|Subject ||each-and-every, either/one-of, he-or-she, neither/none/they, 'all (of)', used-up, hopefully, (a)wake(n)
10. "each and every", each/respectively, every single, every one of
Usage Note: The traditional rule holds that the subject of a sentence beginning with each is grammatically singular, and the verb and following pronouns must be singular accordingly: Each of the apartments has (not have) its (not their) own private entrance (not entrances). When each follows a plural subject, however, the verb and subsequent pronouns remain in the plural: The apartments each have their own private entrances (not has its own private entrance). But when each follows the verb with we as its subject, the rule has an exception. One may say either We boys have each our own room or We boys have each his own room, though the latter form may strike readers as stilted.
•The expression each and every is likewise followed by a singular verb and, at least in formal style, by a singular pronoun: Each and every driver knows (not know) what his or her (not their) job is to be. See Usage Notes at every, they.
each or every?
In some contexts these two words are nearly interchangeable, as in I examined each puppy in the litter and I examined every puppy in the litter. Here the only difference is a slight shift in perspective from considering the animals individually, with each, to considering them collectively, with every. Either of the words, placed before the noun, requires the noun and the verb to be singular: Each puppy is affectionate. Every puppy is affectionate. Each, though not every, may also be placed after a plural noun, and then the plural governs the verb: The puppies each have their own toys. Each can also refer to two or more, whereas every must refer to three or more. Each can be an adjective (each puppy), a pronoun (each of them), and an adverb (Give them a bowlful each), whereas every is an adjective only (every puppy). The expression each and every relates to a singular noun only, and therefore takes a singular verb only: Each and every passenger is required to present two photo IDs for identification. Avoid use of this expression in formal writing, because it is objected to by some people as unnecessarily wordy.
* When articulating "each of" (continuously, as one word) with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abT speaking posture, "each and every" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
The puppies each have their own toys:
* When articulating "respectively" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abT speaking posture, "each" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
* When articulating "each" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abT speaking posture, "every single" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
* When articulating "each" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abT speaking posture, "every one of" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
11. either/one of
Usage Note: The traditional rule holds that either should be used only to refer to one of two items and that any is required when more than two items are involved: Any (not either) of the three opposition candidates still in the race would make a better president than the incumbent. But reputable writers have often violated this rule, and in any case it applies only to the use of either as a pronoun or an adjective. When either is used as a conjunction, no paraphrase with any is available, and so either is unexceptionable even when it applies to more than two clauses: Either the union will make a counteroffer or the original bid will be refused by the board or the deal will go ahead as scheduled.
•In either ... or constructions, the two conjunctions should be followed by parallel elements. The following is regarded as incorrect: You may either have the ring or the bracelet (properly, You may have either the ring or the bracelet). The following is also incorrect: She can take either the examination offered to all applicants or ask for a personal interview (properly, She can either take ... ).
•When used as a pronoun, either is singular and takes a singular verb: The two left-wing parties disagree with each other more than either does (not do) with the Right. When followed by of and a plural noun, either is often used with a plural verb: Either of the parties have enough support to form a government. But this usage is widely regarded as incorrect; in an earlier survey it was rejected by 92 percent of the Usage Panel.
•When all the elements in an either ... or construction (or a neither ... nor construction) used as the subject of a sentence are singular, the verb is singular: Either Eve or Herb has been invited. Analogously, when all the elements in the either ... or construction are plural, the verb is plural too: Either the Clarks or the Kays have been invited. When the construction mixes singular and plural elements, however, there is some confusion as to which form the verb should take. It has sometimes been suggested that the verb should agree with whichever noun phrase is closest to it; thus one would write Either Eve or the Kays have been invited, but Either the Kays or Eve has been invited. This pattern is accepted by 54 percent of the Usage Panel. Others have maintained that the construction is fundamentally inconsistent whichever number is assigned to the verb and that such sentences should be rewritten accordingly. See Usage Notes at every, neither, or he1, they.
Singular or plural after either?
Either is normally used with a singular verb: Has either of you been to Paris?Either Lee or David is responsible. Informally, however, the plural is used when the choices are regarded collectively rather than individually, and it is quite natural to say Have either of you been to Paris?, which permits the possibility that both the people addressed have done so. When either...or... occurs with a mixture of singular and plural subjects, the verb traditionally agrees with the subject that is closer to it: Either Lee or his parents are at home.
* When articulating "one of" (continuously, as one word) with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abT speaking posture, "either of" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
12. "he or she"
Usage Note: Traditionally the pronouns he, him, and his have been used as generic or gender-neutral singular pronouns, as in A novelist should write about what he knows best and No one seems to take any pride in his work anymore. Since the early 20th century, however, this usage has come under increasing criticism for reflecting and perpetuating gender stereotyping.
•Defenders of the traditional usage have argued that the masculine pronouns he, his, and him can be used generically to refer to men and women. This analysis of the generic use of he is linguistically doubtful. If he were truly a gender-neutral form, we would expect that it could be used to refer to the members of any group containing both men and women. But in fact the English masculine form is an odd choice when it refers to a female member of such a group. There is something plainly disconcerting about sentences such as Each of the stars of As Good As It Gets [i.e., Jack Nicholson and Helen Hunt] won an Academy Award for his performance. In this case, the use of his forces the reader to envision a single male who stands as the representative member of the group, a picture that is at odds with the image that comes to mind when we picture the stars of As Good As It Gets. Thus he is not really a gender-neutral pronoun; rather, it refers to a male who is to be taken as the representative member of the group referred to by its antecedent. The traditional usage, then, is not simply a grammatical convention; it also suggests a particular pattern of thought.
•It is clear that many people now routinely construct their remarks to avoid generic he, usually using one of two strategies: changing to the plural, so they is used (which is often the easiest solution) or using compound and coordinate forms such as he/she or he or she (which can be cumbersome in sustained use). In some cases, the generic pronoun can simply be dropped or changed to an article with no change in meaning. The sentence A writer who draws on personal experience for material should not be surprised if reviewers seize on that fact is complete as it stands and requires no pronoun before the word material. The sentence Every student handed in his assignment is just as clear when written Every student handed in the assignment.
•Not surprisingly, the opinion of the Usage Panel in such matters is mixed. While 37 percent actually prefer the generic his in the sentence A taxpayer who fails to disclose the source of income can be prosecuted under the new law, 46 percent prefer a coordinate form like his or her; 7 percent felt that no pronoun was needed in the sentence; 2 percent preferred an article, usually the; and another 2 percent overturned tradition by advocating the use of generic her, a strategy that brings the politics of language to the reader's notice. Thus a clear majority of the Panel prefers something other than his. The writer who chooses to use generic he and its inflected forms in the face of the strong trend away from that usage may be viewed as deliberately calling attention to traditional gender roles or may simply appear to be insensitive. See Usage Notes at each, every, neither, one, she, they.
Formerly, he was often used to refer to somebody whose gender was not specified: A child needs time to learn and can then move at his own pace. More recently this usage has been avoided. Because English does not have a gender-neutral pronoun in the third person singular that can be used to refer to people, "he or she" may need to be used, especially in formal contexts. In informal contexts they is often used instead. Another alternative is to use the plural: Children need time to learn and can then move at their own pace. See also they.
* When articulating "he or she" (continuously, as one word) with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "he" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
Usage Note: According to the traditional rule, neither is used only to mean "not one or the other of two." To refer to "none of several," none is preferred: None (not neither) of the three opposition candidates would make a better president than the incumbent.
•The traditional rule also holds that neither is grammatically singular: Neither candidate is having an easy time with the press. However, it is often used with a plural verb, especially when followed by of and a plural: Neither of the candidates are really expressing their own views.
•As a conjunction neither is properly followed by nor, not or, in formal style: Neither prayers nor curses (not or curses) did any good. See Usage Notes at either, every, he1, none, nor1, or1.
Neither meaning none:
Do not substitute neither for the pronoun none in the sense "not one of several," as in Neither of these (four) options has any appeal. Say instead: None [or Not one] of these (four) options has any appeal. When you use neither as a conjunction, follow it with nor, not or, and make the verb agree with the nearest noun: Neither rain nor snow [not or snow] is [not are] going to stop mail delivery.
usage Although use with or is neither archaic nor wrong, neither is usually followed by nor. A few commentators think that neither must be limited in reference to two, but reference to more than two has been quite common since the 17th century <rigid enforcement of antique decorum will help neither language, literature, nor literati — James Sledd>.
* When articulating "either" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abT speaking posture, "neither" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
Usage Note: It is widely asserted that none is equivalent to no one, and hence requires a singular verb and singular pronoun: None of the prisoners was given his soup. It is true that none is etymologically derived from the Old English word n, "one," but the word has been used as both a singular and a plural noun from Old English onward. The plural usage appears in the King James Bible as well as the works of John Dryden and Edmund Burke and is widespread in the works of respectable writers today. Of course, the singular usage is perfectly acceptable. The choice between a singular or plural verb depends on the desired effect. Both options are acceptable in this sentence: None of the conspirators has (or have) been brought to trial. When none is modified by almost, however, it is difficult to avoid treating the word as a plural: Almost none of the officials were (not was) interviewed by the committee. None can only be plural in its use in sentences such as None but his most loyal supporters believe (not believes) his story. See Usage Notes at every, neither, nothing.
* When articulating "anyone" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture, "none" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
Usage Note: The use of the third-person plural pronoun they to refer to a singular noun or pronoun is attested as early as 1300, and many admired writers have used they, them, themselves, and their to refer to singular nouns such as one, a person, an individual, and each. W.M. Thackeray, for example, wrote in Vanity Fair in 1848, "A person can't help their birth," and more recent writers such as George Bernard Shaw and Anne Morrow Lindbergh have also used this construction, in sentences such as "To do a person in means to kill them," and "When you love someone you do not love them all the time." The practice is widespread and can be found in such mainstream publications as the Christian Science Monitor, Discover, and the Washington Post. The usage is so common in speech that it generally passes unnoticed.
•However, despite the convenience of third-person plural forms as substitutes for generic he and for structurally awkward coordinate forms like his/her, many people avoid using they to refer to a singular antecedent out of respect for the traditional grammatical rule concerning pronoun agreement. Most of the Usage Panelists reject the use of they with singular antecedents. Eighty-two percent find the sentence The typical student in the program takes about six years to complete their course work unacceptable. Thus, the writer who chooses to use they in similar contexts in writing should do so only if assured that the usage will be read as a conscious choice rather than an error.
•Interestingly, Panel members do seem to distinguish between singular nouns, such as the typical student, and pronouns that are grammatically singular but semantically plural, such as anyone and everyone. Sixty-four percent of panel members accept the sentence No one is willing to work for those wages anymore, are they? in informal speech. See Usage Notes at any, anyone, he1, she.
Word History: Incredible as it may seem, the English pronoun they is not really an English pronoun. They comes from Old Norse and is a classic example of the profound impact of that language on English: because pronouns are among the most basic elements of a language, it is rare for them to be replaced by borrowings from foreign sources. The Old Norse pronouns their, theira, theim worked their way south from the Danelaw, the region governed by the Old Norse-speaking invaders of England, and first appeared in English about 1200, gradually replacing the Old English words he, him, hora. The nominative or subject case (modern English they) seems to have spread first. William Caxton, who brought the printing press to England, uses they, hir, hem in his earlier printed works (after 1475) and thei, their, theim in his later ones. This is clear evidence of the spread of these Norse forms southward, since Caxton did not speak northern English natively (he was born in Westminster). The native English objective case of the third plural, him or hem, may well survive, at least colloquially, in modern English 'em, as in "Give 'em back!"
Because English does not have a gender-neutral third person singular pronoun that can be used to refer to people, they, together with the associated words their and them, is often used in this role and is a revival of an older use that was once well established in English. In more formal contexts, and when the individuality of the subject is significant, it is necessary to use he or she, his or her, or him or her, but these phrases are too cumbersome to provide a solution in informal conversational usage, e.g., Everyone taking the test should do the best they can. If anyone asks who I am, tell them that I'm his sister. A way of avoiding the need to use he or she in writing can be to use a plural: Students taking the test should do the best they can.
usage They used as an indefinite subject (sense 2) is sometimes objected to on the grounds that it does not have an antecedent. Not every pronoun requires an antecedent, however. The indefinite they is used in all varieties of contexts and is standard.
usage They, their, them, themselves: English lacks a common-gender third person singular pronoun that can be used to refer to indefinite pronouns (as everyone, anyone, someone). Writers and speakers have supplied this lack by using the plural pronouns <and every one to rest themselves betake — Shakespeare> <I would have everybody marry if they can do it properly — Jane Austen> <it is too hideous for anyone in their senses to buy — W. H. Auden>. The plural pronouns have also been put to use as pronouns of indefinite number to refer to singular nouns that stand for many persons <'tis meet that some more audience than a mother, since nature makes them partial, should o'erhear the speech — Shakespeare> <a person can't help their birth — W. M. Thackeray> <no man goes to battle to be killed. — But they do get killed — G. B. Shaw>. The use of they, their, them, and themselves as pronouns of indefinite gender and indefinite number is well established in speech and writing, even in literary and formal contexts. This gives you the option of using the plural pronouns where you think they sound best, and of using the singular pronouns (as he, she, he or she, and their inflected forms) where you think they sound best.
* When articulating "it" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "they" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
16. all (of); all, (used-up)
all or all of?
You have a choice between all and all of when the following noun is qualified by the, this, that, these, those, or a possessive adjective such as my and your: All my life I've wanted to be a singer. All of my life I've wanted to be a singer. All these things worried them. All of these things worried them. Generally all is preferred, but the balance and flow of a particular sentence also plays a part.
On its own meaning "finished or used up," all is a German loanword that occurs primarily in the territory of the Pennsylvanian Dutch (southeastern Pennsylvania) and neighboring states. It is used especially of quantifiable amounts of food and drink: the meat is all; potatoes are yet, indicates that the meat is all gone, but the potatoes remain.
* "all ^of^ the/this/that/these/those/my/your ~" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced as "all the/this/that/these/those/my/your ~". But "all ^of^ his/her/their/its/Tom's ~" is not metaphthong/MPh pronounced as "all his/her/their/its/Tom's ~" but still spoken as "all of his/her/their/its/Tom's ~" without of silence of "^of^".
* When articulating "used up" (continuously, as one word) with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "all" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
17. sentence adverb: hopefully/mercifully/frankly
Usage Note: Writers who use hopefully as a sentence adverb, as in Hopefully the measures will be adopted, should be aware that the usage is unacceptable to many critics, including a large majority of the Usage Panel. It is not easy to explain why critics dislike this use of hopefully. The use is justified by analogy to similar uses of many other adverbs, as in Mercifully, the play was brief or Frankly, I have no use for your friend. And though this use of hopefully may have been a vogue word when it first gained currency back in the early 1960s, it has long since lost any hint of jargon or pretentiousness for the general reader. The wide acceptance of the usage reflects popular recognition of its usefulness; there is no precise substitute. Someone who says Hopefully, the treaty will be ratified makes a hopeful prediction about the fate of the treaty, whereas someone who says I hope (or We hope or It is hoped) the treaty will be ratified expresses a bald statement about what is desired. Only the latter could be continued with a clause such as but it isn't likely.
•It might have been expected, then, that the initial flurry of objections to hopefully would have subsided once the usage became well established. Instead, critics appear to have become more adamant in their opposition. In the 1969 Usage Panel survey, 44 percent of the Panel approved the usage, but this dropped to 27 percent in our 1986 survey. (By contrast, 60 percent in the latter survey accepted the comparable use of mercifully in the sentence Mercifully, the game ended before the opponents could add another touchdown to the lopsided score.) It is not the use of sentence adverbs per se that bothers the Panel; rather, the specific use of hopefully in this way has become a shibboleth.
USAGE Some people object to the use of hopefully as a synonym for the phrase `it is hoped that' in a sentence such as hopefully I'll be able to attend the meeting. This use of the adverb first appeared in America in the 1960s, but it has rapidly established itself elsewhere. There are really no strong grounds for objecting to it, since we accept other sentence adverbials that fulfill a similar function, for example unfortunately, which means `it is unfortunate that' in a sentence such as unfortunately I won't be able to attend the meeting.
usage In the 1960s the second sense (it is hoped : I hope : we hope <hopefully the rain will end soon>) of hopefully, which dates to the early 18th century and had been in fairly widespread use since at least the 1930s, underwent a surge in popularity. A surge of criticism followed in reaction, but the criticism took no account of the grammar of adverbs. Hopefully in its second sense is a member of a class of adverbs known as disjuncts. Disjuncts serve as a means by which the author or speaker can comment directly to the reader or hearer usually on the content of the sentence to which they are attached. Many other adverbs (as interestingly, frankly, clearly, luckily, unfortunately) are similarly used; most are so ordinary as to excite no comment or interest whatsoever. The second sense of hopefully is entirely standard.
Many people object when hopefully is used as a so-called sentence adverb (i.e., a sentence introducer that qualifies the entire sentence), as in Hopefully, someone can resolve this. The criticism arises from the fact that in this sentence no one is present who is meant to be doing the hoping. You can avoid the whole problem by saying Let's hope, Let us hope, or It is to be hoped.
* When articulating "hopefully thinking" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abR speaking posture, "hopefully" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When articulating "fortunately" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abR speaking posture, "mercifully" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
And when articulating "frankly speaking" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture, "frankly" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
** "^it^ is unfortunate that -" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced as "unfortunately".
And "^it^ is fortunate that -" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced as "fortunately".
"^when^ I speak frankly" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced as "frankly speaking".
"^I^ hope that -" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced as "hopefully" which is pronounced from /T.
18. wake, waken and awake, awaken; "wake up"
Usage Note: The pairs wake, waken and awake, awaken have formed a bewildering array since the Middle English period. All four words have similar meanings, though there are some differences in use. Only wake is used in the sense "to be awake," as in expressions like waking (not wakening) and sleeping, every waking hour. Wake is also more common than waken when used together with up, and awake and awaken never occur in this context: She woke up (rarely wakened up; never awakened up or awoke up). Some writers have suggested that waken should be used only transitively (as in The alarm wakened him) and awaken only intransitively (as in He awakened at dawn), but there is ample literary precedent for usages such as He wakened early and They did not awaken her. In figurative senses awake and awaken are more prevalent: With the governor's defeat the party awoke to the strength of the opposition to its position on abortion. The scent of the gardenias awakened my memory of his unexpected appearance that afternoon years ago.
Regional Note: Regional American dialects vary in the way that certain verbs form their principal parts. Northern dialects seem to favor forms that change the internal vowel in the verb - - hence dove for the past tense of dive, and woke for wake: They woke up with a start. Southern dialects, on the other hand, tend to prefer forms that add an -ed to form the past tense and the past participle of these same verbs: The children dived into the swimming hole. The baby waked up early.
USAGE: Where there is an object and the sense is the literal one wake (up) and waken are the commonest forms: I wakened him; I woke him (up). Both verbs are also commonly used without an object: I woke up. Awake and awaken are preferred to other forms of wake where the sense is a figurative one: he awoke to the danger.
USAGE Both wake and its synonym waken can be used either with or without an object: I woke/wakened my sister, and also I woke/wakened (up) at noon. Wake, wake up, and occasionally waken, can also be used in a figurative sense, for example seeing him again woke painful memories; and it's time he woke up to his responsibilities. The verbs awake and awaken are more commonly used in the figurative than the literal sense, for example he awoke to the danger he was in.
awake, awaken, wake, or waken?
Although all four verbs are interchangeable in both the transitive and the intransitive meanings, in practice awake and awaken are preferred in figurative meanings: At last we awoke to the dangers that faced us. When used in literal meanings awake and awaken are normally used intransitively or in the passive: He awoke at four in the morning. I was awakened by shouts in the street. Will you wake us at four? Wake is the only one of these verbs that can be followed by up: I woke up at six this morning.
Etymology: partly from Middle English waken (past wook, past participle waken), from Old English wacan to awake (past wōc, past participle wacen); partly from Middle English wakien, waken (past & past participle waked), from Old English wacian to be awake (past wacode, past participle wacod); akin to Old English wæccan to watch, Latin vegēre to enliven
* When articulating "wake" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abR speaking posture, "awake" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When articulating "wake" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/abT/Ch speaking posture, "waken" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
* When articulating "awake" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abR/Ch speaking posture, "awaken" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When articulating "waken" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abT speaking posture, "wake up" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
So, only "wake" is true/genuine English/TE while "waken, awake, awaken, wake up" are GRECOnglish/GC (derivatives).
** When articulating "at wake" (continuously, as one word) with/from /T speaking posture, "awake" (of adjective/adverb??) is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
| 'aΛ=, =aΛ, =ou, Λ=a' purpose'ful'ly, of-choice, alternate, every-cars, of-any, at-all, any-better, any-old|
| 'oΛ=, =oΛ, Λa=, =Λa' all-and-sundry, several-of-the, funny/silly/go, all-that, be-all, like-to-went, close|