /T/Ch)/P
* pest >> ("on the aggressive" /S/Ch)/P
* pest >> ("and destructive" /C1/Ch)/P
* pest >> ("characteristics of cancer" /C2/Ch)/P
* pest >> (Treatments /GC/S/abT/Ch)/P
* pest >> ("such as surgery" /T/Ch)/S
* pest >> (chemotherapy /P/Ch)/S
* pest >> ("and radiation" /C1/Ch)/S
* pest >> ("are effective" /C2/Ch)/S
* pest >> ("with many cancers" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/S
* pest >> ("but they also" /T/Ch)/C1
* pest >> ("end up killing" /P/Ch)/C1
* pest >> ("healthy cells" /S/Ch)/C1
* pest >> ("Gene therapy" /T)/C2
* pest >> (attempts /P)/C2
* pest >> ("to correct" /S)/C2
* pest >> ("the faulty DNA" /GC/S/abT)/C2
* pest >> ("that causes" /T)/GC/S/abT
* pest >> ("the uncontrolled" /P)/GC/S/abT
* pest >> ("growth of cancer cells" /S)/GC/S/abT
* pest >> (Researchers /C1)/GC/S/abT
* pest >> ("are investigating" /C2)/GC/S/abT
* pest >> ("other treatments" /P)/T
* pest >> ("such as" /S)/T
* pest >> (immunotherapy /C1)/T
* pest >> ("the stimulation" /C2)/T
* pest >> ("of the" /GC/S/abT)/T
* pest >> (body's /T)/P
* pest >> ("natural defenses" /S)/P
* pest >> (vectorization /C1)/P
* pest >> (aiming /C2)/P
* pest >> (chemicals /GC/S/abT)/P
* pest >> ("specifically at cancer cells" /T)/S
* pest >> ("and nanotechnology" /P)/S
* pest >> ("targeting cancer cells" /C1)/S
* pest >> ("with minute objects" /C2)/S
* pest >> ("the size of atoms" /GC/S/abT)/S
Cancer /kænsər/ (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of disease in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth through division beyond normal limits, invasion that intrudes upon and destroys adjacent tissues, and sometimes
metastasis, in which cancer cells spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood. These three malignant properties of cancers differentiate them from benign tumors, which are self-limited, and do not invade or metastasize.
* cancer >> "a class of disease" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "in which" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> a /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> group /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> of /GC/P/abE/+bp >> cells /GC/P/abE/+cp >> display /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> uncontrolled /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> growth /GC/S/abR/+bp >> through /GC/S/abR/+cp >> division /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> beyond /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> normal /GC/S/abE/+bp >> limits /GC/S/abE/+cp >> invasion /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> that /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> intrudes /mGC/abR/+bp >> upon /mGC/abR/+cp >> and /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> destroys /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> adjacent /mGC/abE/+bp >> tissues /mGC/abE/+cp >> and /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> sometimes /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
"malignant neoplasm" >> metastasis /GC/P/abR/+bp >> in /GC/P/abR/+cp >> which /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> cancer /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> cells /GC/P/abE/+bp >> spread /GC/P/abE/+cp >> ~ ~ ~
genome (h/S + eredity/GC/S/abT)/Ch heredity
In modern molecular biology and genetics, the genome is the entirety of an organism's hereditary information. It is encoded either in DNA or, for many types of
virus, in RNA. The genome includes both the genes and the non-coding sequences of the DNA.
* genome >> "In modern molecular biology" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "and genetics" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "the genome" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> is /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> the /GC/P/abE/+bp >> entirety /GC/P/abE/+cp >> of /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> an /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "organism's" /GC/S/abR/+bp >> hereditary /GC/S/abR/+cp >> information /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> It /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> is /GC/S/abE/+bp >> encoded /GC/S/abE/+cp >> either /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> in /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> D /mGC/abR/+bp >> N /mGC/abR/+cp >> A /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> or /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> for /mGC/abE/+bp >> many /mGC/abE/+cp >> types /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> of /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
heredity >> virus /GC/P/abR/+bp >> in /GC/P/abR/+cp >> R /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> N /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> A /GC/P/abE/+bp >> The /GC/P/abE/+cp >> genome /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> includes /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> both /GC/S/abR/+bp >> the /GC/S/abR/+cp >> genes /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> and /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> the /GC/S/abE/+bp >> non /GC/S/abE/+cp >> coding /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> sequences /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> of /mGC/abR/+bp >> the /mGC/abR/+cp >> D /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> N /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> A /mGC/abE/+bp
Origin of Term
The term was adapted in 1920 by Hans Winkler, Professor of Botany at the University of Hamburg, Germany. In Greek, the word genome (γίνομαι) means
I become, I am born, to come into being. The Oxford English Dictionary suggests the name to be a blend of the words gene and chromosome. A few related -ome words already existed, such as biome and rhizome, forming a vocabulary into which genome fits systematically.
heredity >> Origin /mGC/abE/+cp >> of /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> Term /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
* "Origin of Term" >> The /GC/P/abR/+bp >> term /GC/P/abR/+cp >> was /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> adapted /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> in /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "1920" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> by /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> Hans /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> Winkler /GC/S/abR/+bp >> Professor /GC/S/abR/+cp >> of /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> Botany /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> at /GC/S/abE/+bp >> the /GC/S/abE/+cp >> University /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> of /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> Hamburg /mGC/abR/+bp >> Germany /mGC/abR/+cp >> In /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> Greek /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> the /mGC/abE/+bp >> word /mGC/abE/+cp >> genome /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> means /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
Winkler >> I /GC/P/abR/+bp >> become /GC/P/abR/+cp >> I /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> am /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> born /GC/P/abE/+bp >> to /GC/P/abE/+cp >> come /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> into /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> being /GC/S/abR/+bp >> The /GC/S/abR/+cp >> Oxford /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> English /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> Dictionary /GC/S/abE/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
rotavirus (v/GC/S/abT + irus/P)/Ch virus
* rotavirus >> reovirus /mGC/abE
** reovirus /mGC/abE/Ch >> Reoviridae /P
Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children, and is one of several viruses that cause infections often called stomach flu, despite having
no relation to influenza. It is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the family Reoviridae. By the age of five, nearly every child in the world has been infected with rotavirus at least once. However, with each infection, immunity develops, and subsequent infections are less severe; adults are rarely affected. There are five species of this virus, referred to as A, B, C, D, and E. Rotavirus A, the most common, causes more than 90% of infections in humans.
* rotavirus >> "most common cause" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> of /GC/P/abR/+cp >> severe /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> diarrhoea /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> among /GC/P/abE/+bp >> infants /GC/P/abE/+cp >> and /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> young /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> children /GC/S/abR/+bp >> and /GC/S/abR/+cp >> is /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> one /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> of /GC/S/abE/+bp >> several /GC/S/abE/+cp >> viruses /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> that /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> cause /mGC/abR/+bp >> infections /mGC/abR/+cp >> often /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> called /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> stomach /mGC/abE/+bp >> flu /mGC/abE/+cp >> despite /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> having /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
diarrhoea >> no /GC/P/abR/+bp >> relation /GC/P/abR/+cp >> to /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> influenza /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> It /GC/P/abE/+bp >> is /GC/P/abE/+cp >> a /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> genus /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> of /GC/S/abR/+bp >> double /GC/S/abR/+cp >> stranded /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> R /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> N /GC/S/abE/+bp >> A /GC/S/abE/+cp >> virus /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
| Influenza viruses, bubonic plague, Lou Gehrig’s disease, visa, Dracula, DNA/RNA, stem cell, iPS cell|
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