Usage Note: Group as a collective noun can be followed by a singular or plural verb. It takes a singular verb when the persons or things that make up the group are considered collectively: The dance group is ready for rehearsal. Group takes a plural verb when the persons or things that constitute it are considered individually: The group were divided in their sympathies. See Usage Note at collective noun.
When group is used to refer to a collection of individuals regarded as a unit or a whole, a singular verb is used: The group has decided not to go on the afternoon tour, i.e., everybody in the group has decided unanimously to skip that tour. When the members of a group are regarded as separate individuals or factions, a plural verb is used: The group have been arguing all morning about going or not going, i.e., some members want to go and others do not.
* When articulating "people" or "mass" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "group" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
person/T/Ch + s/S/Ch : people
thing/T/Ch + s/S/Ch : mass
1. fairly hot: moderately or comfortably hot
a warm climate
12. uncomfortable: uncomfortable because of danger ( informal )
If articulating [aΛiu] from /S/mES, “cosy”/+-, “snug"/+bp, “warm"/+cp, and “secure"/Ch/+-, “comfortable"/Ch/+bp, “sheltered"/Ch/+cp are pronounced.
* When articulating "hot" or "uncomfortable" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "warm" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
send down: Chiefly British, To suspend or dismiss from a university.
send for: To request to come by means of a message or messenger; summon.
1. To cause to arrive or to be delivered to the recipient: Let's send in a letter of protest. "present"
2. Sports To put (a player) into or back into a game or contest: The coach is sending in the kicker.
3. To cause (someone) to arrive in or become involved in a particular place or situation: The commander sent in the sappers. It's time to send in the lawyers.
send off: Sports, To eject (a player), as from a soccer game, especially for a flagrant violation of the rules.
send up: Informal,
1. To send to jail: was sent up for 20 years.
2. To make a parody of: "grandiloquently eccentric but witty verbiage . . . that would send up the nastiness of suburban London" New York.
send flying: Informal,
To cause to be knocked or scattered about with force: a blow to the table that sent the dishes flying.
send packing: To dismiss (someone) abruptly.
>> send down: When articulating "suspend" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abT speaking posture, "send down" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
>> send for: When articulating "summon" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "send for" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
>> send in: When articulating "present" or "call" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abR speaking posture, "send in" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
>> send off: When articulating "dismiss" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "send off" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
>> send up: When articulating "imitate" or "imprison" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abT speaking posture, "send up" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
>> send flying: When articulating "hit" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "send flying" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
>> send packing: When articulating "dismiss" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture, "send packing" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating [aΛiu] from /C1/mES, “sample”/+-, “test”/+bp, “evaluate"/+cp, and “inspect”/Ch/+-, “experiment-with”/Ch/+bp, “partake-of”/Ch/+cp are pronounced.
* When articulating "experiment-with" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture, "experiment" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced. "opt for"
1. U.S. undoubtedly: used to give emphasis to something that somebody is saying and to indicate that somebody does not expect anyone to disagree with it
This sure tastes good.
2. yes: used to indicate emphatic or enthusiastic assent
I asked him if he'd like to come and he said, "Sure!"
The use of sure as an adverbial intensifier, as in the sentence We sure are glad to see you! is characteristic of informal U.S. usage; its use in formal writing is inappropriate.
usage Most commentators consider the adverb sure to be something less than completely standard; surely is usually recommended as a substitute. Our current evidence shows, however, that sure and surely have become differentiated in use. Sure is used in much more informal contexts than surely. It is used as a simple intensive <I can never know how much I bored her, but, be certain, she sure amused me — Norman Mailer> and, because it connotes strong affirmation, it is used when the speaker or writer expects to be agreed with <it's a moot point whether politicians are less venal than in Twain's day. But they're sure as the devil more intrusive — Alan Abelson> <he sure gets them to play — D. S. Looney>. Surely, like sure, is used as a simple intensive <I surely don't want to leave the impression that I had an unhappy childhood — E. C. Welsh> but it occurs in more formal contexts than sure. Unlike sure it may be used neutrally—the reader or hearer may or may not agree <it would surely be possible, within a few years, to program a computer to construct a grammar — Noam Chomsky> and it is often used when the writer is trying to persuade <surely a book on the avant-garde cannot be so conventional — Karl Shapiro>.
* When articulating "surely" or "yes" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "sure" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
without: in the absence of
Absent a definite refusal, I decided to proceed.
* When articulating "without" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "absent" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
Main Entry: 2 away
Date: 14th century
4 baseball : out <two away in the ninth>
* When articulating "out" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "away" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
4. pregnant: having been pregnant for a particular number of months
She's eight months gone.
6. uneasy: giving a sensation of giddiness or mild nausea
7. exhilarated: excited or exhilarated, e.g. while listening to music ( slang )
8. infatuated: affected by a strong feeling of attraction toward somebody ( dated slang )
He's gone on your sister.
* When articulating "pregnant" "uneasy" "excited" or "infatuated" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "gone" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
some: of an imprecise but limited number
certain of: some but not all of (formal)
for certain: without any doubt
* When articulating "some" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "certain" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When articulating "certain" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abT speaking posture, "certain of" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When articulating "certain" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "for certain" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
20. convince: prove/persuade
* If articulating [aΛi=] from /T/pES, “positive"/+-, “certain”/+bp, “sure”/+cp, and “convinced”/+-/Ch, "confident"/Ch/+bp, “assured"/Ch/+cp are pronounced.
1. To bring by the use of argument or evidence to firm belief or a course of action. See Synonyms at persuade.
2. Obsolete To prove to be wrong or guilty.
3. Obsolete To conquer; overpower.
Usage Note: According to a traditional rule, one persuades someone to act but convinces someone of the truth of a statement or proposition: By convincing me that no good could come of staying, he persuaded me to leave. If the distinction is accepted, then convince should not be used with an infinitive: He persuaded (not convinced) me to go. In a 1981 survey, 61 percent of the Usage Panel rejected the use of convince with an infinitive. But the tide of sentiment against the construction appears to be turning. In a 1996 survey 74 percent accepted it in the sentence I tried to convince him to chip in a few dollars, but he refused. Even in passive constructions, a majority of the Panel accepted convince with an infinitive. Fifty-two percent accepted the sentence After listening to the teacher's report, the committee was convinced to go ahead with the new reading program. Persuade, on the other hand, is perfectly acceptable when used with an infinitive or a that clause in both active and passive constructions. An overwhelming majority of Panelists in the 1996 survey accepted the following sentences: After a long discussion with her lawyer, she was persuaded to drop the lawsuit. The President persuaded his advisors that military action was necessary. Thus, it seems likely that advocates of the traditional rule governing persuade and convince will find fewer and fewer allies in their camp.
USAGE The use of convince to talk about persuading someone to do something is considered by many British speakers to be wrong or unacceptable. It would be preferable to use an alternative such as persuade or talk into.
convince or persuade?
Traditionally, to convince somebody is to make him or her certain of something, and to persuade somebody is to induce him or her to act: She convinced him that he had talent and persuaded him to study music. Because of this distinction, some people still object to the use of an infinitive after convince, pointing out that She convinced him to... involves inducing someone to act. Nonetheless, the distinction is quickly disappearing by force of widespread usage, and constructions like this one are increasingly seen in the work of reputable writers: After a long series of tests I was convinced to go ahead with the surgery despite the risks.
* When articulating "prove" "persuade" or "conquer" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "convince" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
Usage Note: Prove has two past participles: proved and proven. Proved is the older form. Proven is a variant. The Middle English spellings of prove included preven, a form that died out in England but survived in Scotland, and the past participle proven, a form that probably rose by analogy with verbs like weave, woven and cleave, cloven. Proven was originally used in Scottish legal contexts, such as The jury ruled that the charges were not proven. In the 20th century, proven has made inroads into the territory once dominated by proved, so that now the two forms compete on equal footing as participles. However, when used as an adjective before a noun, proven is now the more common word: a proven talent.
proved or proven?
The past participles proved and proven are both often used as verbs, with auxiliaries, and also as predicative adjectives (after be). Whether to say, for example, We have proved our case or We have proven our case, and The case is proved or The case is proven is a matter of choice. Proved is not, however, ordinarily employed as an adjective preceding a noun: proven cases; a proven fact are the standard forms.
usage The past participle proven, originally the past participle of preve, a Middle English variant of prove that survived in Scotland, has gradually worked its way into standard English over the past three and a half centuries. It seems to have first become established in legal use and to have come only slowly into literary use. Tennyson was one of its earliest frequent users, probably for metrical reasons. It was disapproved by 19th century grammarians, one of whom included it in a list of “words that are not words.” Surveys made some 50 or 60 years ago indicated that proved was about four times as frequent as proven. But our evidence from the last 30 or 35 years shows this no longer to be the case. As a past participle proven is now about as frequent as proved in all contexts. As an attributive adjective <proved or proven gas reserves> proven is much more common than proved.
* When articulating "proved" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture, "proven" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When used as an adjective before a noun, proven is articulated with/from English /S speaking posture.