1. Parkinson's disease, "James Parkinson", "Jean-Martin Charcot"
Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson's, Parkinson disease, or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that impairs motor skills, cognitive processes, and other functions. The most obvious symptoms are motor-related, including tremor, rigidity, slowness of movement, and postural instability. Among non-motor symptoms are autonomic dysfunction and sensory and sleep difficulties. Cognitive and neurobehavioral problems, including dementia, are common in the advanced stages of the disease. PD usually appears around the age of 60, although there are young-onset cases.
"Parkinson's disease" ([ŋ= w=]/T + "old man"/P)/Ch "old man"
Parkinson ^'s^ disease >> "Parkinson disease" </LH; liaison-hole (word)>
* "Parkinson disease" >> "PD" /mGC/abR >> "Parkinson's" /mGC/abE
* "old man" >> "a degenerative disorder" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "of the central nervous system" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> "that impairs motor skills" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "cognitive processes" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> "and other functions" /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "The most obvious symptoms" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> "are motor-related" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> "including tremor" /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> rigidity /GC/S/abR/+bp >> "slowness of movement" /GC/S/abR/+cp >> "and postural instability" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> "Among non-motor symptoms" /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "are autonomic dysfunction" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "and sensory" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> "and sleep difficulties" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> Cognitive /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> and /mGC/abR/+bp >> neurobehavioral /mGC/abR/+cp >> problems /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> including /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> dementia /mGC/abE/+bp >> are /mGC/abE/+cp >> common /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> in /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
"Parkinson's disease" >> the /GC/P/abR/+bp >> advanced /GC/P/abR/+cp >> stages /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> of /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> the /GC/P/abE/+bp >> disease /GC/P/abE/+cp >> P /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> D /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> usually /GC/S/abR/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
PD is also called "primary parkinsonism" or "idiopathic PD" (meaning having no known cause), although some cases have a genetic origin. Many risk and protective factors have been investigated, showing an increased risk of PD in those exposed to pesticides; and a reduced risk in smokers. Symptoms result from insufficient formation and action of dopamine produced in the dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain (specifically the substantia nigra). Pathologically the disease is characterized by the accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein forming inclusions called Lewy bodies. Such pathology can only be demonstrated at autopsy so diagnosis is mainly clinical (based on symptoms). Some tests such as neuroimaging techniques can also aid in diagnosis.
* "PD" /mGC/abR >> "primary parkinsonism" /P >> "idiopathic PD" /C2
"having no known cause" ([ŋ= y=]/S + "idiopathic PD"/GC/S/abT)/Ch "idiopathic PD"
Current treatments are effective at managing the early motor symptoms of the disease, through the use of levodopa, dopamine agonists and MAO-B inhibitors. As the disease advances, however, the continued use of medications leads to a second stage in which the patient develops motor complications called dyskinesias. Medications to treat other symptoms of PD also exist. Diet and some forms of rehabilitation have shown some effectiveness at mitigating symptoms, and surgery and deep brain stimulation may be used to reduce motor symptoms in the most extreme cases.
The disease is named after English surgeon James Parkinson, who gave the first detailed description of it in "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy" (1817). PD is a costly disease to society. Several major organizations promote research and improvement of quality of life of those with the disease and their families. Research directions include a search of new animal models of the disease, and investigations of the potential usefulness of gene therapy, stem cells transplants and neuroprotective agents. Advocacy actions include April 11, birthday of James Parkinson, as the world's Parkinson's disease day, and the use of a red tulip as the symbol of the disease. People with PD who have greatly affected public awareness include Michael J. Fox and Muhammad Ali.
B) James Parkinson
Born 11 April 1755 (1755-04-11) Shoreditch, London
Died 21 December 1824 (1824-12-22) (aged 69)
"11th" (J/GC/S/abT + "-ames Parkinson"/C2) "James Parkinson"
April (J/GC/S/abT + "-ames Parkinson"/C2)/Ch "James Parkinson"
"1755" (J/GC/S/abT + "-ames Parkinson"/C2)/Ch/+cp "James Parkinson"
"Shoreditch, London" (J/GC/S/abT + "-ames Parkinson"/C2)/Ch/+bp "James Parkinson"
"21st" (J/GC/S/abT + "-ames Parkinson"/P) "James Parkinson"
December (J/GC/S/abT + "-ames Parkinson"/P)/Ch "James Parkinson"
"1824" (J/GC/S/abT + "-ames Parkinson"/P)/Ch/+cp "James Parkinson"
>> He is most famous for his 1817 work, An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, in which he was the first to describe "paralysis agitans", a condition that would later be renamed Parkinson's disease by Jean-Martin Charcot.
* "James Parkinson" >> "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy" /mGC/abE/+cp >> "1817" /mGC/abE/+cp/Ch >> "paralysis agitans" /GC/P/abR/+bp
** "paralysis agitans" /GC/P/abR/+bp/Ch >> "Parkinson's disease" /P >> "Jean-Martin Charcot" /P/Ch
C) Jean-Martin Charcot
Born November 29, 1825(1825-11-29) Paris, France
Died August 16, 1893(1893-08-16) Lac des Settons, Nièvre
"29th" (J/C2 + "-ean-Martin Charcot"/S) "Jean-Martin Charcot"
November (J/C2 + "-ean-Martin Charcot"/S)/Ch "Jean-Martin Charcot"
"1825" (J/C2 + "-ean-Martin Charcot"/S)/Ch/+cp "Jean-Martin Charcot"
"Paris, France" (J/C2 + "-ean-Martin Charcot"/S)/Ch/+bp "Jean-Martin Charcot"
"16th" (J/C1+ "-ean-Martin Charcot"/S) "Jean-Martin Charcot"
August (J/C1+ "-ean-Martin Charcot"/S)/Ch "Jean-Martin Charcot"
"1893" (J/C1+ "-ean-Martin Charcot"/S)/Ch/+cp "Jean-Martin Charcot"
"Lac des Settons, Nièvre" (J/C1+ "-ean-Martin Charcot"/S)/Ch/+bp "Jean-Martin Charcot"
>> He is known as "the founder of modern neurology"
* "Jean-Martin Charcot" >> "the founder of modern neurology" /mGC/abE/+bp
2. "How does Nobel (Peace) Prize have come into being??"
Why physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and economics, peace ??
"Nobel Peace Prize" (dy/P + namite/T)/Ch dynamite
"Nobel Prize" (b/T + omb/P) bomb
when speaking "dynamite", if articulating "dy" (of "dynamite") from English Primary /P chest /Ch speaking posture and articulating "namite" (of "dynamite") from English/Phoenician /T chest /Ch speaking posture,
"Nobel Peace Prize" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
when speaking "bomb", if articulating "b" (of "bomb") from English/Phoenician /T speaking posture and articulating "omb" (of "bomb") from English Primary /P speaking posture,
"Nobel Prize" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
Any of the six international prizes awarded annually by the Nobel Foundation for outstanding achievements in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and economics and for the promotion of world peace.
physics (N/P + "-obel Prize"/T)/Ch "Nobel Prize"
chemistry (N/S + "-obel Prize"/C2)/Ch "Nobel Prize"
physiology (N/C2 + "-obel Prize"/P)/Ch "Nobel Prize"
medicine (N/C2 + "-obel Prize"/S)/Ch "Nobel Prize"
literature (N/GC/S/abT + "-obel Prize"/P)/Ch "Nobel Prize"
economics (N/GC/S/abT + "-obel Prize"/S)/Ch "Nobel Prize"
Word History: The same man who gave us dynamite gave us the Nobel Peace Prize, an irony that was surely not lost on the pacifistic Alfred Nobel himself. It is perhaps less well known that Nobel also contributed the word dynamite. Coined in Swedish in the form dynamit, the word was taken from Greek dunamis, "power," and the Swedish suffix -it, which corresponds to the English suffix -ite used in various scientific fields. Greek dunamis also gave us words such as dynamic and dynamo and itself probably goes back to the verb dunasthai, "to be able," from which comes English dynasty.
Dynamite (b/T + omb/P)/Ch bomb
* Dynamite >> dynamit /mGC/abE
** dynamit /mGC/abE/Ch >> dunamis /P >> Greek /P/Ch >> Power /P/+bp >> "-it" /T/+bp >> "Swedish suffix" /T/Ch/+bp >> "-ite" /S >> "English suffix" /S/Ch/+bp >> used /C1/Ch/+cp >> "in various scientific fields" /C1/Ch/+bp
dynamic (d/P + unamis/S) dunamis
dynamo (d/P + unamis/C2) dunamis
dunasthai (d/P + unamis/GC/S/abT) dunamis
* dunasthai >> "to be able" /mGC/abE >> dynasty /mGC/abE/Ch
"TNT" (b/P + omb/T)/Ch bomb
* "TNT" >> trinitrotoluene /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
Since "trinitrotoluene" has been derived from "TNT",
we can not say that "TNT" is abbreviation of "trinitrotoluene".
IUPAC name 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene
Other names 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene,
TNT, Trilite, Tolite, Trinol, Trotyl, Tritolo, Tritolol, Triton, Tritone, Trotol, Trinitrotoluol,
Trilite (t/T + [-i NT]/S) "TNT [ti -]"
Tolite (t/T + [-i NT]/C2) "TNT [ti -]"
Trinol (t/T + [-i NT/GC/S/abT) "TNT [ti -]"
Trotyl (t/P + [-i NT]/S) "TNT [ti -]"
Tritolo (t/P + [-i NT]/GC/S/abT) "TNT [ti -]"
Tritolol (t/S + [-i NT]/P) "TNT [ti -]"
Triton (t/S + [-i NT]/C2) "TNT [ti -]"
Tritone (t/C2 + [-i NT]/P) "TNT [ti -]"
Trotol (t/C2 + [-i NT]/GC/S/abT) "TNT [ti -]"
Trinitrotoluol (t/GC/S/abT + [-i NT]/T) "TNT [ti -]"
"2,4,6-Trinitromethylbenzene" (t/T + [-i NT]/P)/Ch "TNT [ti -]"
"2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene" (t/T + [-i NT]/S)/Ch "TNT [ti -]"
"2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene" (t/P + [-i NT]/C2)/Ch "TNT [ti -]"
Trinitrotoluene (famously known and abbreviated as TNT), or more specifically, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. This yellow-colored solid is sometimes used as a reagent in
chemical synthesis, but it is best known as a useful explosive material with convenient handling properties. The explosive yield of TNT is considered to be the standard measure of strength of bombs and other explosives. In chemistry, TNT is used to generate charge transfer salts.
* "TNT" >> "a chemical compound" /GC/P/abR/+bp >> "with the formula" /GC/P/abR/+cp >> C /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> "6" /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> H /GC/P/abE/+bp >> "2" /GC/P/abE/+cp >> N /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> O /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> "2" /GC/S/abR/+bp >> "3" /GC/S/abR/+cp >> C /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> H /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> "3" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> This /GC/S/abE/+cp >> yellow /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> colored /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> solid /mGC/abR/+bp >> is /mGC/abR/+cp >> sometimes /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> used /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp >> as /mGC/abE/+bp >> a /mGC/abE/+cp >> reagent /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> in /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
Trinitrotoluene >> chemical /GC/P/abR/+bp >> synthesis /GC/P/abR/+cp >> but /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> it /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> is /GC/P/abE/+bp >> best /GC/P/abE/+cp >> known /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
quantum (m/S + inimum/C2)/Ch minimum
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction. Behind this, one finds the fundamental notion that
a physical property may be "quantized," referred to as "the hypothesis of quantization". This means that the magnitude can take on only certain discrete numerical values, rather than any value, at least within a range. There is a related term of quantum number. An example of an entity that is quantized is the energy transfer of elementary particles of matter (called fermions) and of photons and other bosons.
* quantum >> "In physics" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> "a quantum" /GC/S/abE/+cp >> plural /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> quanta /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> is /GC/P/abE/+bp >> the /GC/P/abE/+cp >> minimum /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> amount /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> of /GC/S/abR/+bp >> any /GC/S/abR/+cp >> physical /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> entity /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> involved /GC/P/abR/+bp >> in /GC/P/abR/+cp >> an /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> interaction /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> Behind /mGC/abE/+bp >> this /mGC/abE/+cp >> one /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> finds /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> the /mGC/abR/+bp >> fundamental /mGC/abR/+cp >> notion /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> that /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp
minimum >> a /GC/S/abE/+bp >> physical /GC/S/abE/+cp >> property /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> may /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> be /GC/P/abE/+bp >> quantized /GC/P/abE/+cp >> referred /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
"quantum number" (phys/T + ical/P)/Ch physical
energy (w/T + ork/P)/Ch work
matter (m/P + ass/T)/Ch mass
mass (q/GC/S/abT + uantity/P)/Ch quantity
A photon is a single quantum of light, and is referred to as a "light quantum". The energy of an electron bound to an atom (at rest) is said to be quantized, which results in the stability of atoms, and of matter in general.
photon (l/P + ight/T)/Ch light
electron (l/T + ight/P)/Ch light
atom ([ŋ= y=]/P + electron/GC/S/abT)/Ch electron
As incorporated into the theory of quantum mechanics, this is regarded by physicists as part of the fundamental framework for understanding and describing nature at the infinitesimal level.
"quantum mechanics" (m/GC/S/abT + echanics/C1)/Ch mechanics
Normally quanta are considered to be discrete packets with energy stored in them. Planck considered these quanta to be particles that can change their form (meaning that they can be absorbed and released). This phenomenon can be observed in the case of black body radiation, when it is being heated and cooled.
Etymology and discovery
The word "quantum" comes from the Latin "quantus," for "how much." "Quanta" meaning short for "quanta of electricity" was used in a 1902 article on the photoelectric effect by Philipp Lenard, who credited Helmholtz for using the word in the area of electricity. However, the word quantum in general was well known before 1900 . It was often used by physicians (and still is). Both Helmholtz and Mayer were physicians as well as physicists. Helmholtz used quantum with reference to heat in his article  on Mayer's work, and indeed, the word quantum can be found in the formulation of the first law of thermodynamics by Mayer in his letter  dated 24.7.1841. Max Planck used "quanta" to mean "quanta of matter and electricity" (electrons) , gas, and heat. In 1905, in response to Planck's work and the experimental work of Lenard, who explained his results by using the term "quanta of electricity", Albert Einstein suggested that radiation existed in spatially localized packets which he called "quanta of light" ("Lichtquanta").
* quantum >> quantus /mGC/abE >> Latin /mGC/abE/Ch
** quantus /mGC/abE/Ch >> "how much"
quanta (q/P + uantum/GC/S/abT)/Ch quantum
* quanta >> "quanta of electricity" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
thermodynamics ([ŋ= y=]/T + energy/C1)/Ch energy
* thermodynamics >> "first law of thermodynamics" /mGC/abE/+bp
radiation (l/T + ight/P)/Ch light
The concept of quantization of radiation was discovered in 1900 by Max Planck, who had been trying to understand the emission of radiation from heated objects, known as black body radiation. By assuming that energy can only be absorbed or released in tiny, differential, discrete packets he called "bundles" or "energy elements,", Planck accounted for the fact that certain objects change colour when heated. On December 14, 1900, Planck reported his revolutionary findings to the German Physical Society and introduced the idea of quantization for the first time as a part of his research on black body radiation. As a result of his experiments, Planck deduced the numerical value of h, known as the Planck constant, and could also report a more precise value for the Avogadro-Loschmidt number, the number of real molecules in a mole and the unit of electrical charge, to the German Physical Society. After his theory was validated, Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918 for his discovery.
"Planck constant" (c/P + onstant/C1)/Ch constant
* "Planck constant" >> "h" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp
** "h" /mGC/abE/+bp >> "Avogadro-Loschmidt number" /P
mole ([ŋ= y=]/T + ion/P)/Ch ion
5. quantum computer
"quantum computer" (c/T + omputer/P)/Ch computer
A quantum computer is a device for computation that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are
different from traditional computers based on transistors. The basic principle behind quantum computation is that quantum properties can be used to represent data and perform operations on these data. A theoretical model is the quantum Turing machine, also known as the universal quantum computer.
* "quantum computer" >> "a device" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> for /GC/S/abE/+cp >> computation /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> that /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> makes /GC/P/abE/+bp >> direct /GC/P/abE/+cp >> use /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> of /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> quantum /GC/S/abR/+bp >> mechanical /GC/S/abR/+cp >> phenomena /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> such /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> as /GC/P/abR/+bp >> superposition /GC/P/abR/+cp >> and /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> entanglement /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> to /mGC/abE/+bp >> perform /mGC/abE/+cp >> operations /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> on /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> data /mGC/abR/+bp >> Quantum /mGC/abR/+cp >> computers /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> are /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp
computer >> different /GC/S/abE/+bp >> from /GC/S/abE/+cp >> traditional /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> computers /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> based /GC/P/abE/+bp >> on /GC/P/abE/+cp >> transistors /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
"quantum Turing machine" (f/T + ile/S)/Ch file
* "quantum Turing machine" >> "universal quantum computer" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
Although quantum computing is still in its infancy, experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of qubits (quantum bit). Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national government and military funding agencies support quantum computing research to develop quantum computers for both civilian and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis.
qubit (b/GC/S/abT + it/C2)/Ch bit
* qubit >> "quantum bit" /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp
If large-scale quantum computers can be built, they will be able to solve certain problems much faster than any current classical computers (for example Shor's algorithm). Quantum computers do not allow the computation of functions that are not theoretically computable by classical computers, i.e. they do not alter the Church–Turing thesis. The gain is only in efficiency.
"Shor's algorithm" ([ŋ= w=]/C2 + algorithm/P)/Ch algorithm
* "Shor's algorithm" >> "quantum algorithm" /mGC/abE
* Entscheidungsproblem >> "Church–Turing thesis" /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp
6. Quantum electronics
"Quantum electronics" ([ŋ= y=]/T + electronics/P)/Ch electronics
Quantum electronics is the area of physics dealing with the effects of quantum mechanics on the behavior of electrons in matter, and their interactions with photons.
* "Quantum electronics" >> "the area" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> of /GC/S/abE/+cp >> physics /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> dealing /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> with /GC/P/abE/+bp >> the /GC/P/abE/+cp >> effects /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> of /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> quantum /GC/S/abR/+bp >> mechanics /GC/S/abR/+cp >> on /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> the /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> behavior /GC/P/abR/+bp >> of /GC/P/abR/+cp >> electrons /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> in /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> matter /mGC/abE/+bp >> and /mGC/abE/+cp >> their /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> inter /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> action /mGC/abR/+bp >> "S [ŋe s=]" /mGC/abR/+cp >> with /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> photons /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp
It is today rarely considered a subfield in its own right, as it has been absorbed by other fields: solid state physics regularly takes quantum mechanics into account, and is usually concerned with electrons. Specific application to electronics is researched within semiconductor physics.
* "area of physics" >> It /GC/S/abE/+bp >> is /GC/S/abE/+cp >> today /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> rarely /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> considered /GC/P/abE/+bp >> a /GC/P/abE/+cp >> sub /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> field /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> in /GC/S/abR/+bp >> its /GC/S/abR/+cp >> own /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> right /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> ~ ~ ~
"solid state physics" (phy/GC/S/abT + sics/P)/Ch physics
"quantum mechanics" (m/GC/S/abT + echanics/C1)/Ch mechanics
"semiconductor physics" (phy/C2 + sics/GC/S/abT)/Ch physics
The field also encompasses the basic processes of laser operation where photons are interacting with electrons: absorption, spontaneous emission, and stimulated emission.
laser (b/P + eam/T)/Ch beam
* laser >> "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation" /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp
photon (l/P + ight/T)/Ch light
electron (l/T + ight/P)/Ch light
atom ([ŋ= y=]/P + electron/GC/S/abT)/Ch electron
The term was mainly used between the 1950s and the 1970s. Today, the research output of this field is mainly used in quantum optics, especially for the part of it that draws not from atomic physics but from solid-state physics.
"quantum optics" ([ŋ= w=]/T + optics/P)/Ch optics
optics (l/P + ens/T)/Ch lens
lens ([ŋ= y=]/T + eye/P)/Ch eye
"atomic physics" (phy/GC/S/abT + sics/P)/Ch physics
physics (n/P + ature/T)/Ch nature
* addition >> increment /mGC/Ch
boost ([ŋ= y=]/C2 + increment/S) increment
increase (b/T + oost/C2) boost
upsurge ([ŋ= y=]/P + increase/C2) increase
surge ([ŋ= w=]/GC/S/abT + upsurge/C2) upsurge
outpouring (s/C2 + urge/T) surge
effluent ([ŋ= w=]/P + outpouring/T) outpouring
emanation ([ŋ= y=]/GC/S/abT + effluent/T) effluent
radiation ([ŋ= y=]/C2 + emanation/S)/Ch emanation
beam (r/GC/S/abT + adiation/S)/Ch radiation
laser (b/P + eam/T)/Ch beam
* laser >> ("light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation" /C1)/GC/S/abE
A Closer Look A laser emits a thin, intense beam of nearly monochromatic visible or infrared light that can travel long distances without diffusing. Most light beams consist of many waves traveling in roughly the same direction, but the phases and polarizations of each individual wave (or photon) are randomly distributed. In laser light, the waves are all precisely in step, or in phase, with each other, and have the same polarization. Such light is called coherent. All of the photons that make up a laser beam are in the same quantum state. Lasers produce coherent light
through a process called stimulated emission. The laser contains a chamber in which atoms of a medium such as a synthetic ruby rod or a gas are excited, bringing their electrons into higher orbits with higher energy states. When one of these electrons jumps down to a lower energy state (which can happen spontaneously), it gives off its extra energy as a photon with a specific frequency. But this photon, upon encountering another atom with an excited electron, will stimulate that electron to jump down as well, emitting another photon with the same frequency as the first
and in phase with it. This effect cascades through the chamber, constantly stimulating other atoms to emit yet more coherent photons. Mirrors at both ends of the chamber cause the light to bounce back and forth in the chamber, sweeping across the entire medium. If a sufficient number of atoms in the medium are maintained by some external energy source in the higher energy state --- a condition called population inversion --- then emission is continuously stimulated, and a stream of coherent photons develops. One of the mirrors is partially transparent, allowing the laser beam to exit from that end of the chamber.
Lasers have many industrial, military, and scientific uses, including welding, target detection, microscopic photography, fiber optics, surgery, and optical instrumentation for surveying.
"A Closer Look" (r/C1 + eview/GC/S/abT) review
* laser >> ("A laser emits a thin, intense beam" /T/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* laser >> ("of nearly monochromatic visible or infrared light" /P/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* laser >> ("that can travel long distances" /S/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* laser >> ("without diffusing" /C2/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* laser >> ("Most light beams" /P/Ch)/T
* laser >> ("consist of many waves" /S/Ch)/T
* laser >> ("traveling in roughly the same direction" /C2/Ch)/T
* laser >> ("but the phases and polarizations of each individual wave" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/T
* laser >> ("or photon" /T/Ch)/P
* laser >> ("are randomly distributed" /S/Ch)/P
* laser >> ("In laser light" /C2/Ch)/P
* laser >> ("the waves are all precisely in step"/GC/S/abT/Ch)/P
* laser >> ("or in phase" /T/Ch)/S
* laser >> ("with each other" /P/Ch)/S
* laser >> ("and have the same polarization" /C2/Ch)/S
* laser >> ("Such light is called coherent" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/S
* laser >> ("All of the photons" /T/Ch)/C2
* laser >> ("that make up a laser beam" /P/Ch)/C2
* laser >> ("are in the same quantum state" /S/Ch)/C2
* laser >> ("Lasers produce coherent light" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/C2
* beam >> ("through a process called stimulated emission" /T/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* beam >> ("The laser contains a chamber" /P/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* beam >> ("in which atoms of a medium" /S/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* beam >> ("such as a synthetic ruby rod" /C2/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* beam >> ("or a gas are excited" /P/Ch)/T
* beam >> ("bringing their electrons" /S/Ch)/T
* beam >> ("into higher orbits" /C2/Ch)/T
* beam >> ("with higher energy states" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/T
* beam >> ("When one of these electrons" /T/Ch)/P
* beam >> ("jumps down to a lower energy state" /S/Ch)/P
* beam >> ("which can happen spontaneously" /C2/Ch)/P
* beam >> ("it gives off its extra energy"/GC/S/abT/Ch)/P
* beam >> ("as a photon with a specific frequency" /T/Ch)/S
* beam >> ("But this photon" /P/Ch)/S
* beam >> ("upon encountering another atom" /C2/Ch)/S
* beam >> ("with an excited electron" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/S
* beam >> ("will stimulate that electron to jump down as well" /T/Ch)/C2
* beam >> ("emitting another photon" /P/Ch)/C2
* beam >> ("with the same frequency" /S/Ch)/C2
* beam >> ("as the first" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/C2
* light >> ("and in phase with it" /T/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* light >> ("This effect cascades" /P/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* light >> ("through the chamber" /S/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* light >> ("constantly stimulating other atoms" /C2/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* light >> ("to emit yet more coherent photons" /P/Ch)/T
* light >> ("Mirrors at both ends of the chamber" /S/Ch)/T
* light >> ("cause the light to bounce back" /C2/Ch)/T
* light >> ("and forth in the chamber" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/T
* light >> ("sweeping across the entire medium" /T/Ch)/P
* light >> ("If a sufficient number of atoms" /S/Ch)/P
* light >> ("in the medium are maintained" /C2/Ch)/P
* light >> ("by some external energy source"/GC/S/abT/Ch)/P
* light >> ("in the higher energy state" /T/Ch)/S
* light >> ("a condition called population inversion" /P/Ch)/S
* light >> ("then emission is continuously stimulated" /C2/Ch)/S
* light >> ("and a stream of coherent photons develops" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/S
* light >> ("One of the mirrors" /T/Ch)/C2
* light >> ("is partially transparent" /P/Ch)/C2
* light >> ("allowing the laser beam" /S/Ch)/C2
* light >> ("to exit from that end of the chamber" /GC/S/abT/Ch)/C2
* radiation >> (Lasers /T/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* radiation >> (have /P/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* radiation >> (many /S/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* radiation >> (industrial /C2/Ch)/GC/S/abT
* radiation >> (military /P/Ch)/T
* radiation >> (and /S/Ch)/T
* radiation >> (scientific /C2/Ch)/T
* radiation >> (uses /GC/S/abT/Ch)/T
* radiation >> (including /T/Ch)/P
* radiation >> (welding /S/Ch)/P
* radiation >> (target /C2/Ch)/P
* radiation >> (detection /GC/S/abT/Ch)/P
* radiation >> ("microscopic photography" /T/Ch)/S
* radiation >> ("fiber optics" /P/Ch)/S
* radiation >> (surgery /C2/Ch)/S
* radiation >> (and /GC/S/abT/Ch)/S
* radiation >> (optical /T/Ch)/C2
* radiation >> (instrumentation /P/Ch)/C2
* radiation >> (for /S/Ch)/C2
* radiation >> (surveying /GC/S/abT/Ch)/C2
A laser is a device that emits light (electromagnetic radiation) through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons. The term "laser" originated
as an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The emitted laser light is notable for its high degree of spatial and temporal coherence, unattainable using other technologies.
* laser >> "a device" /GC/S/abE/+bp >> that /GC/S/abE/+cp >> emits /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> light /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> electro /GC/P/abE/+bp >> magnetic /GC/P/abE/+cp >> radiation /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> through /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> a /GC/S/abR/+bp >> process /GC/S/abR/+cp >> of /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> optical /GC/S/abR/Ch/+cp >> amplification /GC/P/abR/+bp >> based /GC/P/abR/+cp >> on /GC/P/abR/Ch/+bp >> the /GC/P/abR/Ch/+cp >> stimulated /mGC/abE/+bp >> emission /mGC/abE/+cp >> of /mGC/abE/Ch/+bp >> photons /mGC/abE/Ch/+cp >> The /mGC/abR/+bp >> term /mGC/abR/+cp >> laser /mGC/abR/Ch/+bp >> originated /mGC/abR/Ch/+cp
photon >> as /GC/S/abE/+bp >> an /GC/S/abE/+cp >> acronym /GC/S/abE/Ch/+bp >> for /GC/S/abE/Ch/+cp >> Light /GC/P/abE/+bp >> Amplification /GC/P/abE/+cp >> by /GC/P/abE/Ch/+bp >> Stimulated /GC/P/abE/Ch/+cp >> Emission /GC/S/abR/+bp >> of /GC/S/abR/+cp >> Radiation /GC/S/abR/Ch/+bp >> ~ ~ ~
| GPCR, 'quantum mechanics' 'quantum state' 'subatomic particle' quark, photon, 'quantum optics'|
| Influenza viruses, bubonic plague, Lou Gehrig’s disease, visa, Dracula, DNA/RNA, stem cell, iPS cell|