1. Influenza viruses
"Influenza viruses" (v/S + irus/C2)/Ch virus
The Orthomyxoviridae (orthos, Greek for "straight"; myxa, Greek for "mucus") are a family of RNA viruses that includes five genera: Influenzavirus A, Influenzavirus B, Influenzavirus C, Isavirus and Thogotovirus. A sixth has recently been described. The first three genera contain
viruses that cause influenza in vertebrates, including birds (see also avian influenza), humans, and other mammals. Isaviruses infect salmon; thogotoviruses infect vertebrates and invertebrates, such as mosquitoes and sea lice.
* "Influenza viruses" >> Orthomyxoviridae /mGC/abE
** Orthomyxoviridae /mGC/abE/Ch >> orthos /P >> Greek /P/Ch/+cp >> straight /P/Ch/+cp >> myxa /T >> Greek /T/Ch/+cp >> mucus /P/Ch/+cp
* Orthomyxoviridae >> "a family of RNA viruses" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "that includes" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> five /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> genera /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> Influenzavirus /GC/P/abE/+bp >> A /GC/P/abE/+cp >> Influenzavirus /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> B /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> Influenzavirus /GC/S/abR/+bp >> C /GC/S/abR/+cp >> Isavirus /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> and /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> Thogotovirus /GC/S/abE/+bp >> A /GC/S/abE/+cp >> sixth /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> has /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> recently /mGC/abR/+bp >> been /mGC/abR/+cp >> described /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> The /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> first /mGC/abE/+bp >> three /mGC/abE/+cp >> genera /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> contain /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
orthos >> viruses /GC/P/abR/+bp >> that /GC/P/abR/+cp >> cause /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> influenza /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> in /GC/P/abE/+bp >> vertebrates /GC/P/abE/+cp >> including /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> birds /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> see /GC/S/abR/+bp >> also /GC/S/abR/+cp >> avian /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> influenza /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> humans /GC/S/abE/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
2. bubonic plague
"bubonic plague" (p/GC/S/abT + lague/C2)/Ch plague
plague (p/P + us/T)/Ch pus
* pest >> pestilence /mGC/abE
pest (p/GC/S/abT + us/S)/Ch pus
epidemic (p/GC/S/abT + us/C2)/Ch pus
pandemic (p/P + us/C2)/Ch pus
Bubonic plague is the best known manifestation of the Plague, a zoonotic disease, circulating mainly among small rodents and their fleas, and is one of three types of infections caused by Yersinia pestis (formerly known
as Pasteurella pestis), which belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae.
* "bubonic plague" >> "the best known manifestation of the Plague" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "a zoonotic disease" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> circulating /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> mainly /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> among /GC/P/abE/+bp >> small /GC/P/abE/+cp >> rodents /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> and /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> their /GC/S/abR/+bp >> fleas /GC/S/abR/+cp >> and /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> is /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> one /GC/S/abE/+bp >> of /GC/S/abE/+cp >> three /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> types /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> of /mGC/abR/+bp >> infections /mGC/abR/+cp >> caused /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> by /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> Yersinia /mGC/abE/+bp >> pestis /mGC/abE/+cp >> formerly /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> known /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
plague >> as /GC/P/abR/+bp >> Pasteurella /GC/P/abR/+cp >> pestis /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> which /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> belongs /GC/P/abE/+bp >> to /GC/P/abE/+cp >> the /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> family /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> Entero /GC/S/abR/+bp >> bacteria /GC/S/abR/+cp >> ceae /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp
The term bubonic plague is derived from the Greek word bubo, meaning "swollen gland". Swollen lymph nodes (buboes) especially occur in the armpit and groin in persons suffering from bubonic plague. Bubonic plague was often used synonymously for plague, but it does in fact refer specifically to an infection that enters through the skin and travels through the lymphatics, as is often seen in flea-borne infections.
* plague >> The /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> term /GC/S/abE/+bp >> bubonic /GC/S/abE/+cp >> plague /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> is /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> derived /mGC/abR/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
* "bubonic plague" >> bubo /mGC/abE >> Greek /mGC/abE/Ch
"swollen gland" (B/S + "-ubonic plague"/P) "Bubonic plague"
gland (lymph/S + node/P)/Ch "lymph node"
bubo ("lymph n-"/C2 + ode/S)/Ch "lymph node"
"lymph node" ([ŋ= y=]/C2 + immunity/T)/Ch immunity
flea (B/T + "-ubonic plague"/P)/Ch "Bubonic plague"
"Black Death" (p/C2 + lague/P)/Ch plague
3. Lou Gehrig’s disease, Lou Gehrig’s doom/death??
A) Lou Gehrig’s disease
Motor neurone disease
The motor neurone diseases (or motor neuron diseases) (MND) are a group of neurological disorders that selectively affect motor neurones, the cells that control voluntary muscle activity including speaking, walking, breathing, swallowing and general movement of the body.
MND refers to a group of diseases that affect motor neurones. In the United States, MND is more commonly called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's disease, after the baseball player. In France the disease is sometimes known as maladie de Charcot (Charcot's disease), although it may also be referred to by the direct translation of ALS, sclerose laterale amyotrophique (SLA). To avoid confusion, the annual scientific research conference dedicated to the study of MND is called the International ALS/MND Symposium. ALS/MND refers to a specific subset of pathologically identical diseases; there are numerous other afflictions of motor neurones that are pathologically distinct from ALS/MND and have a different clinical course. Examples of other diseases of the motor neurone that should not be confused with ALS/MND include spinobulbar muscular atrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and many others.
** As phonetically seen below,
"mosquito" has produced "yellow fever";
"yellow fever" has produced "MND",
"MND" has produced "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis", "als [ŋal s=], ALS", etc.
That is, "ALS" is not acronym of "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis",
and "MND" is not acronym of "motor neurone disease", etc.
yellow fever" (m/T + osquito/P)/Ch mosquito
"MND" (y/S + "-ellow fever"/GC/S/abT)/Ch "yellow fever"
* "MND" >> "Motor neurone disease" /GC/S/abR
"amyotrophic lateral sclerosis" ([ŋ= y=]/GC/S/abT + "MND"/P)/Ch "MND"
"als [ŋal s=]" ([ŋ= y=]/S + "MND"/C1)/Ch "MND"
"Lou Gehrig’s disease" ([ŋ= y=]/C1 + "MND"/GC/S/abT)/Ch "MND"
"maladie de Charcot" ([ŋ= y=]/T + "MND"/P)/Ch "MND"
"Charcot's disease" ([ŋ= y=]/S + "MND"/C2) "MND"
"sclerose laterale amyotrophique" ([ŋ= y=]/T + "MND"/P)/Ch "MND"
"sla [s=l la]" ([ŋ= y=]/S + "MND"/C2)/Ch "MND"
"ALS/MND (als [ŋal s=] MND)" (y/T + "-ellow fever"/C1)/Ch "yellow fever"
• primary lateral sclerosis (PLS)
• progressive muscular atrophy (PMA)
o pseudobulbar palsy - spastic
o progressive bulbar palsy - spastic and flaccid
"primary lateral sclerosis" ([ŋ= y=]/C1 + "MND"/T)/Ch "MND"
"PLS" ([ŋ= y=]/S + "MND"/T)/Ch "MND"
"progressive muscular atrophy" ([ŋ= y=]/S + "MND"/P)/Ch "MND"
"PMA (P-M-A)" ([ŋ= y=]/GC/S/abT + "MND"/C1)/Ch "MND"
"pseudobulbar palsy" ([ŋ= y=]/P + "MND"/S)/Ch "MND"
"progressive bulbar palsy" ([ŋ= y=]/C2 + "MND"/P)/Ch "MND"
Pols want to investigate if Lou Gehrig died of Lou Gehrig’s disease
More than 70 years after Lou Gehrig's death, a group of legislators have launched a bid to investigate whether the baseball icon really died of the disease that carries his name.
Gehrig passed away in 1941 at the age of 37, following a Hall of Fame career with the New York Yankees which saw him play 2,130 consecutive games and win the American League Triple Crown in 1934. It has always been assumed his cause of death was amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or what became known as Lou Gehrig's Disease.
~ ~ ~.
B) Lou Gehrig’s doom/death??
Henry Louis "Lou" Gehrig (June 19, 1903 – June 2, 1941), nicknamed "The Iron Horse" for his durability, was an American Major League Baseball first baseman. He played his entire 17-year baseball career for the New York Yankees (1923-1939). Gehrig set several major league records. He holds the record for most career grand slams (23). Gehrig is chiefly remembered for his prowess as a hitter, his consecutive games-played record and its subsequent longevity, and the pathos of his farewell from baseball at age 36, when he was stricken with a fatal neurological disease.
"Louis Lou" (Henry/GC/S/abT + Gehrig/C1) "Henry Gehrig"
June (H/P + "-enry Louis Lou Gehrig"/S) "Henry Louis Lou Gehrig"
"19th" (H/P + "-enry Louis Lou Gehrig"/S)/Ch "Henry Louis Lou Gehrig"
"1903" (H/P + "-enry Louis Lou Gehrig"/C1) "Henry Louis Lou Gehrig"
June (H/GC/S/abT + "-enry Louis Lou Gehrig"/S) "Henry Louis Lou Gehrig"
"2nd" (H/GC/S/abT + "-enry Louis Lou Gehrig"/S)/Ch "Henry Louis Lou Gehrig"
"1941" (H/GC/S/abT + "-enry Louis Lou Gehrig"/C1) "Henry Louis Lou Gehrig"
* "Henry Louis Lou Gehrig" >> (died /P)/S
* "Henry Louis Lou Gehrig" >> (of /C2)/S
* "Henry Louis Lou Gehrig" >> (syphilis /GC/S/abT)/S
syphilis (s/P + "-ex disease"/T)/Ch "sex disease"
4. visa (document)
visa ([ŋ= y=]/GC/S/abT + entry/P)/Ch entry
A visa (from the Latin charta visa, lit. "paper that has been seen") is an indication that a person is authorized to enter the territory for which it was "issued", subject to permission of an immigration official at the
time of actual entry. The authorization may be a document, but more commonly it is a stamp endorsed in the applicant's passport. Some countries do not require a visa in some situations, such as a result of reciprocal treaty arrangements. The country issuing the visa typically attaches various conditions to the visa, such as the territory covered by the visa, the time that the visa is valid, the period that the person may stay in the country, whether the visa is valid for more than one visit, etc.
* visa >> "charta visa" /mGC/abE >> Latin /mGC/abE/Ch >> "visa document" /GC/S/abE
* "charta visa" /mGC/abE/Ch >> "paper that has been seen" /P >> document /T
* visa >> indication /mGC/abR/+bp >> that /mGC/abR/+cp >> a /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> person /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> is /mGC/abE/+bp >> authorized /mGC/abE/+cp >> to /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> enter /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> the /GC/P/abR/+bp >> territory /GC/P/abR/+cp >> for /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> which /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> it /GC/P/abE/+bp >> was /GC/P/abE/+cp >> issued /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> subject /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> to /GC/S/abR/+bp >> permission /GC/S/abR/+cp >> of /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> an /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> immigration /GC/S/abE/+bp >> official /GC/S/abE/+cp >> at /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> the /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp
entry >> time /mGC/abR/+bp >> of /mGC/abR/+cp >> actual /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> entry /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> The /mGC/abE/+bp >> authorization /mGC/abE/+cp >> may /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
>> Types of visa
Each country has a multitude of categories of visas and with various names. The most common types and names of visas include:
• transit visa, usually valid for 5 days or less, for passing through the country to a third destination.
"transit visa" ([ŋ= w=]/T + "approval of short entry"/P)/Ch "approval of short entry"
* short >> "for 5 days" /mGC/abE >> "or less" /mGC/abE/Ch
o airside transit visa, required by some countries for passing through their airports even without going through immigration clearance.
"airside transit visa" ([ŋ= w=]/P + airport/C1)/Ch airport
* airside >> "passing through" /mGC/abE >> "even without going through immigration clearance" /mGC/abE/Ch
• tourist visa, for a limited period of leisure travel, no business activities allowed. Some countries do not issue tourist visas. Saudi Arabia introduced tourist visas only in 2004 although it did (and still does) issue pilgrimage visas for Hajj pilgrims.
"tourist visa" (s/T + ightseeing/GC/S/abT)/Ch sightseeing
* tourist >> "for a limited period" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "of leisure travel" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "no business activities allowed" /mGC/abE/Ch
• business visa, for engaging in commerce in the country. These visas generally preclude permanent employment, for which a work visa would be required.
"business visa" (w/S + ork/C1)/Ch work
* business >> "for engaging in commerce" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "in the country" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "generally preclude" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "permanent employment" /mGC/abE/+bp/Ch
• temporary worker visa, for approved employment in the host country. These are generally more difficult to obtain but valid for longer periods of time than a business visa. Examples of these are the United States' H-1B and L-1 visas.
"temporary worker visa" (j/S + ob/P)/Ch job
* temporary >> "for approved employment" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "in the host country" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "generally more difficult to obtain" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "but valid for longer periods of time than a business visa" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp
"H-1B visa" (p/GC/S/abT + rofessional/C1)/Ch professional
"L-1 visa" (c/GC/S/abT + ompany/C1)/Ch company
• Regular L-1 visas, which must be applied for and approved for each individual by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS); and
• Blanket L-1 visas which are available to employers who hire large numbers of Intracompany Transferees every year.
"Regular L-1 visa" (c/GC/S/abT + ompany/P) company
"Blanket L-1 visa" (c/S + ompany/C1) company
* "Regular L-1" >> "must be applied" /mGC/abR/+cp >> "for and approved for" /mGC/abR/+bp >> "each individual" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> "by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services" /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp
* "Blanket L-1" >> "are available" /mGC/abR/+cp >> "to employers" /mGC/abR/+bp >> "who hire large numbers" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> "of Intracompany Transferees every year" /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp
• on-arrival visa, granted at a port of entry. This is distinct from not requiring a visa at all, as the visitor must still obtain the visa before they can even try to pass through immigration.
"on-arrival visa" ([ŋ= y=]/GC/S/abT + in/T)/Ch in
* on >> granted /mGC/abE/+cp >> "at a port of entry" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "This is distinct from not requiring a visa at all" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "as the visitor must still obtain the visa before they can even try to pass through immigration" /mGC/abE/+bp/Ch
• spousal visa or partner visa, granted to the spouse, civil partner or de facto partner of a resident or citizen of a given country, in order to enable the couple to settle in that country.
"spousal visa" (m/T + arriage/GC/S/abT)/Ch marriage
"partner visa" (m/S + arriage/C1)/Ch marriage
* partner >> "granted to the spouse, civil partner or de facto partner of a resident or citizen" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "of a given country" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "in order to enable the couple" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "to settle in that country" /mGC/abE/+bp/Ch
• student visa, which allows its holder to study at an institution of higher learning in the issuing country. Students studying in Algeria, however, are issued tourist visas.
"student visa" (s/S + tudy/GC/S/abT)/Ch study
* student >> "allows its holder" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "to study at an institution" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "of higher learning" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "in the issuing country" /mGC/abE/+bp/Ch
• working holiday visa, for individuals traveling between nations offering a working holiday program, allowing young people to undertake temporary work while traveling.
"working holiday visa" ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + arbeit/C1)/Ch arbeit
* "working holiday" >> "for individuals" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "traveling between nations" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "offering a working holiday program" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "allowing young people to undertake temporary work while traveling" /mGC/abE/+bp/Ch
• diplomatic visa (sometimes official visa), is normally only available to bearers of diplomatic passports.
"diplomatic visa" (d/P + iplomat/C1)/Ch diplomat
"official visa" (d/S + iplomat/C1)/Ch diplomat
* official >> "normally only available" /mGC/abE >> "to bearers of diplomatic passports" /mGC/abE/Ch
• courtesy visa issued to representatives of foreign governments or international organizations who do not qualify for diplomatic status but do merit expedited, courteous treatment.
"courtesy visa" (pr/P + esident/S)/Ch president
* courtesy >> issued /mGC/abE/+cp >> "to representatives of foreign governments or international organizations" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "who do not qualify for diplomatic status" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "but do merit expedited, courteous treatment" /mGC/abE/+bp/Ch
• journalist visa, which some countries require of people in that occupation when traveling for their respective news organizations. Countries which insist on this include Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, the United States (I-visa) and Zimbabwe.
"journalist visa" (j/P + ournalism/T)/Ch journalism
* journalist >> "some countries require" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "of people in that occupation" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "when traveling" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "for their respective news organizations" /mGC/abE/+bp/Ch
"I-visa" (r/T + eporter/P) reporter
• Marriage visa, granted for a limited period prior to intended marriage or civil partnership based on a proven relationship with a citizen of the destination country. For example, a German woman who wishes to marry an American man would obtain a Fiancee Visa (also known as a K-1 visa) to allow her to enter the United States. "A K1 Fiancee Visa is valid for four months from the date of its approval."
"Marriage visa" (w/P + edding/S)/Ch wedding
* Marriage >> "granted for a limited period" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "prior to intended marriage or civil partnership" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "based on a proven relationship with a citizen" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "of the destination country" /mGC/abE/+bp/Ch
"Fiancee Visa" (c/P + ouple/T) couple
"K-1 visa" (c/S + ouple/GC/S/abT) couple
"K1 Fiancee Visa" (c/T + ouple/C1) couple
• immigrant visa, granted for those intending to immigrate to the issuing country. They usually are issued for a single journey as the holder will, depending on the country, later be issued a permanent resident identification card which will allow the traveler to enter to the issuing country an unlimited number of times. (for example, the United States Permanent Resident Card).
"immigrant visa" ([ŋ= y=]/GC/S/abT + immigration/T)/Ch immigration
* immigrant >> granted /mGC/abE/+cp >> "for those" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "intending to immigrate" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "to the issuing country" /mGC/abE/+bp/Ch
"permanent resident identification card" ([ŋ= y=]/GC/S/abT + "immigrant visa"/C1)/Ch "immigrant visa"
"United States Permanent Resident Card" ([ŋ= y=]/C1 + "immigrant visa"/GC/S/abT) "immigrant visa"
• pensioner visa (also known as retiree visa or retirement visa), issued by a limited number of countries (Australia, Argentina, Thailand, Panama, etc.), to those who can demonstrate a foreign source of income and who do not intend to work in the issuing country. Age limits apply in some cases.
"pensioner visa" ([ŋ= w=]/C1 + old/P)/Ch old
"retiree visa" ([ŋ= w=]/S + old/GC/S/abT)/Ch old
"retirement visa" ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + old/C2)/Ch old
* retirement >> issued /mGC/abE >> "by a limited number of countries" /mGC/abE/Ch
• Special Category Visa is a type of Australian visa granted to most New Zealand citizens on arrival in Australia. New Zealand Citizens may then permanently reside in Australia under the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement.
"Special Category Visa" (N/P + "-ew Zealand"/T)/Ch "New Zealand"
* "Special Category" >> "granted to most New Zealand citizens" /mGC/abE >> "on arrival in Australia" /mGC/abE/Ch
"Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement" (S/P + "-pecial Category Visa"/T) "Special Category Visa"
• Electronic visa. The visa is applied for e.g. over the internet and stored in a computer and is tied to the passport number. Australia (calling it ETA) and the United States (from 2009, calling it ESTA) have this system, although it is not called visa by the US (since it does not follow the US law about visas).
"Electronic visa" (c/T + omputer/GC/S/abT)/Ch computer
"ETA" ([ŋ= y=]/P + "Electronic visa"/T)/Ch "Electronic visa"
Australia ([ŋ= y=]/P + "Electronic visa"/T) "Electronic visa"
"ESTA" ([ŋ= y=]/GC/S/abT + "Electronic visa"/T)/Ch "Electronic visa"
"USA" ([ŋ= y=]/GC/S/abT + "Electronic visa"/T) "Electronic visa"
* Electronic >> "applied for e.g." /mGC/abE/+cp >> "over the internet" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "and stored in a computer" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> "and is tied to the passport number" /mGC/abE/+bp/Ch
>> J-1 Visa
A visa allowing one to stay in the United States for cultural or business exchange. Many times, a J-1 visa is issued for work purposes or for training, such as an internship or schooling. In order to be eligible for a J-1 visa, one must receive sponsorship from a government or private entity. One must leave the United States within 30 days of the visa's expiration.
"J-1 Visa" (c/C2 + ooperation/GC/S/abT) cooperation
>> B1 Visa
A visa granting the holder permission to enter the United States for business purposes. For example, a foreigner may procure a B1 visa in order to conduct a business deal with a client.
"B1 Visa" (b/P + usiness/S) business
Dracula (b/C2 + lood/T)/Ch blood
* Dracula (from blood, not from sin) >> vampyre /mGC/abE >> bat /mGC/abE/Ch
vampyre (d/C1 + evil/GC/S/abT) devil
Dracula (s/GC/S/abT + in/P) sin
Abraham "Bram" Stoker
Bram (Abraham/GC/S/abT + Stoker/P) "Abraham Stoker"
Born November 8, 1847(1847-11-08) Clontarf, Dublin, Ireland
Died April 20, 1912 (aged 64) London, England
1847 ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + "Abraham Stoker"/P) "Abraham Stoker"
November ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + "Abraham Stoker"/P)/Ch "Abraham Stoker"
8th ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + "Abraham Stoker"/S) "Abraham Stoker"
Clontarf ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + "Abraham Stoker"/S)/Ch "Abraham Stoker"
Dublin ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + "Abraham Stoker"/C2) "Abraham Stoker"
Ireland ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + "Abraham Stoker"/C2)/Ch "Abraham Stoker"
1912 ([ŋ= w=]/C1 + "Abraham Stoker"/P) "Abraham Stoker"
April ([ŋ= w=]/C1 + "Abraham Stoker"/P)/Ch "Abraham Stoker"
20th ([ŋ= w=]/C1 + "Abraham Stoker"/S) "Abraham Stoker"
"London, England" ([ŋ= w=]/C1 + "Abraham Stoker"/S)/Ch "Abraham Stoker"
>> Gothic, Romantic Fiction
Gothic ([ŋ= w=]/C1 + "Abraham Bram Stoker"/P) "Abraham Bram Stoker"
"Romantic Fiction" ([ŋ= w=]/C1 + "Abraham Bram Stoker"/P)/Ch "Abraham Bram Stoker"
>> During his lifetime, he was better known as the personal assistant of actor Henry Irving and business manager of the Lyceum Theatre in London, which Irving owned.
"personal assistant" ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + "Abraham Bram Stoker"/S) "Abraham Bram Stoker"
"of actor Henry Irving" ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + "Abraham Bram Stoker"/S)/Ch "Abraham Bram Stoker"
"business manager" ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + "Abraham Bram Stoker"/C2) "Abraham Bram Stoker"
"of the Lyceum Theatre in London" ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + "Abraham Bram Stoker"/C2)/Ch/+cp "Abraham Bram Stoker"
"which Irving owned" ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + "Abraham Bram Stoker"/C2)/Ch/+bp "Abraham Bram Stoker"
Dracula is an 1897 novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, featuring as its primary antagonist the vampire Count Dracula. It was first published as a hardcover in 1897 by Archibald Constable and Co.
* Dracula >> "an 1897 novel" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "by Irish author" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "Bram Stoker" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> featuring /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> as /GC/P/abE/+bp >> its /GC/P/abE/+cp >> primary /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> antagonist /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> the /GC/S/abR/+bp >> vampire /GC/S/abR/+cp >> Count /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> Dracula /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> It /GC/P/abR/+bp >> was /GC/P/abR/+cp >> first /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> published /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> as /mGC/abE/+bp >> "a hardcover" /mGC/abE/+cp >> in /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> "1897" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> by /mGC/abR/+bp >> Archibald /mGC/abR/+cp >> Constable /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> "and C-o" /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp
Dracula has been attributed to many literary genres including vampire literature, horror fiction, the gothic novel and invasion literature. Structurally it is an epistolary novel, that is, told as a series of letters, diary entries, ships' logs, etc. Literary critics have examined many themes in the novel, such as the role of women in Victorian culture, conventional and conservative sexuality, immigration, colonialism, postcolonialism and folklore. Although Stoker did not invent the vampire, the novel's influence on the popularity of vampires has been singularly responsible for many theatrical, film and television interpretations since its publication.
* blood >> Dracula /GC/S/abE/+bp >> has /GC/S/abE/+cp >> been /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> attributed /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> to /GC/P/abE/+bp >> many /GC/P/abE/+cp >> ~ ~ ~
>> Plot summary
>> Jonathan Harker, a newly qualified English solicitor,
"Jonathan Harker" (B/GC/S/abT + ram/C2) Bram
"newly qualified" (B/GC/S/abT + ram/C2)/Ch/+bp Bram
"English solicitor" (B/GC/S/abT + ram/C2)/Ch/+cp Bram
>> Count Dracula's crumbling, remote castle (situated in the Carpathian Mountains on the border of Transylvania, Bukovina and Moldavia).
Dracula (b/C2 + lood/T)/Ch blood
* Dracula (from blood, not from sin) >> vampyre /mGC/abE >> bat /mGC/abE/Ch
Count (D/GC/S/abT + racula/P) Dracula
castle (D/GC/S/abT + racula/P)/Ch/+bp Dracula
Carpathian (D/GC/S/abT + racula/P)/Ch/+cp Dracula
Mountains (D/GC/S/abT + racula/S)/+bp Dracula
border (D/GC/S/abT + racula/S)/+cp Dracula
Transylvania (D/GC/S/abT + racula/S)/Ch/+bp Dracula
Bukovina (D/GC/S/abT + racula/S)/Ch/+cp Dracula
Moldavia (D/GC/S/abT + racula/C2) Dracula
>> Harker's employer, Peter Hawkins, of Exeter in England
"Peter Hawkins" (J/S + "-onathan Harker"/P) "Jonathan Harker"
Exeter (J/S + "-onathan Harker"/P)/Ch/+bp "Jonathan Harker"
England (J/S + "-onathan Harker"/P)/Ch/+cp "Jonathan Harker"
>> Harker's devoted fiancée, Wilhelmina "Mina" Murray, and her friend, Lucy Westenra
Mina (Wilhelmina/GC/S/abT + Murray/T) "Wilhelmina Murray"
"Wilhelmina Murray" (H/GC/S/abT + arker/C2) Harker
"Lucy Westenra" (H/C1 + arker/GC/S/abT) Harker
>> Dr. John Seward; Quincey Morris; and the Hon. Arthur Holmwood (later Lord Godalming)
"John Seward" (L/P + ucy/T) Lucy
doctor (L/P + ucy/T)/Ch Lucy
"Quincey Morris" (L/GC/S/abT + ucy/C1) Lucy
"Arthur Holmwood" (L/GC/S/abT + ucy/C2) Lucy
Honorable (L/GC/S/abT + ucy/C2)/Ch Lucy
Godalming (L/T + ucy/P) Lucy
Lord (L/T + ucy/P)/Ch Lucy
germ ([ŋ= y=]/S + embryo/T) embryo
gene (g/C2 + erm/P)/Ch germ
"DNA" (g [z= y=]/C2 + ene/S)/Ch gene
"RNA" (g [z= w=]/C2 + ene/S)/Ch gene
"DNA" (g [g= w=]/C2 + ene/S)/Ch gene
"RNA" (g [g= y=]/C2 + ene/S)/Ch gene
* DNA >> "Deoxyribonucleic acid" /GC/S/abE
* RNA >> "Ribonucleic acid" /GC/S/abE
Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA, is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms (with the exception of RNA
viruses). The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information. DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints, like a recipe or a code, since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells, such as proteins and RNA molecules. The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information.
* "DNA" >> "a nucleic acid" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> that /GC/S/abE/+cp >> contains /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> the /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> genetic /GC/P/abE/+bp >> instructions /GC/P/abE/+cp >> used /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> in /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> the /GC/S/abR/+bp >> development /GC/S/abR/+cp >> and /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> functioning /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> of /GC/P/abR/+bp >> all /GC/P/abR/+cp >> known /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> living /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> organisms /mGC/abE/+bp >> with /mGC/abE/+cp >> the /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> exception /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> of /mGC/abR/+bp >> R /mGC/abR/+cp >> N /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> A /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp
"Deoxyribonucleic acid" >> viruses /GC/S/abE/+bp >> The /GC/S/abE/+cp >> main /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> role /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> of /GC/P/abE/+bp >> D /GC/P/abE/+cp >> N /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> A /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> molecules /GC/S/abR/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
DNA consists of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups joined by ester bonds. These two strands run in opposite directions to each other and are therefore anti-parallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of molecules called bases. It is the sequence of these four bases along the backbone that encodes information. This information is read using the genetic code, which specifies the sequence of the amino acids within proteins. The code is read by copying stretches of DNA into the related nucleic acid RNA, in a process called transcription.
polymer (m/P + aterial/GC/S/abT)/Ch material
nucleotide ([ŋ= w=]/P + acid/T)/Ch acid
backbone (c/P + olumn/T)/Ch column
strand (l/GC/S/abT + "-ong polymer"/C2)/Ch "long polymer"
"genetic code" ([ŋ= y=]/C1 + information/GC/S/abT)/Ch information
"amino acid" (p/P + rotein/T)/Ch protein
Within cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. These chromosomes are duplicated before cells divide, in a process called DNA replication. Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi, and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus and some of their DNA in organelles, such as mitochondria or chloroplasts. In contrast, prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) store their DNA only in the cytoplasm. Within the chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed.
chromosome (d/T + "-i NA"/P)/Ch "DNA [di -]"
Eukaryote (c/T + ell/P)/Ch cell
Prokaryote (c/P + ell/T)/Ch cell
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is one of the three major macromolecules (along with DNA and proteins) that are essential for all known forms of life.
* "RNA" >> one /GC/S/abE/+bp >> of /GC/S/abE/+cp >> the /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> three /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> major /GC/P/abE/+bp >> macro /GC/P/abE/+cp >> molecules /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> along /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> with /GC/S/abR/+bp >> D /GC/S/abR/+cp >> N /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> A /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> and /GC/P/abR/+bp >> proteins /GC/P/abR/+cp >> that /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> are /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> essential /mGC/abE/+bp >> for /mGC/abE/+cp >> all /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> known /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> form /mGC/abR/+bp >> S [ŋe s=] /mGC/abR/+cp >> of /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> life /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp
Like DNA, RNA is made up of a long chain of components called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a nucleobase (sometimes called a nitrogenous base), a ribose sugar, and a phosphate group. The sequence of nucleotides allows RNA to encode genetic information. For example, some viruses use RNA instead of DNA as their genetic material, and all organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to carry the genetic information that directs the synthesis of proteins.
"Ribonucleic acid" >> Like /GC/S/abE/+bp >> D /GC/S/abE/+cp >> N /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> A /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> R /GC/P/abE/+bp >> N /GC/P/abE/+cp >> A /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> is /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> made /GC/S/abR/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
7. stem cell, reprogrammed cell, iPS cell
"stem cell" (c/T + ell/P) cell
Stem cells are cells found in all multi cellular organisms. They are characterized by the ability to renew themselves through mitotic cell division and differentiate into
a diverse range of specialized cell types. Research in the stem cell field grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s.
* "stem cell" >> cells /GC/S/abE/+bp >> found /GC/S/abE/+cp >> in /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> all /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> multi /GC/P/abE/+bp >> cellular /GC/P/abE/+cp >> organisms /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> They /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> are /GC/S/abR/+bp >> characterized /GC/S/abR/+cp >> by /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> the /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> ability /GC/P/abR/+bp >> to /GC/P/abR/+cp >> renew /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> themselves /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> through /mGC/abE/+bp >> mitotic /mGC/abE/+cp >> cell /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> division /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> and /mGC/abR/+bp >> differentiate /mGC/abR/+cp >> in /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> to /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp
cell >> a /GC/S/abE/+bp >> diverse /GC/S/abE/+cp >> range /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> of /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> specialized /GC/P/abE/+bp >> cell /GC/P/abE/+cp >> type /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> S [ŋe s=] /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> Research /GC/S/abR/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
Reprogrammed cells - known as induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells - offer an ethically neutral alternative. They have been a source of intense research since Yamanaka discovered their potential in 2006, building on work that Gurdon did in frogs and tadpoles 40 years earlier.
"reprogrammed cell" (st/T + "em cell"/P)/Ch "stem cell"
* "reprogrammed cell" >> "iPS cell" /mGC/abE
** "iPS cell" /mGC/abE/Ch >> "induced pluripotent stem cell" /P
when speaking "cell", if articulating "c" (of "cell") from English/Phoenician /T speaking posture and articulating "ell" (of "cell") from English Primary /P speaking posture,
"stem cell" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
when speaking "stem cell", if articulating "st" (of "stem cell") from English/Phoenician /T chest /Ch speaking posture and articulating "-em cell" (of "stem cell") from English Primary /P chest /Ch speaking posture,
"reprogrammed cell" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When speaking/articulating "reprogrammed cell" from Sparta /mGC speaking posture with articulation ball of /abE <top/bottom-elongated articulation ball like (the shape of) egg>,
"iPS cell" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
While "iPS cell" is the pronunciation of mouth articulation,
if firstly taking/maintaining the articulation of "iPS cell" from chest speaking posture (that is, /mGC/abE/Ch) and then trying to speak/articulate "iPS cell" from English Primary /P speaking posture,
"induced pluripotent stem cell" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
since "induced pluripotent stem cell" is created from "iPS cell",
"iPS (cell)" is not (or can not be) acronym of "induced pluripotent stem (cell)".