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(Comparative) study (in structure/mode/ways of pronunciation, articulation, phonetics, or whatever; that is, in differences of speaking mouth postures and resultant speaking weight/force center points) between English/foreign languages and mother tongue, for better (more practical/effective/smooth) hearing/speaking of English/foreign languages.       Copyright.   Young-Won Kim,   yw@voicespec.com
open : home | brd2 | Kor | book | FUN member : main II | Kor II


::: Comparative phonetics, main :::


596 12 View counter   Join Member Login Admin
Name   Young-Won Kim
Subject   what/which//that/this/whatever/whose/who/however, although, but, except(ing), and, It is me, both/with
what/pronoun??        which (relative pronoun)           that,           this/that,          what(so)ever,           whose, (of which),           who,              however,             (al)though,             but,              except(ing),             and, It is me,            both,         with


1.        what/pronoun??

Re:      Article of    "conveniently/hopefully.  the/which/what/this/that.  wanna/gonna.  Interrogatives"           <<Column 4.   More/critical/intensive study on Interrogatives. D)  what>>

http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/what.html ,    
Word Usage
As a pronoun,   the word what means "the thing that," as in   This is much nicer than what he gave me last Christmas.    Remember what I told you.         Beware of adding what where it is not needed:   It was a lot more difficult than [not than what] I thought it would be.
 
what/S/P [w=h  hah]               (the-thing/S + that/P)                "the thing that"

what/S/T [w(=u)h  hah]            (the-things/S + that/T)               "the things that"


It was a lot more difficult than [not than what] I thought it would be.     <<     It was a lot more difficult than I expected it would be.

*         When articulating       "than I expected"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "than what] I thought" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


http://www.thefreedictionary.com/what ,  
Usage Note:       When what is the subject of a clause,   it takes a singular verb   if the word or phrase that completes the sentence (the complement) is singular, as in   I see what seems to be a dead tree.        It is plural   if a plural noun or noun phrase completes the sentence, as in   He sometimes makes what seem to be gestures of reconciliation.         • Clauses with what as either subject or object may themselves be the subject of a sentence,   and sometimes it is difficult to decide whether the verb of the main clause should be singular or plural.         When the what in the what-clause is the object of the verb and the complement of the main clause is singular,   the main verb is always singular:    What they wanted was a home of their own;       when the complement of the main sentence is plural,   the verb is most often plural:       What American education needs are smaller classes,   though one also encounters sentences such as   What the candidate gave the audience was the same old empty promises.        When what is the subject of a what-clause that is the subject of a main clause,   there is greater variation in usage.          When the verb of the what-clause and the complement of the main clause are both plural or both singular, the number of the verb of the main clause generally agrees with them.         When the verb in the what-clause is singular and the complement in the main clause is plural,   one finds both singular and plural verbs being used.         Sentences similar to both of the following are found in respected writers:      What drives me crazy is her frequent tantrums;     What bothers him are the discrepancies in their accounts.           When the complement of the main clause consists of two or more nouns,   the verb of the main clause is generally singular   if the nouns are singular     and plural   if they are plural:   What pleases the voters is his honesty and his willingness to take on difficult issues;  On entering the harbor what first meet the eye are luxurious yachts and colorful villas.          Occasionally the choice of a singular or plural verb may be used to convey a difference in meaning.            In the sentence  What excite him most are money and power,   the implication is that money and power are separable goals;   in What excites him most is money and power,   the implication is that money and power are inextricably bound together.         See Usage Note at which.

USAGE: The use of are in sentences such as what we need are more doctors is common,   although many people think is should be used: what we need is more doctors.


I see  what/S/P [w=h  hah]  seems to be a dead tree.

He sometimes makes  what/S/T [w(=u)h  hah]  seem to be gestures of reconciliation.

What/S/P [w=h  hah]  they wanted was a home of their own;

What/S/T [w(=u)h  hah]  American education needs are smaller classes,


What the candidate gave the audience was the same old empty promises.       <<       What the candidate gave the audience were the same old empty promises.

*         When articulating       "were the"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abP speaking posture,      "was the"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


What drives me crazy is her frequent tantrums.       <<      What drive me crazy are her frequent tantrums

*         When articulating       "drive me"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abP speaking posture,      "drives me"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
And when articulating       "are her"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abP speaking posture,      "is her"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


What bothers him are the discrepancies in their accounts.       <<      What bother him are the discrepancies in their accounts.

*         When articulating       "bother him"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abP speaking posture,      "bothers him"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


What pleases the voters is his honesty and his willingness to take on difficult issues.      <<       What pleases the voters is his honesty as well as his willingness to take on difficult issues

*         When articulating       "as well as his"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abP speaking posture,      "and his"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


>>  On entering the harbor what first meet the eye are luxurious yachts and colorful villas.

*         When articulating       "come into the eyes"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abP speaking posture,      "meet the eye"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


What excites him most is money and power.      <<     What excites him most is money as well as power.

*         When articulating       "as well as power"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abP speaking posture,      "and power"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


2.       which     (relative pronoun)

Re:      Article of    "conveniently/hopefully.  the/which/what/this/that.  wanna/gonna.  Interrogatives"           <<Column 4.   More/critical/intensive study on Interrogatives. E)  which>>

http://www.answers.com/topic/which ,    
Usage Note:           The relative pronoun which is sometimes used to refer to an entire sentence or clause,   rather than a noun or noun phrase, as in   She ignored him, which proved to be unwise.    They swept the council elections, which could never have happened under the old rules.           While these examples are unexceptionable,   using which in this way sometimes produces an ambiguous sentence.          Thus It emerged that   Edna made the complaint, which surprised everybody   leaves unclear whether it was surprising that a complaint was made   or that Edna made it.        The ambiguity can be avoided with paraphrases such as   It emerged that the complaint was made by Edna, a revelation that surprised everybody.            • Which may be used to refer to an entire sentence or clause only when it is preceded by that sentence or clause.          When the referent follows,  what should be used,  particularly in formal style:   Still, he has not said he will withdraw, which is more surprising but    Still, what (not which) is more surprising, he has not said he will withdraw.             See Usage Notes at that, what, whose.


which/S/P [w=h  hih  h=h  c=h  hih]             (and/S + the-act/P)          "and the act"

which/S/T [y=h  h=h  c=h  hih]                   (and/S + it/T)                 "and it"

which/S/C2 [ŋ(=ui)h  h=h  c=h  hih]              (and/S + they/C2)            "and they"


which/P/S                                          (the/P + act/S)             "the act"

which/C1/T                                          (i/C1 + it/T)               "it [i  it]"

which/T/P                                           (de/T + i/P)             "they [de  i]"


which                             (i/P + =t/S)                     it [i  =t]    (obj,)

which                            (d=/C1 + em/T)                 them [d=  em] (obj,)


which                             (some/S + thing/P)             "something"

which                             (any/T + thing/P)                "anything"

which                              (no/C1 + thing/P)                "nothing"


which  (obj,)                     (some/P + thing/S)             "something" (obj,)

which  (obj,)                     (any/C1 + thing/S)                "anything" (obj,)

which  (obj,)                      (no/T + thing/S)                "nothing" (obj,)


She ignored him,  which/S/P [w=h  hih  h=h  c=h  hih]  proved to be unwise.

They swept the council elections,  which/S/P [w=h  hih  h=h  c=h  hih]  could never have happened under the old rules.


Edna made the complaint,  which/S/T [y=h  h=h  c=h  hih]  surprised everybody.         (- and the complaint surprised everybody.)

Edna made the complaint,  which/S/P [w=h  hih  h=h  c=h  hih]  surprised everybody.          (- and the act that Edna made it surprised everybody.)


Still, he has not said he will withdraw,  which/S/P [w=h  hih  h=h  c=h  hih]  is more surprising.

Still, what (not which) is more surprising, he has not said he will withdraw.       <<    Still, what is more surprising  (^is^ that)  he has not said he will withdraw.


3.    that
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/that ,      
usage        That,  which,  who:    In current usage   that refers to persons or things,   which chiefly to things and rarely to subhuman entities,   who chiefly to persons and sometimes to animals.         The notion that that should not be used to refer to persons is without foundation;   such use is entirely standard.           Because that has no genitive form or construction,   of which or whose must be substituted for it in contexts that call for the genitive.

who/S/T [huh  h=h]                       (and/S + I/T)           "and I"

who/S/P [[huh  h=h  w=h]                (and/S + you/P)        "and you"

who/P/C2 [h(=u)h  h=h]                  (and/P + he/C2)         "and he"

who/P/T [h(=u)h  h=h  w=h]             (and/P + she/T)         "and she"

who/C1/P [h(u=)h  h=h]                  (and/C1 + we/P)        "and we"

who/C1/S [h(u=)h  h=h  w=h]            (and/C1 + you/S)       "and you"  pl.

who/C1/P [h(u=)h  h=h  h=w]            (and/C1 + they/T)       "and they"


who/C1/T                                   (a/C1 + i/T)           "I [a  i]"

who/T/C2                                   (yu/T + =/C2)        "you [yu  =]"

who/C1/S                                   (hi/C1 + i/S)          "he [hi  i]"

who/S/P                                    (si/S + i/P)            "she [si  i]"

who/P/T                                    (wi/P + i/T)            "we [wi  i]"

who/P/T                                    (y=/P + =s/T)         "you [yu  =s]"  pl.

who/C1/T                                   (de/C1 + i/T)           "they [de  i]"


*         When articulating       "which"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "that" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

When articulating       "who"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture,      "that" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


usage    That, which:      Although some handbooks say otherwise,    that and which are both regularly used to introduce restrictive clauses in edited prose.       Which is also used to introduce nonrestrictive clauses.       That was formerly used to introduce nonrestrictive clauses;    such use is virtually nonexistent in present-day edited prose,       though it may occasionally be found in poetry.

*         When articulating       "non-defining"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "nonrestrictive" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

When articulating       "defining"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture,      "restrictive" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


http://www.thefreedictionary.com/that ,    
Usage Note:       The standard rule requires  that that should be used only to introduce a restrictive (or defining) relative clause,  which identifies the entity being talked about; i   n this use it should never be preceded by a comma.         Thus, in the sentence   The house that Jack built has been torn down,   the clause that Jack built is a restrictive clause identifying the specific house that was torn down.         Similarly, in   I am looking for a book that is easy to read,   the restrictive clause that is easy to read tells what kind of book is desired.         A related rule stipulates   that which should be used with nonrestrictive (or nondefining) clauses,   which give additional information about an entity that has already been identified in the context;   in this use, which is always preceded by a comma.          Thus, we say   The students in Chemistry 101 have been complaining about the textbook, which (not that) is hard to follow.      The clause  which is hard to follow  is nonrestrictive in that it does not indicate which text is being complained about;  even if the clause were omitted,   we would know that the phrase the textbook refers to the text in Chemistry 101.         • Some grammarians extend the rule and insist that,   just as that should be used only in restrictive clauses,   which should be used only in nonrestrictive clauses.      Thus, they suggest that we should avoid sentences such as   I need a book which will tell me all about city gardening,   where the restrictive clause which will tell me all about city gardening indicates which sort of book is needed.      But this extension of the rule is far from universally accepted,   and the use of which with restrictive clauses is common.         Furthermore, since that cannot be used with clauses introduced by a preposition  (whether or not restrictive),  which is used with both clauses when such a clause is joined by  and or or  to another that does not begin with a preposition, as in   It is a philosophy in which the common man may find solace and which many have found reason to praise.            Such constructions are often considered cumbersome, however,   and it may be best to recast the sentence completely to avoid the problem.          • That is often omitted in a relative clause when the subject of the clause is different from the word that the clause refers to.        Thus, we may say either  the book that I was reading  or  the book I was reading.       In addition, that is commonly omitted before other kinds of subordinate clauses, as in   I think we should try again   where that would precede we.         These constructions omitting that are entirely idiomatic,    even in more formal contexts.            See Usage Notes at doubt, this, whatever, which, who.


The house that Jack built has been torn down.     <<    The  house,  ^Jack^ built it,  has been torn down.                    (object) The -/ that

A house which Jack built has been torn down.     <<    A house,  ^Jack^ built it,  has been torn down.                         (object) A -/ which


Those houses that Jack built have been torn down.     <<    Those  houses,  ^Jack^ built them,  have been torn down.                (object) Those -/ that

Some houses which Jack built have been torn down.     <<    Some houses,  ^Jack^ built them,  have been torn down.                (object) Some -/ which


I am looking for  a  book  that  is easy to read,     <<     I am looking for  a  book,  ^it^ is easy to read,                            (subject) a -/ that

I am looking for  the  book  which  is easy to read,     <<     I am looking for  the  book,  ^it^ is easy to read,                      (subject) the -/ which


I am looking for  several  books  that  are easy to read,     <<     I am looking for  several  books,  ^they^  are easy to read,                    (subject) several -/ that

I am looking for  those  books  which  are easy to read,     <<     I am looking for  those  books,  ^they^ are easy to read,                    (subject) those -/ which


The students in Chemistry 101 have been complaining about  the  textbook,  which  is hard to follow.    <<     The students in Chemistry 101 have been complaining about  the  textbook,  ^it^  is hard to follow.                  (subject) the -/ which

The students in Chemistry 101 have been complaining about  a  textbook,  that  is hard to follow.    <<     The students in Chemistry 101 have been complaining about  a  textbook,  ^it^  is hard to follow.                  (subject) a -/ that


It is  a  philosophy  in which  the common man may find solace and which many have found reason to praise.
It is  a  philosophy  where  the common man may find solace and which many have found reason to praise.      <<     It is a philosophy,  ^the^ common man may find solace in it and ^many^ have found reason to praise it.

*      When articulating       "where"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture,      "in which" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


>>        the book  that I  was reading         (the book  I  was reading)

*         When articulating       "that I"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "I"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


>>       I think  (that)  we should try again

*         When articulating       "that we"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "we"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


**      In general conclusion,   the "Usage Note" of <thefreedictionary.com/that> is wrong.


USAGE:       Precise writers maintain a distinction between that and which:     that is used as a relative pronoun in restrictive clauses and which in nonrestrictive clauses.       In   the book that is on the table is mine,   the clause that is on the table is used to distinguish one particular book (the one on the table) from another or others (which may be anywhere, but not on the table).        In the book, which is on the table, is mine,   the which clause is merely descriptive or incidental.        The more formal the level of language, the more important it is to preserve the distinction between the two relative pronouns;       but in informal or colloquial usage, the words are often used interchangeably.

>>       The book,  which  is on the table, is mine.               (The book,  that  is on the table, is mine.)

*         When articulating       "that is"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "which is"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/that.html ,    
Word Usage
that or who?
For centuries that has been used to refer to people as well as things:   the person who or that arrived. Sometimes that can be clumsy:   He's the one that did it.          But it is not incorrect, and is occasionally the most appropriate choice of relative pronoun:     anything or anyone that can help is more elegant than anything that or anyone who can help.

*         When articulating       "which"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "that" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

When articulating       "who"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture,      "that" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


>>        anything or anyone that can help                (anything, ^anything/it^ can help, or anyone, ^anyone/he^ can help)

*     That is,  "anything, ^anything^ can help"  or  "anything, ^it^ can help" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced as  "anything that can help ".             And "anythone, ^anyone^ can help"  or  "anyone, ^he^ can help" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced as  "anyone that can help ".


Word Usage
that or which?
The relative pronoun  that  introduces a restrictive clause,   i.e., a clause that is essential for identifying the noun it follows:    Any aircraft that has a leaking engine is not airworthy.      It is not preceded by a comma.      The relative pronoun which introduces a nonrestrictive clause,    i.e., one providing additional information about the noun it follows and not essential for its identification:   The second house on the block, which was built in 1980, has ten rooms.       Which is preceded by a comma,  and also followed by one if it does not end the sentence:   He gave me a taste of it, which I enjoyed.      The largest house, which stands on the corner, is up for sale.      A  which  clause refers only to an inanimate noun or a complete sentence:   I arrived late, which annoyed them.
Word Usage
that not that there:
Avoid using there in formal writing as an adjectival intensifier of a noun preceded by that:   That [not That there] house is for sale.
 
>> That [not That there] house is for sale.              (There, that house is for sale.)

*         When articulating       "there, that"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "that there"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


4.        this/that
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/this ,  
Usage Note:          This and that are both used as demonstrative pronouns to refer to a thought expressed earlier:   The letter was unopened; that (or this) in itself casts doubt on the inspector's theory.       That is sometimes viewed as the better choice in referring to what has gone before  (as in the preceding example).        When the referent is yet to be mentioned,  only this is used:   This (not that) is what bothers me: we have no time to consider late applications.           • This is often used in speech and informal writing as an emphatic substitute for the indefinite article to refer to a specific thing or person:   You should talk to this friend of mine at the Department of Motor Vehicles.     I have this terrible feeling that I forgot to turn off the gas.       It is best to avoid this substitution in formal writing except when a conversational tone is desired.             See Usage Note at that.


>>      The letter was unopened;  that (or this)  in itself casts doubt on the inspector's theory.
(The letter was unopened;  which  in itself casts doubt on the inspector's theory.)

*         When articulating       "which"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "that"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

And when articulating       "that"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture,      "this"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


>>      This  (not that)  is what bothers me: we have no time to consider late applications.
(It  is what bothers me: we have no time to consider late applications.)

*         When articulating       "it is"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "this is"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


>>      You should talk to  this  friend of mine at the Department of Motor Vehicles.     I have  this  terrible feeling that I forgot to turn off the gas.
(You should talk to  a  friend of mine at the Department of Motor Vehicles.     I have  a  terrible feeling that I forgot to turn off the gas.)

*         When articulating       "a"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "this"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/this.html ,  
Word Usage
In formal writing,   this should not be used as an intensifier modifying a noun,   where the definite article the or the indefinite articles a/an are the appropriate choices.     Usages like these are informal:    When I reached work I had this uncomfortable thought that I had not locked the door.     You've just got to call this person I know in the main office to straighten out your scheduling problem.   Suddenly this woman selling cosmetics appeared at my door.         The more acceptable wordings are  the uncomfortable thought;    a person I know in the main office;   a woman selling cosmetics.
 
*         When articulating       "the [di]"     of "the uncomfortable thought"      with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "this"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


5.        what(so)ever
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/whatever ,    
Usage Note:     Both whatever and what ever may be used in sentences such as   Whatever (or What ever) made her say that?        Critics have occasionally objected to the one-word form,   but many respected writers have used it.       The same is true of the forms  whoever,  whenever,  wherever,  and however.       In adjectival uses, however, only the one-word form is used:    Take whatever (not what ever) books you need.        • When a clause beginning with whatever is the subject of a sentence,  no comma should be used:   Whatever you do is right.      In most other cases,  a comma is needed:     Whatever you do, don't burn the toast.         • When a noun followed by a restrictive clause is preceded by whichever or whatever,  it is regarded as incorrect to introduce the clause with that in formal writing:     whatever book that you want to look at;   one should write instead   Whatever book you want to look at will be sent to your office   or Whichever book costs less (not that costs less) is fine with us.       See Usage Notes at however, that.

*         When articulating       "who"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture,      "whatever"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

When articulating       "whatever"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "whoever"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

When articulating       "whoever"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abT speaking posture,      "however"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

When articulating       "whoever"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture,      "whichever"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

When articulating       "whichever"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abT speaking posture,      "whenever"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

When articulating       "whichever"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abT speaking posture,      "wherever"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

When articulating       "whichever"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture,      "whomever"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


whosoever                 (who/P + ever/S) /GC                (GRECOnglish/GC)

whomsoever               (whom/P + ever/S) /GC

whatsoever                (what/P + ever/S) /GC

whichsoever               (which/P + ever/S) /GC

whensoever                (when/P + ever/S) /GC

wheresoever               (where/P + ever/S) /GC

howsoever                 (how/P + ever/S) /GC


>>      What ever made her say that?                      (What always made her say that?)

ever         (al/T + ways/S)               always


>>      Take whatever (not what ever) books you need.               (Take any books you need.)

any         (what/T + ever/P) /TE                      (true/genuine English/TE)


>>      Whatever you do is right.                (You are always right.)

(you-are/T + always/S) is metaphthong/MPh pronounced as "Whatever you do is".


>>      Whatever you do, don't burn the toast.           (In all cases, don't burn the toast.)

(In-all/T + cases/P) is metaphthong/MPh pronounced as "Whatever you do".

When articulating       "Whatever you do"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture,      "In any case"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


>>       "whatever book that you want to look at"       (Whatever book you want to look at will be sent to your office)   "Whichever book costs less (not that costs less) is fine with us."

"whatever book that"                (Whatever/P + book/S) /GC

"whichever book that"               (Whichever/P + book/S) /GC


6.        whose          (of which)

Re:      Article of    "conveniently/hopefully.  the/which/what/this/that.  wanna/gonna.  Interrogatives"           <<Column 4.   More/critical/intensive study on Interrogatives. B)  whose>>

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/whose ,  
Usage Note:            It has sometimes been claimed that whose is properly used only as the possessive form of who   and thus should be restricted to animate antecedents, as in   a man whose power has greatly eroded.         But there is extensive literary precedent for the use of whose with inanimate antecedents, as in   The play, whose style is rigidly formal, is typical of the period.       In an earlier survey this example was acceptable to a large majority of the Usage Panel.           Those who avoid this usage employ of which:     The play, the style of which is rigidly formal, is typical of the period.      But as this example demonstrates, substituting of which may produce a stilted sentence.         See Usage Notes at else, which, who.

http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/whose.html ,  
Word Usage
Some people dislike the use of whose to mean "of which" (as in   There was a church whose steeple had been struck by lightning.),   but it is a well-established use and the alternatives are usually awkward.


whose           (who/T + 's/P)

"of which"       (who/S + 's/P)

"of whom"      (who/C1/Ch + 's/P/Ch)


whose          (I/S + 's/P)       or        (you/T + 's/P)       or        (he/T + 's/P)        or        (she/S + 's/P)        or        (we/T + 's/P)         or          (you(pl.)/S + 's/P)        or       (they/C1 + 's/P)


whose           (ma/P + i/T)                    my [ma  i]

whose           (yu/C1 + Λ/T)                  your [yu  Λ]

whose           (hi/T + z=/C2)                  his [hi  z=]

whose           (h=/C1 + Λ/P)                  her [h=  Λ]

whose           (a-u/C1 + Λ/S)                 our [a-u  Λ]

whose           (yu-w=/P + Λ/T)               your [yu-w=  Λ]  (pl.)

whose           (de/P + Λ/T)                   their [de  Λ]


>>    The play, whose style is rigidly formal, is typical of the period.

whose           (it/T + 's/P)           (ih/T + s=/P)             its [ih  s=]


>>    The play, the style of which is rigidly formal, is typical of the period.         (The play, the style of it is rigidly formal, is typical of the period.)

"of which"       (of/C1/Ch + it/T/Ch)        or       (of/S/Ch + them/T/Ch)


""of whom"      (of/S + him/P)     or      (of/P + her/C1)      or       (of/C1 + me/P)       or        (of/S + you/C2)     or       (of/C1 + them/P)      or        (of/C1 + us/T)       or        (of/P + you(pl.)/S)


whom           (m=/S + i/P)                    me [m=  i]

whom           (y=/S + u/C2)                   you [y=  u]

whom           (hi/T + z=/C2)                  him [hi  z=]

whom           (h=/C1 + Λ/P)                  her [h=  Λ]

whom           (a/S + s/P)                      us [a  s]

whom           (yu=/P + us/S)                 you [yu  us]  (pl.)

whom           (d=/C1 + em/T)                 them [d=  em]


which           (i/P + =t/S)                     it [i  =t]    (obj,)

which           (d=/C1 + em/T)                 them [d=  em] (obj,)


whom                               (some/S + one/C2)           "someone"

whom                                (any/S + one/P)             "anyone"

whom                                (no/S + one/T)             "none"  (no one)


whose                               (some/T + one/P)           "someone"

whose                                (any/T + one/C2)             "anyone"

whose                                (no/T + one/S)             "none"  (no one)


http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/who%2527s.html ,      
Word Usage
whose or who's?
Who's is a contraction of who is or who has:     She's the one who's [not whose] coming to dinner next week.      Who's [not Whose] got my pen?      Whose means "of whom" or "of which" and indicates or asks about belonging:        These are the children whose [not who's] father we saw yesterday.         Whose [not Who's] coat is that?
http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/who.html ,  
Word Usage
whose or who's?
Whose means "of whom" or "of which" and denotes possession or association:      the children whose [not who's] father we met,     a car whose [not who's] paintwork had been damaged.       (Some people dislike the use of whose to mean "of which,"   but it is a well-established use.)       Who's is a contraction of who is or who has:    the friend who's [not whose] coming to dinner next week;        Who's [not Whose] got my pen?

whose           (who/T + 's/P)

"of which"       (who/S + 's/P)

"of whom"      (who/C1/Ch + 's/P/Ch)

whose           (of/P + which/S)

whose           (of/T + whom/S)

who's            (who + is)/S       or          (who + has)/S

That is,      when speaking,      if articulating    "who is"      or       "who has"       (as one word,   continuously,  without pause)       with/from English /S speaking posture,       "who's" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


7.       who

Re:      Article of    "conveniently/hopefully.  the/which/what/this/that.  wanna/gonna.  Interrogatives"           <<Column 4.   More/critical/intensive study on Interrogatives.  A)  who>>

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/who ,  
Usage Note:        The traditional rules for choosing between who and whom are relatively simple but not always easy to apply.        Who is used where a nominative pronoun such as I or he would be appropriate,   that is, for the subject of a verb or for a predicate nominative;       whom is used for a direct or indirect object or for the object of a preposition.          Thus, we write  the actor who played Hamlet was there,   since who is the subject of played;        and Whom do you like best?    because whom is the object of the verb like;     and To whom did you give the letter?     because whom is the object of the preposition to.           • It is more difficult, however, to apply these rules in complicated sentences,   particularly when who or whom is separated from the verb or preposition that determines its form.       Intervening words may make it difficult to see that  Who do you think is the best candidate?  requires who as the subject of the verb is (not whom as the object of think)   and  The man whom the papers criticized did not show up   requires whom as the object of the verb criticized (not who as the subject of showed up).         Highly complex sentences such as   I met the man whom the government had tried to get France to extradite   require careful analysis in this case,   to determine that whom should be chosen as the object of the verb extradite, several clauses away.          It is thus not surprising that writers from Shakespeare onward have often interchanged who and whom.          Nevertheless, the distinction remains a hallmark of formal style.          • In speech and informal writing, however, considerations other than strict grammatical correctness often come into play.     Who may sound more natural than whom in a sentence such as   Who did John say he was going to support?    though it is incorrect according to the traditional rules.         In general, who tends to predominate over whom in informal contexts.        Whom may sound stuffy even when correctly used, and when used where who would be correct, as in    Whom shall I say is calling?    whom may betray grammatical ignorance.              • Similarly, though traditionalists will insist on whom   when the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition that ends a sentence,   grammarians   since Noah Webster have argued that the excessive formality of whom is at odds with the relative informality   associated with this construction;   thus they contend   that a sentence such as   Who did you give it to?   should be regarded as entirely acceptable.             • Some grammarians have argued that  only who and not that  should be used to introduce a restrictive relative clause that identifies a person.         This restriction has no basis either in logic or in the usage of the best writers;      it is entirely acceptable to write either   the woman that wanted to talk to you   or   the woman who wanted to talk to you.             • The grammatical rules governing the use of  who and whom  in formal writing apply equally to whoever and whomever and are similarly often ignored in speech and informal writing.           See Usage Notes at else, that, whose.

http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/who.html ,  
Word Usage
who or whom?
Whom has fallen into disuse in everyday speech,   with who taking its place,   especially in British English.     Do you remember whom you saw? is more usually expressed as Do you remember who you saw?,      and whom is omitted when it is associated with a preposition:   the man I was talking to   rather than the man to whom I was talking.       However, in formal contexts,  whom is still preferred by careful writers.       Note that whom is incorrect in sentences such as   The woman who we thought was dead is still alive:   who is the subject of was, not the object of thought (We thought that she was dead...).


who/S/T [huh  h=h]                       (and/S + I/T)           "and I"

who/S/P [[huh  h=h  w=h]                (and/S + you/P)        "and you"

who/P/C2 [h(=u)h  h=h]                  (and/P + he/C2)         "and he"

who/P/T [h(=u)h  h=h  w=h]             (and/P + she/T)         "and she"

who/C1/P [h(u=)h  h=h]                  (and/C1 + we/P)        "and we"

who/C1/S [h(u=)h  h=h  w=h]            (and/C1 + you/S)       "and you"  pl.

who/C1/P [h(u=)h  h=h  h=w]            (and/C1 + they/T)       "and they"


who/C1/T                                   (a/C1 + i/T)           "I [a  i]"

who/T/C2                                   (yu/T + =/C2)        "you [yu  =]"

who/C1/S                                   (hi/C1 + i/S)          "he [hi  i]"

who/S/P                                    (si/S + i/P)            "she [si  i]"

who/P/T                                    (wi/P + i/T)            "we [wi  i]"

who/P/T                                    (y=/P + =s/T)         "you [yu  =s]"  pl.

who/C1/T                                   (de/C1 + i/T)           "they [de  i]"


who                                 (some/C1 + one/S)           "someone"

who                                 (any/C1 + one/T)             "anyone"

who                                 (no/C1 + one/P)               "none"  (no one)


whom                               (some/S + one/C2)           "someone"

whom                                (any/S + one/P)             "anyone"

whom                                (no/S + one/T)             "none"  (no one)


whose                               (some/T + one/P)           "someone"

whose                                (any/T + one/C2)             "anyone"

whose                                (no/T + one/S)             "none"  (no one)


whom                           (m=/S + i/P)                    me [m=  i]

whom                          (y=/S + u/C2)                   you [y=  u]

whom                          (hi/T + z=/C2)                  him [hi  z=]

whom                          (h=/C1 + Λ/P)                  her [h=  Λ]

whom                          (a/S + s/P)                      us [a  s]

whom                          (yu=/P + us/S)                 you [yu  us]  (pl.)

whom                          (d=/C1 + em/T)                 them [d=  em]


which                           (i/P + =t/S)                     it [i  =t]    (obj,)

which                           (d=/C1 + em/T)                 them [d=  em] (obj,)


>>      Whom do you like best?               (Do you like whom best?)

*      "^Do^ you like whom best?"      is metaphthong/MPh pronounced     as "Whom do you like best?".


>>     To whom did you give the letter?     (Did you give whom the letter?)

*      "^Did^ you give whom the letter?"      is metaphthong/MPh pronounced     as "To whom did you give the letter?".


>>    Who do you think is the best candidate?        (Do you think who is the best candidate?)

*      "^Do^ you think who is the best candidate?"      is metaphthong/MPh pronounced     as "Who do you think is the best candidate?".


Do you think ^who^ the best candidate is?       >>     Whom do you think the best candidate?

*      "Do you think ^who^ the best candidate is?"      is metaphthong/MPh pronounced     as "Whom do you think the best candidate?".


>>    The man whom the papers criticized did not show up.           (The man, the papers criticized whom, did not show up)

*      "^The man^, the papers criticized whom, did not show up "      is metaphthong/MPh pronounced     as "The man whom the papers criticized did not show up ".


>>    I met the man whom the government had tried to get France to extradite.         (I met the man, the government had tried to get France to extradite whom.)

*      "I met ^the man^, the government had tried to get France to extradite whom."      is metaphthong/MPh pronounced     as "I met the man whom the government had tried to get France to extradite".


>>    It is thus not surprising that writers from Shakespeare onward have often interchanged who and whom.

*         When articulating       "who"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abT speaking posture,      "whom"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

And when articulating       "whom"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abR speaking posture,      "who"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


>>    Who did John say he was going to support?               (Whom was he, John said, going to support?)

*         When articulating       "Whom was he, ^John^ said, going to support?"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "Who did John say he was going to support?"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*      "^Was^ he, John said, going to support whom?"      is metaphthong/MPh pronounced     as "Whom was he, John said, going to support?".


>>     Whom shall I say is calling?                 (Shall I say who is calling?)

*         When articulating       "Shall I say ^who^ is calling?"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "Whom shall I say is calling?"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*      "^Shall^ I say who is calling?"      is metaphthong/MPh pronounced     as "Who shall I say is calling?".


>>      Who did you give it to?              (Did you give it to whom?)      (Did you give whom it?)

*         When articulating       "^To^ whom did you give it?"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "Who did you give it to?"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*      "Did you give ^whom^ it?"      is metaphthong/MPh pronounced     as "To whom did you give it?".


>>   the woman that wanted to talk to you   or   the woman who wanted to talk to you

the woman who wanted to talk to you       <<     the woman, ^she^ wanted to talk to you

a woman that wanted to talk to you       <<     a woman, ^she^ wanted to talk to you

*       When articulating       "who"     with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/abT speaking posture,      "that" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


8.      however
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/however ,    
adv.
1. In whatever manner or way:      However he did it,  it was very clever.
2. To whatever degree or extent:      "have begun, however reluctantly, to acknowledge the legitimacy of some of the concerns"  (Christopher Lasch).
3. In what way.   Used as an intensive of how:      However did you get here so soon?
4. In spite of that;      nevertheless;      yet:     The book is expensive; however, it's worth it.
5. On the other hand;     by contrast:       The first part was easy; the second, however, took hours.
conj.
1. In whatever manner or way:      Dress however you like.
2. Archaic      Notwithstanding that;       although.
Usage Note:       Although some grammarians have insisted that however should not be used to begin a sentence,      this rule has been ignored by a number of reputable writers.      Forty-two percent of Usage Panelists say they do not follow the rule in their own writing, 19 percent say they observe it only sometimes,  and 36 percent say they usually observe it.    See Usage Notes at but, whatever.

"after all"                     (how/S + ever/T)                    however

"though"                     (how/C1 + ever/T)                    however

"to whatever degree"         (how/T/Ch + ever/T/Ch)             however

"to whatever extent"         (how/C1/Ch + ever/S/Ch)            however

however                     (ho/P + w/S)                          how

"in what way"                (how/S/Ch + ever/P/Ch)             however

"in spite of that"             (how/P/Ch + ever/T/Ch)              however

however                     (neverthe/P + less/S)                 nevertheless

however                     (ye/T/Ch+ t/S/Ch)                    yet

"though"                     (by/S + contrast/T)                   "by contrast"

"on the other hand"          (how/S + ever/P)                     however

however                     (in-whatever/P/Ch + way/T/Ch)      "in whatever way"

"in whatever manner"        (how/T/Ch + ever/S/Ch)              however

"notwithstanding that"       (how/P/Ch + ever/S/Ch)              however

however                     (al/C1 + though/P)                    although


http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/however.html ,  
Word Usage
People disagree as to whether we should put however,   meaning "nevertheless," "nonetheless," "but,"   at the beginning of new sentences.         Therefore, it is wise to avoid it by combining two main, contrasting, clauses and linking them with however:   He was indicted for the crime; however, he was acquitted by the jury at trial.        Notice that a semicolon must precede however and a comma must follow it when two main clauses are linked like this.       A common error is to set however off with commas, as in this incorrectly punctuated sentence:    He was indicted for the crime, however, he was acquitted by the jury at trial.

When however in the senses mentioned here appears  in the midst of a sentence expressing ideas contrasting with what has been said in a previous sentence,   put one comma before however and another after it:    The resort has closed for the season. Its staff members, however, are remaining on the property to service and repair the ski lifts.       However can also appear at the end of such a sentence, punctuated by a single comma just before it    Its staff members are remaining on the property to service and repair the ski lifts, however.
However has other meanings, and those meanings dictate whether or not you punctuate the word and how.     If you use however to mean  "to whatever degree,"  "in whatever way,"  or "how" at the outset of an introductory main clause,   put a comma after the clause, as in   However hard it snowed during the night, the road crews were able to clear the main arteries before the rush hour.       If however, meaning "in whatever way," modifies another adverb and the two appear as a pair in mid-sentence, put a comma before and after the two words:   The coaching staff has begun, however reluctantly, to admit major flaws in the offensive team's tactics.
It is redundant to pair but with however.         Use one word or the other, not both.         Thus, this sentence is poor:    The flight was initially canceled but it did manage to take off five hours late, however.      Keep but and drop however.

nonetheless                 (how/P + ever/T)             however

however                     (bu/S/Ch+ t/T/Ch)                    but


9.        (al)though
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/although ,  
Usage Note:       As conjunctions, although and though are generally interchangeable:    Although (or though) she smiled, she was angry.      Although is usually placed at the beginning of its clause (as in the preceding example), whereas though may occur elsewhere and is the more common term when used to link words or phrases, as in   wiser though poorer.        In certain constructions, only though is acceptable:   Fond though (not although) I am of sports, I'd rather not sit through another basketball game.

Re:    Article of  "although/however,  only if,  until/whereas/unless,  whether or not,  
in case"              <<Column 7. although,  (/+bp) /sP /Ap /C2/Ch;  however,  (/+cp) /sP /Ap /C2/Ch>>

though                     (al/T + though/S)                    although

though                     (bu/P + t/T)                          but

"^Though^ I am fond of sports, - - " is metaphthong/MPh pronounced  as "Fond though (not although) I am of sports, - - ".

But "^Although^" of /LH (liaison-holeword)  is impossible in articulation itself.


http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/although.html ,        
Word Usage
although or though?
In many uses although and though are interchangeable,   but though is generally more versatile,   in that it can occupy different positions in a sentence with more grammatical flexibility.       It is the only choice in the phrases  as though and even though,   and in the following types of uses:     I don't like them, though.     It is true, though, that they have been kind to us.     The chair, though damaged, could still be used.     We enjoyed the day outside, cold though it was.
 
Word Usage
although or however?
Do not use the conjunction although as a substitute for the adverb however.     However is used to add contrasting and surprising information, and, unlike although, is followed by a comma when it is used as a conjunction, e.g.,    We were from different backgrounds. However, we got along really well.    and    We got along very well, although we were from different backgrounds.
 

10.      but
Re:      Article of   "'uΛo, ouΛ, Λua, aΛu'     mammoth,  Howdy?  be-restless/concerned-to,  identify,  a-couple-of,   prep/2"         <<Column 9.   English prepositions/2    O) but>>

http://www.answers.com/but ,      
Usage Note:      Traditional grammarians have worried over what form the pronoun ought to take when but is used to indicate an exception in sentences such as     No one but I   (or No one but me)   has read it.         Some have argued that but is a conjunction in these sentences and therefore should be followed by the nominative form I.        However, many of these grammarians have gone on to argue somewhat inconsistently that the accusative form me is appropriate when the but phrase occurs at the end of a sentence,     as in No one has read it but me.         While this treatment of the construction has a considerable weight of precedent on its side and cannot be regarded as incorrect, a strong case can be made on grammatical grounds for treating this use of but as a preposition.        For one thing, if but were truly a conjunction here, we would expect the verb to agree in person and number with the noun or pronoun following but;      we would then say No one but the students have read it.        What is more, if but were a true conjunction here we would not expect that it could be moved to the end of a clause, as in No one has read it but the students.         Note that we cannot use the conjunction and in a similar way, saying John left and everyone else in the class in place of John and everyone else in the class left.           These observations suggest that but is best considered as a preposition here and followed by accusative forms such as me and them in all positions:       No one but me has read it.     No one has read it but me.          These recommendations are supported by 73 percent of the Usage Panel when the but phrase precedes the verb and by 93 percent when the but phrase follows the verb.        •But is redundant when used together with however, as in    But the army, however, went on with its plans;   one or the other word should be eliminated.            •But is generally not followed by a comma.         Correct written style requires Kim wanted to go, but we stayed, not Kim wanted to go, but, we stayed.            •But may be used to begin a sentence at all levels of style.        See Usage Notes at and, cannot, doubt, however, I 1.


but             (e/P + xcept/T)            except


No one has read it ^but^ I read it.     >>     No one has read it except me.

^No^ one has read it but I read it.     >>     No one except me has read it.


"^But^ the army went on with its plans."   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced  as " But the army, however, went on with its plans."


11.      except(ing)

*       When articulating       "except"     with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "excepting" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/except ,  
prep.
With the exclusion of;   other than;      but:        everyone except me.
conj.
1. If it were not for the fact that; only.      Often used with that:      I would buy the suit, except that it costs too much.
2. Otherwise than:       They didn't open their mouths except to complain.
3. Unless:      "And ne'er throughout the year to church thou go'st. Except it be to pray against thy foes" (Shakespeare).
v. ex•cept•ed, ex•cept•ing, ex•cepts
v.tr.
To leave out;    exclude:     An admission fee is charged, but children are excepted.
v.intr.
To object:     Counsel excepted to the court's ruling.
Idiom:
except for
Were it not for:      I would join you except for my cold.

Usage Note:       Except in the sense of "with the exclusion of" or "other than" is generally viewed as a preposition,   not a conjunction.        Therefore, a personal pronoun that follows except should be in the objective case:     No one except me knew it.     Everyone had a ticket except her.

but                                     (e/P + xcept/T)              except

"with the exclusion of"                  (e/C1 + xcept/P)            except

except                                 (other/C1 + than/T)

except that                            (e/C1 + xcept/P)               except

except                                 (otherwise/C1 + than/P)

except                                 (un/P + less/T)               Unless

except                                 (leave/P + out/S)            "leave out"

except                                 (ob/C1 + ject/T)               object


12.       and
http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/and.html ,  
Word Usage
The notion that and should not be used at the beginning of a sentence arose from too literal an understanding of the "joining" function of conjunctions.       The same objection is also raised with regard to but.        If initial and is overdone,   the effect is of poor style, but it is not a matter of grammatical correctness.        Using and at the beginning of a sentence often can be an effective way of drawing attention to what follows:       "You can't get away with this," he threatened. And we knew he meant it.
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/and ,  
Usage Note:       It is frequently asserted that sentences beginning with  and or but  express "incomplete thoughts" and are therefore incorrect.     But this rule has been ridiculed by grammarians for decades,   and the stricture has been ignored by writers from Shakespeare to Joyce Carol Oates.      When asked whether they paid attention to the rule in their own writing, 24 percent of the Usage Panel answered "always or usually," 36 percent answered "sometimes," and 40 percent answered "rarely or never."       See Usage Notes at both, but, with.

nonsense               (an/S + d/P)              and

idiot                    (bu/P + t/S)               but

*      The unpleasant experiences of "nonsense/idiot",      which can be metaphthong/MPh pronounced by "and/but",      seem to cause the above contentions.


>>        "You can't get away with this," he threatened. And we knew he meant it.

and                    (by/P + which/S)                         "by which"

but                    (on-the-other/S + hand/P)                "on the other hand"


USAGE        The forms try and do something and wait and do something should only be used in informal or spoken English.       In more formal writing, use try to and wait to, for example:   we must try to prevent this happening (not try and prevent).

*     Refer to the article of  "try-to,  solid(ity), substantialness/tangibility/physicality/legitimation, credibleness, greenish, denote, Andy"         <<Column 37.  try-to>>

*       Refer to the article of  "nightclub.  something, a-bit/too-much/make-much-of, much-as,  quote/unquote,  split infinitive?  <go>"         <<Column 20.  "split infinitive ??">>
&       the article of " retaliative, bright(ly), historic(al), oblig(at)e, (t)here, this/that,   voiced/voiceless,   like-to, like, 'like(d) to'"        <<Column 40.  like-to>>


13.        It is me.
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/I ,      
Usage Note:        The question of when to use nominative forms of the personal pronouns   (for example, I, she, they)   and when to use objective forms   (for example, me, her, them)   has always created controversy among grammarians and uncertainty among speakers and writers.        There is no problem when the pronoun stands alone with a single verb or preposition:   every native speaker says   I (not me) read the book;   They told him (not he);   The company bought a computer for us (not we); and so forth.       But the decision is more problematic in other environments.          • When pronouns are joined with other nouns or pronouns by and or or,    there is a widespread tendency to use the objective form even when the phrase is the subject of the sentence:       Tom and her are not speaking to each other.        This usage is natural in colloquial speech,   but the nominative forms should be used in formal speech and writing:   John and she (not her) will be giving the talk.            • When pronouns joined by a conjunction occur as the object of a preposition such as between, according to, or like,   many people use the nominative form where the traditional grammatical rule would require the objective;    they say between you and I rather than between you and me,    and so forth.          Many critics have seen this construction as originating in a hypercorrection, whereby speakers who have been taught to say   It is I   instead of   It is me   come further to assume that correctness also requires between you and I in place of between you and me.            This explanation of the tendency cannot be the whole story,   inasmuch as the phrase between you and I occurs in Shakespeare, centuries before the prescriptive rules requiring It is I and the like were formulated.          But the between you and I construction is nonetheless widely regarded as a marker of grammatical ignorance and is best avoided.              • In other contexts the traditional insistence that the nominative form be used is more difficult to defend.        The objective form sounds most natural when the pronoun is not grammatically related to an accompanying verb or preposition.           Thus, in response to the question   "Who cut down the cherry tree?"   we more colloquially say "Me,"    even though some grammarians have argued that I must be correct here by analogy to the form "I did";      and few speakers would accept that the sentence   What, me worry?   is improved if it is changed to   What, I worry?         The prescriptive insistence that the nominative be used in such a construction is grammatically questionable and is apt to lead to almost comical pedantries.               • There is also a widespread tendency to use the objective form   when a pronoun is used as a subject together with a noun in apposition, as in   Us engineers were left without technical support.     In formal speech or writing the nominative we would be preferable here.      But when the pronoun itself appears in apposition to a subject noun phrase,   the use of the nominative form may sound pedantic in a sentence such as   The remaining members of the admissions committee, namely we, will have to meet next week.    A writer who is uncomfortable about using the objective us here would be best advised to rewrite the sentence to avoid the difficulty.           See Usage Notes at be, but, we.


>>          Tom and her are not speaking to each other.

"and her"             (and/S + she/P)                "and she"


>>          between you and I

"and I"              (and/P + me/S)                   "and me"


>>          It is me.

"is me"               (is/P + IS)                        "is I"
 

*      "^It^ is me."   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced  as " Me."
But for "^It^ is I",     articulation itself is impossible.


>>        What, me worry?

"me worry"           (I/P + worry/S)                "I worry"


>>      Us engineers were left without technical support.

"Us engineers"           (We/P + engineers/S)                "We engineers"


14.       both
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/both ,  
Usage Note:     Both indicates that the action or state denoted by the verb applies individually to each of two entities.      Both books weigh more than five pounds, for example, means that each book weighs more than five pounds by itself,   not that the two books weighed together come to more than five pounds.         Both is inappropriate where the verb does not apply to each of the entities by itself.          • In possessive constructions of both is usually preferred:      the mothers of both (rather than both their mothers);     the fault of both (rather than both their fault or both's fault).           • When both is used with and to link parallel elements in a sentence,     the words or phrases that follow them should correspond grammatically:    in both India and China   or   both in India and in China    (not both in India and China).

both          (two/S + s/T)

both          (t=/P + w=/T)            two

their          (both/T + 's/P)


http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/both.html ,  
Word Usage
Both has several roles,   as a pronoun (I like both),   adjective (I like both boys),   or conjunction (They are both pleasant and cheerful).        Its mobility in a sentence is so great that its meaning can become ambiguous.        In the last example, it is not immediately clear whether both belongs with "they" or with the complement of the sentence, "pleasant and cheerful";   in speech, intonation will normally clarify the intention.     However, when writing, you need to ensure that you are not leaving the reader in doubt.        The principal restriction applying to both is that it should refer to two people or things and no more;   if three or more are meant,   it is necessary to use each,   which behaves grammatically in ways quite similar to both.        (However, each is regarded as singular while both is plural, and both alone allows the construction I saw them both.)         When pairing both with and,   it is important to retain a balance between the two parts of the construction with regard to the position of both and the types of words linked:   She is both charming and intellectual [not She is both charming and an intellectual]   or   He both sings well and likes to paint [not He is both a fine singer and likes to paint].          In terms of possession, of + both is clearer,   as in the parents of both,    the responsibility of both,    as opposed to both their parents and both their responsibility or both their responsibilities.
 
each                     (bo/T/Ch + th/P/Ch)                 both

each                     (seve/T/Ch + ral/P/Ch)              several

each                     (a/T/Ch + few/P/Ch)                "a few"

respectively              (ea/C1 + ch/S)                       each


15.          with
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/with ,  
Usage Note:         When the subject of a sentence is followed by a noun or noun phrase introduced by with rather than and,     the verb remains singular:       The governor, with his aides, is expected to attend the fair.       See Usage Note at and.

with           (hav/S/Ch + ing/P/Ch)        having

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549Simple view'ui=*a/Λ/o'  act(ion), credentialed, best, spree, plane, number, 'look to', ilk, chagrin, senior/downsize, hassle Y... 2012.02.13
548Simple view>> Corrected                                  "verb /C1 & /S" Y... 2012.04.06
547Simple view       +'Phonetic study  on  English  nouns'        < Lingering of articles >        'definite/indefinite article' Y... 2012.02.13
546Simple view>>         'English  verb/adjective/adverb'     (derived nouns)               < have / be as v.aux. > Y... 2012.02.13
545Simple view             Mr.   Mrs.   씨,   さん,   氏              English/Korean/Japanese/Chinese  honorifics Y... 2012.02.13
544Simple view'Lost Generation',         'black hole'           Pearl S. Buck,          ** Beethoven **         <periodic table> Y... 2011.12.09
543Simple viewThomas Mann,   Ernest Hemingway,   Winston Churchill,   Rabindranath Tagore,    *Albert Einstein*   川端 康成 Y... 2011.11.25
542Simple view   Jane Austen,   Franz Kafka,   Virginia Woolf,   James Joyce,   Ezra Pound,   Gustave Flaubert,   George Sand Y... 2011.11.21
541Simple viewnickname,  'slave states'   'Roman numeral'    Conan Doyle,   Charles Baudelaire,   Mark Twain,    Helen Keller Y... 2011.11.21
540Simple viewIndian/Interlingua,     Leyzer Zamenhof,   'a pair of scissors',     Benjamin Franklin,    Poe/Yeats,   H. G. Wells Y... 2011.11.09
539Simple view'Occupy Wall -'    adjectives;    'US' Presidents'  Lincoln/Washington/Jefferson,   'Declaration of Independence' Y... 2011.11.02
538Simple view    Herman Melville,  G. A. Henty,  Oliver Wendell Holmes,  John Greenleaf Whittier,    James Russell Lowell Y... 2011.10.28
537Simple viewJoseph Conrad,  Lawrence/Hogarth,  Flinders Petrie,  Amelia Edwards,  Gaston Maspero,  Nathaniel Hawthorne Y... 2011.10.21
536Simple view    George Bernard Shaw,        William Archer,  Alfred Sutro,  Maurice Maeterlinck,  Henrik Ibsen,   Maupassant Y... 2011.10.15
535Simple viewBalzac,  Charles Dickens,    Leo Tolstoy,  Fyodor Dostoevsky,   Pushkin/Gogol/Gorky/Turgenev,  Anton Chekhov Y... 2011.10.12
534Simple viewJohn Dryden,  Jonathan Swift,  Alexander Pope,  William Cowper,  John Fletcher,       Walter Scott,     Stendhal Y... 2011.10.05
533Simple viewPliny the Younger,  Petronius, Tacitus,     Martial,  Silius Italicus, Quintilian,     Seneca,   William Lisle Bowles Y... 2011.09.29
532Simple viewSamuel Taylor Coleridge,  William Wordsworth,  Emerson,    Virgil/Ovid/Horace/Statius,   Suetonius,  Juvenal Y... 2011.09.26
531Simple viewAugust Bebel,  Herbert Spencer,            Charles Darwin,        Jean-Baptiste Lamarck,     Thomas Henry Huxley Y... 2011.09.23
530Simple viewEdmund Spenser, Franz Liszt,  Victor Hugo, Alphonse de Lamartine, Heinrich Heine,  Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Y... 2011.09.17
529Simple viewLilly/Tasso, James Henry Leigh Hunt, Samuel Daniel, Martha Foote Crow, Claudio Monteverdi,  Richard Wagner Y... 2011.09.04
528Simple viewRobert Herrick, Samuel Pepys, William Caxton, Henry B. Wheatley, Swinburne, Christina Rossetti,   Vampyre Y... 2011.09.01
527Simple viewHeinrich Bullinger,  Johannes Brenz,  Georg Joachim Rheticus,  Philipp Melanchthon,  William Alabaster Y... 2011.09.01
526Simple viewPetrus Ramus,  Theodore Beza,  Philip Schaff,  Joachim Westphal,  François Hotman,  'The Right to Heresy' Y... 2011.08.07
525Simple viewAdam Smith,  Cassius Dio,    Stephanus,  William Smith,  Pausanias,  Marcus Aurelius, Diogenes Laërtius Y... 2011.08.03
524Simple view>> Corrected                                <Moralia> Y... 2011.08.31
523Simple viewTorricelli, Bernoulli, 'Jean le Rond d'Alembert', Diderot, 'Ephraim Chambers', 'Pierre Bayle', 'Laurence Sterne' Y... 2011.07.26
522Simple view>> Corrected                                <Iliad> Y... 2011.08.19
521Simple viewHero/Vitruvius Apollonius/Diophantus/Theon,       d'Aguilon, 'John Aubrey', 'François Viète', Oughtred/Pascal Y... 2011.07.21
520Simple viewCusa/Nunes/Vesalius/Borelli, 'de Vere', Stanley,  Vinci/Michelangelo/Raphael, 'Luca Pacioli',   Vasari/Alberti Y... 2011.07.12
519Simple view>> Corrected                                <Iliad> Y... 2011.08.24
518Simple viewGuicciardini, 'Pico della Mirandola', Frisius*, Nostradamus, 'Sir Philip Sidney', Milton/Chaucer/Boiardo/Cardano Y... 2011.07.05
517Simple view>> Corrected                                <Iliad> Y... 2011.08.19
516Simple viewShelley/Keats/Byron/Castelli/Orta/Wycliffe/Huss,  'Mary Sidney',  Baïf/Montaigne/Buchanan, 'Marie de Gournay' Y... 2011.07.01
515Simple view>> Corrected                                <Iliad> Y... 2011.08.19
514Simple viewMarlowe/Nashe/Chapman, 'Ben Jonson', 'Beaumont & Fletcher', Marston/Fleay/Glapthorne/Warburton/Brome Y... 2011.06.24
513Simple viewVarro/Catullus/Livy/Sallust,   Ovid/Apuleius/Horace/Lucretius,      Calvin/Servetus/Zwingli/Cranmer/Luther Y... 2011.06.19
512Simple viewSavonarola/Colet/Erasmus/Loyola/Ficino/Mirandola/Gracián/Swedenborg/Ockham/Abelard,    Latin,   'Lex Talio' Y... 2011.06.12
511Simple viewTerence/Menippus/Arcesilaus/Theophras-,  Voltaire/Maupertuis/Schiller/Winckelmann/Rochefoucauld/Cervantes Y... 2011.06.07
510Simple viewBoccaccio/Petrarch/Helvétius/Cesare/Malthus,  Say/Gresham,  Machiavelli/Telesio/Boyle/Bacon/Kepler/Brahe Y... 2011.06.04
509Simple viewHerder/Sanai/Hafez,  Dante, 'Adam Smith', 'Richard Cantillon', 'Henry More', ''Isaac Newton', Ricardo/Bentham Y... 2011.06.01
508Simple viewBerkeley, 'Giordano Bruno', Spinoza/Rousseau/Fichte/Hölderlin/Schelling, 'Jakob Böhme', Hamann/Goethe/Vigo Y... 2011.05.29
507Simple view'Thomas Hobbes' 'John Stuart Mill' 'Arthur Schopenhauer' 'Friedrich Nietzsche' Hegel/Kant/Hume/Locke/Leibniz Y... 2011.05.26
506Simple viewGalileo/Orpheus/Argonautica/Strabo,    'Augustine of Hippo', Neoplatonism/Enneads/Cicero/Anselm/Descartes Y... 2011.05.24
505Simple view                              "English    spelling/vocabulary"                   (Korean connection) Y... 2011.05.19
504Simple viewPyrrho/Galen/Avicenna/Averroes/Maimonides, 'Albertus Magnus', 'Thomas Aquinas', 'Duns Scotus', Copernicus Y... 2011.05.17
503Simple viewArchimedes/Aspasia/Euclid/Hipparchus/Hippocrates/Leonidas/Pericles/Ptolemy/Solon/Themistocles/Epicurus Y... 2011.05.14
502Simple view             Phonetic study    on   German/French   words/sentences Y... 2011.05.13
501Simple view'Milesian school'  'Seven Wonders'  Eleatics/sophism/pluralist/Cynics/Stoic/Montesquieu/Suda/eureka/Vitruvius Y... 2011.05.11
500Simple viewAeschylus/Aesop/Euripides/Hesiod,   Homer/Lucian/Menander/Pindar,  Polybius/Sappho/Sophocles, Alcibiades Y... 2011.05.11
499Simple viewThales/Anaximander/Anaximenes/Pythagoras,  Anaxagoras/Empedocles,  Antisthenes/Diogenes/Crates/Zeno Y... 2011.05.07
498Simple view'geologic era'  'Stone Age'   Yahoo/Google   'Know yourself'   introspection   'Seven Sages'   'material monism' Y... 2011.05.05
497Simple viewSocrates/Thucydides/Plutarch/Herodotus/Xenophon/Aristophanes/Plato/Aristotle/Parmenides/Democritus, etc. Y... 2011.05.04
496Simple view                           phonetic analysis on     Buddha  &  Buddhism Y... 2011.05.04
495Simple viewPhonetic analysis on   Hinduism/Veda/Sanskrit/Prakrit/Zoroaster, Manichaeism/Mani,  Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh Y... 2011.04.29
494Simple view'net-cutting'  'country music'  'General Zod'      BC/AD  'Independence day'     BCE/CE    '(Before) Common Era' Y... 2011.04.14
493Simple view    'phonetic study on Jesus Christ  &  Moshe'             'Twelve Apostles'              'Hellenistic civilization??' Y... 2011.04.10
492Simple view           translation :           논어(論語)/공자(孔子/Confucius),               etymological analysis Y... 2011.04.08
491Simple view'論語/논어 [non  ŋΛ]  &  Old Testament'       Torah/Pentateuch         'Why Torah, Prophets, Writings, 四書五經' Y... 2011.04.05
490Simple view'lady-in-waiting'  Confucius/Mencius/Laozi/Micius  popcorn  'Generation Y/X'  'Wonder Woman'       I/you    etc. Y... 2011.04.02
489Simple viewfraction/ordinal,   'national flowers'   'Department of State'    'God bless you!'   'daylight saving time'   *BC/AD Y... 2011.03.20
488Simple view"&/and",                  italic,  ride/drive,       Morrison, Messiah/Immanuel,  succeed,     'Virgin Mary'  Joseph Y... 2011.03.15
487Simple view‘Moby-Dick’     'Coca Cola'       pronouns/4,  'Chinese carry-out'     'days of months'     'leap year (day)'   date Y... 2011.03.04
486Simple view'The Star-Spangled Banner'   &   'God Save the Queen'   &    'Land of Hope and Glory';        national anthems Y... 2011.02.10
485Simple view         'La Marseillaise'              Deutschlandlied              'National anthem of Austria' Y... 2013.05.12
484Simple view'Ask not'/America       months  'days of the week'  day/week/month/year  '(the) first'  hamburger  'Super Bowl' Y... 2011.02.09
483Simple view'passive voice'               'shoe-string budget?'  'you know'  'by the way'  'eh/well'  'blood libel'    'last supper' Y... 2011.01.14
482Simple view'Do I know you?'           'Season's Greetings'  'Auld Lang Syne'      'Christian cross,  resurrection'    'Red Cross' Y... 2011.01.08
481Simple view'Moses & Jesus Christ'            Christ/Jesus,   'Christmas card'   'Why Santa is old man'   MoU,      'Three Magi' Y... 2010.12.25
480Simple view"Shakespeare   &  Plutarch"                  'Sir Thomas More'   'G6'     oneself/myself/ourselves/etc.    ID Y... 2010.12.23
479Simple view'Why wedding dresses are white'              Halloween/제사,  denim, angel(s), eve, Ivy/steak, 'Rhode Island' Y... 2010.12.19
478Simple viewThanksgiving-day,         SantaClaus,           countries,      "silent letter??"     waffle/빈대떡/cupcake Y... 2010.11.26
477Simple view>> More considerations on  "silent letter??";     between GRECOnglish & orthodox English pronunciations Y... 2010.11.27
476Simple view"for the people, by the people, of the people"                          "I have a dream"      yes/no Y... 2010.10.10
475Simple view'it :  imp. v.??'              methinks                               Memorial/Mother's Day,    'hat trick'  franchise/may Y... 2010.06.05
474Simple view"Phonetics/linguistics  &  Bible"                                            "dirty Chinese??" Y... 2010.04.20
473Simple view'aui*Λ/o/='        exigency, need/longing, matter, pressure/force, hurry/rush, weight/postulate/concept/picture Y... 2010.04.05
472Simple view>> Corrected:                   [auiΛ]/S/mES, /S/MS;    [auio]/S/mES, /T/mES, /C1/mES;   [aui=]/P/pES Y... 2010.08.14
471Simple viewview/viewpoint, scheme/surmise/lack/economy/feature,  detail/topic,  item/issue,  point/case,  trifle/matter Y... 2010.04.05
470Simple viewaffair/terrific,  spooky/spook, dreadful/fearsome/awesome/traditional,  customary/familiar,  normal/average Y... 2010.04.05
469Simple viewusual/general,  common/routine, standard, apropos, related/relati-,  germane/cognate, tempor-, fly-by-night Y... 2010.04.05
468Simple viewpassing,  fugitive, 'short-lived', transient/ably/momentarily/amplify/stretch,  expand/wax,  augment/raise Y... 2010.04.05
467Simple viewheighten/lengthen,  embarra-/discountena-,  'show up', offend,  chagrin/vex, mortify/abash,  incarna-/personi- Y... 2010.04.05
466Simple viewrepresent/depict,  illustrate/explicate, codify, manifest, rubbish,  malign/libel,  abuse/mar, decry, blacken Y... 2010.04.05
465Simple viewsignificance/fervour/ebullience,  weight/emphasis, distillation/water/dew/perspiration/moisture/spray/bigotry Y... 2010.04.05
464Simple viewchutzpah', fight, payoff, path,  consequences/end, result(s), verdict,  upshot/event, compatible, consonant Y... 2010.04.05
463Simple viewsociable, convivial,  'dyed in the wool', universal, overall,  total/downright, worldwide,  'far-flung', entire Y... 2010.04.05
462Simple viewwhole/patient,  mild/equab-, kind/generali-/interpola-,  sophisticate/pervert, counsel/instruct,  refine/temper Y... 2010.04.05
461Simple viewhype/razzmatazz, razzle-dazzle, spotlight, play-up, write-up,  champion/uphold, develop,  defend, 'plead for' Y... 2010.04.05
460Simple viewhelp,  advocate/recommend,  puzzle/poser, problem, inconsistency, 'closed book', conundrum, fabrication Y... 2010.04.05
459Simple viewforgery/phony, lie(s), fiction, myth,  fake/counterfeit,  takings, arrest/bust,  catching/espial, trappings/bard Y... 2010.04.05
458Simple viewimprisonment/detenti-, seizure,  dignity, 'self-importa-', decorum/etiquet-,  grandeur/prominen-, proprieties Y... 2010.04.05
457Simple viewsolemnities/gravity,  majesties, 'His Honour, etc.',  destitute, 'down and out',  poor, 'bad(ly) off', 'well-off' Y... 2010.04.05
456Simple viewneedy,  short/low, jovial,  lively, 'full of beans', congenial/ratty/peevish,  sour/tart,  surly/churlish, peppery Y... 2010.04.05
455Simple viewtesty/heady/snappish, unlimited/incomparable/peremptory/complain,  grumble/bellyache, carp/kvetch, groan Y... 2010.04.05
454Simple viewwail/soothe,  'relieve (yourself)', soften/mitigate/scold/blame,  correct/chasten, discipline/censure/advertise Y... 2010.04.05
453Simple viewfortis(?) consonants,                                    Short(?) Program,  Democrat/donkey,  Valentine's Day Y... 2010.02.24
452Simple view>>                                              θ/ð/v/f Y... 2014.03.09
451Simple viewDifference between English & GRECOnglish/GC,                                             pronouns,   'Excuse me.' Y... 2010.01.23
450Simple view'Λui*a/o/=', business/craft, work/occupation, call/job, line/field, condition/symptoms/disorder/appointments Y... 2010.01.06
449Simple view>> Corrections:                                               [Λuia] adjective,       [Λui=] /S/SS Y... 2010.09.18
448Simple viewhorseback-riding?    class, label, creature, gull,   figure/dupe, fitting/fit,    worthy/praiseworthy/worthwhile Y... 2010.01.06
447Simple viewcorrect,  toxic/unhealthful,  deadly/destructive, mortal/killing, choice/prime,  'cool, first-class', select/rare Y... 2010.01.06
446Simple viewbrilliant/marvello-, cracking/mega, coolish/aggregate/assemble/accumula-, test/challenge, look at, research Y... 2010.01.06
445Simple viewexaggerate/emphasise/enlarge/inflate/embroider, frighten/scare/stun/alarm, damp/humidness/opacity/dim Y... 2010.01.06
444Simple viewfaintness/funniness/sport/pleasure/cheerfulness/joy,   understanding/affectionateness/toleration/surd/hard Y... 2010.01.06
443Simple viewdire/awful/dreadful/notable, non-specialist, general/easy/simple/plain/significant/suppose/imagine, believe in Y... 2010.01.06
442Simple view'fancy up', feed, 'eat up', graze/pasture/browse,  'dine out', copulate/shag/bonk,  'have a ball', 'have a fuck' Y... 2010.01.06
441Simple view'have a hump', erase, 'cancel out', excise, 'wipe out', luxury/extra/art/pleasure/love/density/want/parsimony Y... 2010.01.06
440Simple viewdimension/solidity/impenetrability/terror/animosity/dread/horror/fright/awe/deadline,    value/unchangeability Y... 2010.01.06
439Simple viewconstancy,  merit/irreversibility,  quality/unalterability,  caliber/invariability, bad,  kind/humane, good, favour Y... 2010.01.06
438Simple viewcaring/sharp/risky/parlous/ominous/dicey/insecure/ugly/quiescent/yielding/soft/dutiful/willing, patient/serene Y... 2010.01.06
437Simple viewliberal/prodigal, lax/permissive/tender, constancy/stability, lenient/magnanimo-/free/evolve, generate/render Y... 2010.01.06
436Simple viewguarantee/guaranty, delegate/authorize, trust, transfer/transport, hand/give/pass/capture, charm/bewitch Y... 2010.01.06
435Simple viewattract/fascinate,  entrance/trance,  submit/yield/agree/bend/bow/ailment, malaise/instrument/tool/apropos Y... 2010.01.06
434Simple viewtimely/genuine/lethal/terminal/hostile/fine/willing/affable/commix/terrorize/water, kindliness, hand-out Y... 2010.01.06
433Simple viewEnglish/GRECOnglish accent,                   'Happy Holidays',  season, chemistry?         'primary consonants' Y... 2010.01.04
432Simple view'uia*Λ/o/='            mix/mixture;     blend;     compound/composite/composition;     amalgam/amalgamation Y... 2010.01.04
431Simple view>> Corrected:                                             [uia=] /T/MS, /P/mES Y... 2010.08.13
430Simple viewcoalescence; climax; venture; project; risk; scheme;  benefit/beneficiality;  good(ness);  use; gain; reward Y... 2009.12.25
429Simple viewboon; alert; serious; deep; intellectual; scholarly; fit;    appropriate/expropriate; irregular;    asymmetric(al) Y... 2009.12.01
428Simple viewfraternize; socialize; sacrifice; abandon; renounce; forfeit(ure); jilt; disentangle/untangle; generalize (-ise) Y... 2009.12.01
427Simple viewextrapolate; infer; conclude; 'reason out'; universalize; mind; sense; knowledge; wit; corruption/corruptne- Y... 2009.12.01
426Simple view>> Corrections:          mindfulness/mind, sensuousness/sense, wiseness/wisdom, judiciousness/judgement Y... 2009.12.21
425Simple viewgraft; danger(ousness); chance; prospect; optimality/optimization; gawky/gauche; heavy; earnest; true/H?  Y... 2009.12.01
424Simple viewphysical; manual; base; sanguine; expectant; budget; allowance; finance(s); shove; thrust; nudge; knock Y... 2009.12.01
423Simple viewpush; bump; cause; source; spring; agent; opposite; different; enough/enow; lavish; belligerent; conflicting Y... 2009.12.01
422Simple viewoptimize; behave;   act/react; conduct(ion); acquit ; comport; deliberate; consider; think; ponder; debate Y... 2009.12.01
421Simple viewfrighten; scare; petrify;    interweave; intermingle; commingle; alleviate;    trivialize; untangle; shadiness Y... 2009.12.01
420Simple viewrun;   disclose; divulge; evince; defraud; hoodwink;   impart; promulgate; deteriorate; fundi; wonk;   study Y... 2009.12.01
419Simple view"trick or treat"                                   "air force one" Y... 2009.11.06
418Simple view*  'iau*Λ/o/='      mean(s), aid, advantage, vacuum,    (expressive) style, competition, aggression, intrusion Y... 2009.11.04
417Simple view>> Corrected:              [iauΛ] /P/MS, /S/aES, /C1/SS, /P/mES,   [iauo] /C2/MS, /verb,   [iau=] /P/mES Y... 2010.10.05
416Simple view'ill will',    pugnacity/roundabout/wandering, straightforward/natural/frank/dirty/blue, lavish/full/grace/raise Y... 2009.11.04
415Simple viewadvance/boycott/snub, refrain from, stay away -, spurn, throw out, eject/support/bear, hold up, carry/prop Y... 2009.11.03
414Simple viewfame/honour/glory, trouble(someness), inconvenience/solemness/gravity, earnest(ness), soberness/feeling Y... 2009.11.03
413Simple viewsubmission,   philanthropic(al), gracious, almsgiving, positive, confident, hopeful, upbeat,   real(ly), absolute Y... 2009.11.03
412Simple viewperfect/right/complete/shoot/speed/race/rush/tear/dash/pose/present/create/rise,     lead (to),  result (in) Y... 2009.11.03
411Simple viewsave, rescue, recover, salvage,    bail (out), chafe, rub, scratch, rasp, scrape,    foolish(ness), judg(e)ment Y... 2009.11.03
410Simple viewgrotesquery/unpleasingness/verity,   'true fact?' reality, sensuous/sensual, provocative/delicious/delectable Y... 2009.11.03
409Simple viewsteady/beautiful/scenic, savo(u)ry, federate/merge,   unify/unite, consolidate/mingle/coalesce/save/reserve Y... 2009.11.03
408Simple viewstore/collect/vaporize/gasify/aerate,     sublimate/sublime, transpire/hesitate/waver/delay/pause/wait/falter Y... 2009.11.03
407Simple view'compound noun'                Go go go!   White House, northwest, used car,   African-American,   ball games Y... 2009.10.20
406Simple viewdefault [*]/[h]/[=]                   nightline, below, having,  'So many people, so many minds.'  'Mother’s Day' Y... 2009.10.16
405Simple viewMrs./Miss/Ms./lady,                   principle of (sur)names,                   Kor-/Eng- sentences              color Y... 2009.10.11
404Simple view'=ia*Λ/o/u'         agent/H? height/representative/minister/agent/deputy/summit/peak, fund(s), mutual/trust Y... 2009.10.04
403Simple view>> Corrections:                   [=iaΛ] /S/mES,   [=iau]/P/noun, /C1/mES,    [=iao]/S/aES,   /P/T/C1/mES,  Y... 2010.08.28
402Simple viewtherapeutic,  lavish/healing/restorative, good(s), corrective/temporary/acting/interim,  strain/stress/strenu- Y... 2009.10.04
401Simple view'stand-in',   'fill-in',   farming, country, rural, rustic, agrarian,   complain, moan, bitch, whine, growl, gripe Y... 2009.10.04
400Simple viewsophisticate/school/train/educate/consecrate,  bless/H? monitor,  'check (out)', program(me), info(rmation) Y... 2009.10.04
399Simple view>> Corrections:                                           "45. monitor"     &     "46.  check (out)" Y... 2009.11.27
398Simple viewproof, submission, reverence, observance, density, compact(ed)ness, impenetrability, thick, close, heavy Y... 2009.10.04
397Simple viewsolid, substantial, defenc(s)e, rash, irresponsible, precipitate, prove, support, bear, shoulder, endure, keep Y... 2009.10.04
396Simple viewoscillate/fluctuate/swing/vary/sway/veer, effects, end, results, wake/morosity/gloom, mood(in-), sulk(in-) Y... 2009.10.04
395Simple viewsour(ness), vice/viciousness, cruelty, savage(ry), feminine(ness), sex, female(n-), male(n-), masculine(n-) Y... 2009.10.04
394Simple viewterrific, bodacious(ly), boff(o), 'jim-dandy', hopeful, positive, confident, 'can-do', formal(ly), official, regular Y... 2009.10.04
393Simple viewparlous/perilous, '(de)fend (off)',  'cover up', protect/guard/secure/preserve/furnish,  'fit out', stock/supply Y... 2009.10.04
392Simple viewprovision/provide/serialize, 'set up', arrange/form/order/sort/sicken/disgust/revolt, repel/repulse, 'gross out' Y... 2009.10.04
391Simple view>> Corrections:                                              "set up"          (set) Y... 2010.01.18
390Simple view'Why not Gibson Charles?'          'Mr. Gibson' or 'Gibson mister'        'Your Honour'        'English middle name' Y... 2009.09.19
389Simple view'ia=*Λ/o/u'         supplement,      quest,     philanthropic(al), irritative, humanitarian, affronted, sacrifice Y... 2009.09.15
388Simple view>> Corrected Y... 2010.11.20
387Simple viewabandon(ment), focus, center, finish, do, use, '(be) used to', effect, merit, culture, public, spell/charm/lure Y... 2009.09.15
386Simple viewfair(ness), love(liness), neighbo(u)rly, siz(e)ably, wil(l)fully, corpor(e)al, cordial, futile, troubledly, disturbing Y... 2009.09.15
385Simple viewwildish, wild(ly),   loud(ly), cut, sever, divide,   rend, schism,   separate, cast, throw, project, launch, pitch Y... 2009.09.15
384Simple viewshed, consolidate, combine, unite, join,  marry, amalgamate, boundary, limits, obscurity, negligence/neglect Y... 2009.09.15
383Simple viewirresponsibleness, uncertainty, changeability, rough, crude/petro-, homespun, rough-hew(n), 'stylish person' Y... 2009.09.15
382Simple view'in/on demand'  show, express, display, reveal, register, rouse, cause, fire, prompt, ease, moderate, animate Y... 2009.09.15
381Simple viewgrafting;                  greeting;                 "good-bye"                   "forbidden fruit" Y... 2009.09.11
380Simple viewno/though/yes,         (nein/doch/ja)                    "You like it, do you? ΛV" Y... 2009.09.08
379Simple view>> "Don't you like it?"           "The life must go on."           sniper,          Phoenicia,         freemason Y... 2009.09.18
378Simple view'iaΛ*o/u/='   factor, fundament(al), problematic(al),  '(dangling) participle', loose(ly),  'blue chip', large-sized Y... 2009.09.04
377Simple viewpunctuality, promptness, read(il)y, regular(ity), stead(il)y, consistent(ly),  'Kindly yours',  '(double) genitive' Y... 2009.09.04
376Simple viewsimplicity/easiness/clarity, logic(ality), urgency/importan-, need(fulness), gravity, press(ure), hurry/querulo- Y... 2009.09.04
375Simple viewbad-tempered,     hot-tempered, irascible,    'provide (against/for)', 'fit (in)', 'spy (on)',  follow/i? monitor/H? Y... 2009.09.04
374Simple viewagree/-/i? thunder(bolt), cheat(er), sharper,  'confidence man', pledge/v? committal, promise/v? segmented Y... 2009.09.04
373Simple viewsegregative/augmentative/increasable/protractive/celebrative,  'deal in/with', 'trade in', 'build up', scare/-/i? Y... 2009.09.04
372Simple view'iao*Λ/u/='      position/H?   exposé,      (have) impact/contact/curb/date/elbow/interview/panic/park/verb? Y... 2009.08.26
371Simple view>> Corrected:                                       [iaou] /S/aES Y... 2010.07.09
370Simple viewcare(fulness),  worry/v?   'seeing eye', old/H? passé, circumspect(ive),    'Indian summer',  oldish, enervate Y... 2009.08.26
369Simple viewverity, truth,  'the true',  factuality, tru(thful)ly,     'Sincerely yours', media blitz, clear/whole/H? wholeness Y... 2009.08.26
368Simple viewunity/cohesion, barrenness, aridness/poorer/unproductivity, technological), propitiatory/atonable/reparative Y... 2009.08.26
367Simple viewoblatory, mockable, mock(up), ironic/sneerful/aggravative, exaggeratively, heightened, join/H? 'wrap (up)' Y... 2009.08.26
366Simple view* 'oia*Λ/u/='  'the more - of',      'holy grail', 'more important(ly)', '(the) more universal',      'bachelor party' Y... 2009.08.21
365Simple view>> Corrected :                                      [oiau]/P/MS/noun,  /mES/verb Y... 2010.09.13
364Simple view'Please be seated',  humidness, damp(ness), moistness, bounty,      plenty, profusion, limit(ation), ultimacy Y... 2009.08.21
363Simple viewbest/highest/finest/choicest, 'succumb to', 'catch in', 'contract of', impermanency/transiency/insecureness Y... 2009.08.21
362Simple view>> Corrected:                               "23.  catch (in)" Y... 2010.09.13
361Simple viewcapableness/means/competency/potency/captainship, complete/H? done, sacred/H? blessed, recap(itulate) Y... 2009.08.21
360Simple view'uai*Λ/o/='       periodic(al),  cyclic(al),  great(ly),    fade (away),  melt (away),    principle(s),  scruple(s) Y... 2009.08.15
359Simple view>> Corrected :                  [uaio]   from /C1/mES,  “recreate”/+-,    (14.     deleted) Y... 2010.04.11
358Simple viewgloom(ine-), disabled/handicapped, deceptively, copy(write), xerox, safety/safene-, (im)pass(e), im/explicit Y... 2009.08.15
357Simple viewsanctimonious(ly), religiose, disorder(ed)ly, straightforward(ly),   over/underestimate,  miss (out),  way(s) Y... 2009.08.15
356Simple view'aiu*Λ/o/='       hope(fulness),     long(ing),     answerableness,   opportuneness,   benevolent,   over/end Y... 2009.08.11
355Simple view>> Corrected:                                        [aiu=] /P/pES,  /T/pES Y... 2010.10.13
354Simple viewconventional,   davenport,  secretaire,       'government(s); collective n.?'       authorities,   viable/possible Y... 2009.08.10
353Simple viewstereotypic(al), baseball, empty/H? beating,  danger(ousness), clear/H? fine/H?   'intens(iv)e, intent',   past Y... 2009.08.10
352Now readingwhat/which//that/this/whatever/whose/who/however, although, but, except(ing), and, It is me, both/with Y... 2009.08.07
351Simple view'=ai*Λ/o/u'     porn(o), revelant, continue,  keep(ing-up), maintain,  carry(ing-on), lasting(ness), curiosity Y... 2009.07.31
350Simple viewalienism, exot(ci)sm, revenge, extant, actual(ly), ugly, surly,  current/heart/Hist?  headquarter(s), bake(ry) Y... 2009.07.31
349Simple viewwork(place), observation/concurrency/conformity, fanatic(al), deadly/noticeableness/appearan-/visiblene- Y... 2009.07.31
348Simple viewdouble(ness), fellow,  submission(s),  concentrative(ly),  husband/H?  advance(ment),  purport,  claim/H? Y... 2009.07.31
347Simple viewModifications & Corrections:            'ai=*Λ/o/u' ,      difficultness  >>  difficulty          [ai=u] Y... 2009.09.16
346Simple viewboundary, confine(s), verge(s),   corporate culture, custom(s),    lifestyle,  art(s)y–craft(s)y,    one,    half Y... 2009.07.26
345Simple view(one and) only,   only,   not,  'not only ~ but'   'not-balance',  individual(s),  impeach/formidability/difficulty Y... 2009.07.26
344Simple view>> Corrections:                                 28. difficultness/difficulty Y... 2009.09.16
343Simple viewoffense, Abo,  identify with, politic(al)ly,    n/m dash,   scoot, seeing as (how), 'waste/fade/wither (away)' Y... 2009.07.26
342Simple viewFrench Kiss,   French fry,   French Connection,   French leave,   French maid,   French-German enmity,  - Y... 2009.07.21
341Simple view'Λai*o/u/='     corpor(e)ality, Tombstone,    'more higher',   'might could',   'three mile',  'VAT tax', four-foot Y... 2009.07.17
340Simple view>> Corrected:                                                 [Λai=]/T/MS Y... 2010.09.22
339Simple view'rarely ever',  'couldn't hardly', hard(ly), anticipate/empathy, IOU, insure/complacency, absolute(ness), mum Y... 2009.07.17
338Simple viewunchangeablene-/invariablene-/inalterability/feasibili-/survivab-, grow/vt?  workablene-/corrupti-/viciousne- Y... 2009.07.17
337Simple viewperversion, conscious(ness), consc(ient)ious,    'aware of'   'responsive to'   'cognizant of'   'percipient of' Y... 2009.07.17
336Simple viewtry-to,  solid(ity), substantialness/tangibility/physicality/legitimation, credibleness, greenish, denote, Andy Y... 2009.07.17
335Simple view'aiΛ*o/u/='   impulsivity, impetuosity, anxious/eager?, chat(ter), chiefly/centrally, uppermost/foremost/adv? Y... 2009.07.10
334Simple viewstrangle/worrying(ly),  (ad)judge, recap(itulate), (a)bate,  council/counselor,  gown/univ, (ad)dress,  habit Y... 2009.07.10
333Simple viewstreng(k)th, on purpose, aggravate/tease, broad(ly), wide(ly), quiet(ness/ly), on the quiet, alone, sat/-ing? Y... 2009.07.10
332Simple viewforward(s/ly), further(most), favor/v.i?, foster(ing/ed), caution(ary), heed(fulness), (ad)venture, bold(ness) Y... 2009.07.10
331Simple viewpowerful(ly), power(ful), aloud, roaring(ly),     French kiss,    jazz,   'compare with/to', contrast/n?, born(e) Y... 2009.07.10
330Simple view'aio*Λ/u/='   Your-Honour,       Stonehenge,      eas(il)y/2,   safety,  obsession,    Big Apple (NY),  moniker Y... 2009.07.03
329Simple viewitem/also,  fundament(al),         neighbor,        decisive, hard-hitting,    upright(ly), sheer(ly),         need Y... 2009.07.03
328Simple view'oai*Λ/u/='    excess, inordinacy, immoderacy, extravagancy, whitish, light(ly), soft(ly), almight(il)y, (re)lax Y... 2009.06.26
327Simple view>> Corrections:                               [oaiu]            swanky Y... 2010.03.22
326Simple viewdoll, immigrate, remove/v.i.?  'permit of', sanction, sit/set, lemon,    'spelling bee',    'rote learning', 'look to' Y... 2009.06.26
325Simple viewboast/form, bragging(ly), in vain,  lordly/adv?  egotistic(al), a thought, sequent(ial), economic(al), punitory Y... 2009.06.26
324Simple view>> Corrections:                                        26. lordly Y... 2010.03.22
323Simple viewretaliative, bright(ly), historic(al), oblig(at)e, (t)here, this/that,   voiced/voiceless,   like-to, like, 'like(d) to' Y... 2009.06.26
322Simple view'iΛo*a/u/='    gender role, battle with,  media/data/agenda/dirtily/pathetic(al), fair(ly), comply with, evade Y... 2009.06.20
321Simple viewboxwood/parts/quantity, a quantity of, an amount of, a lot, partially/various/more-important(ly), disorderly Y... 2009.06.20
320Simple viewhigh(ly), bull/bear, corporal/comic(al), panicky/hysteric/fleshy/awful(ly), hysteric, /slash, dare, honey/baby Y... 2009.06.19
319Simple view'oiΛ*a/u/='     obsolescent,  big(ly),   'do ~ have or have ~ got?'  'know about'  defense,   '(not) care less' Y... 2009.06.15
318Simple view'best foot' ugly/clever, plain(ly), banal, dullish, 'girl or woman?'  '-person', man/male,  '-ess' mistress/madam Y... 2009.06.15
317Simple view'iΛa*o/u/='    acknowledgements/sensitive/reasonability/formidable,   once/everyday,   commonly/ordinarily Y... 2009.06.08
316Simple viewroutinely, 'in back of'  back/up, back/v?  capacity,  "first lady"  noblewoman, retaliative, snug(ly), warmish Y... 2009.06.08
315Simple viewelements, near(ly), close(ly), godly,  'free gift?'  free(ly), gam,   'double passive'  abhominable,  likely/liable Y... 2009.06.08
314Simple view'aiΛ*o/u/='    imperative/alleviate, wrought/wreak, nuts,  vs/v,  proceeding(s), formality/solemnities, taunt Y... 2009.06.02
313Simple view>> Corrected:                       [aiΛu] /P/pES/adjectives/adverbs,     [aiΛ=/P,  /MS/noun] 11. solemnities Y... 2010.04.25
312Simple viewcalumny/self-complacently, roughish, effect/affect, marque, P.S. give up, quantity of, roaringly/selectable Y... 2009.06.02
311Simple view'iΛ=*a/o/u'  full(y)/party/complicated/certain  'We sure are'  invaluable/priceless/irrevocability/irreversibility Y... 2009.05.26
310Simple view>> Corrected:                                         complicated/complex Y... 2009.08.28
309Simple viewphilosophic/stoic/cool/factualness/blind/luxuriant/intrinsic/organic/ambiguous,    cell phone,   (to) no end, - Y... 2009.05.26
308Simple view'=iΛ*a/o/u'   beg the question,  plead guilty,   teaser, huff and puff, look at, low(ly),  TV,  agree to,  toast Y... 2009.05.22
307Simple view>> Corrected:                                              [=iΛo]/S/aES Y... 2010.11.13
306Simple viewdeadline,   justly, unique, fairly, hang out,  quarter to,  repulsive/repellant,  ceremonious,  foully, reflect on Y... 2009.05.20
305Simple view'uiΛ*a/o/='  vulnerableness/signiificancy/impotency, soundly, bad(ly), bad/uptight/perchance, chance upon Y... 2009.05.15
304Simple view>> Corrections:                    difficultness  >>   exactingness       [uiΛo] Y... 2009.09.16
303Simple viewheadline,  especially/quieten/empathize/heal, await-for, everywhere, long (for), ill-temper, preside (over), - Y... 2009.05.15
302Simple view<<iΛu*a/o/=>>    medicine/pilot/crowd/feign,     'see television'   'hear radio'      lone(li)ly,  'only terrible' Y... 2009.05.11
301Simple view>> Corrections:                                       "check  >>   check-out" Y... 2009.09.22
300Simple viewdisorder(ed)ly, check(ed),   chess/check,  'part and parcel'  blatant/outright(ly), 'pillow sham' 'of course' Y... 2009.05.11
299Simple view'Λio*a/u/='     (im)possible/answerable/chargeable/TB/utilize,    'incomparable adj. equal'   'center (on)' - Y... 2009.05.04
298Simple view>> Corrected:                                    [Λio=] /P/pES/adjectives Y... 2010.07.05
297Simple view'very best'  estimate, shy/short,  'sort of',  (im)practicable, proportional, wild(ly), waits,  'check out it' - Y... 2009.05.04
296Simple view'oΛi*a/u/='   exceptional/lowly/fantastical/absurd(ness),  sick and tired,  nauseous/fundament(al)/(re)lax Y... 2009.04.27
295Simple view>> Corrections:                                       "check  >>  check-out" Y... 2009.09.22
294Simple viewbasic(ity)/organic(ity)/basically/sick(ly)/ID/good(ness)/why/where/entertainment/awful(ly), loads (of), - Y... 2009.04.27
293Simple view'Λia*o/u/='  follow-up, help, old-salt, sacrosanctity/still(y)/tip/anarchic(al)/exhilarative/capture/casino/- Y... 2009.04.20
292Simple view>> Corrections:   [Λiao]/verb   from /T/mES           &           To: Farlex, Inc. thefreedictionary.com Y... 2009.11.02
291