1. it : subject of impersonal verb?? (indeterminate subject)
(Gram.) a verb used with an indeterminate subject, commonly, in English, with the impersonal pronoun it; as, it rains; it snows; methinks (it seems to me). Many verbs which are not strictly impersonal are often used impersonally; as, it goes well with him.
5. used in the nominative as the formal grammatical subject of impersonal verbs. When it functions absolutely in such sentences, not referring to any previous or following clause or phrase, the context is nearly always a description of the environment or of some physical sensation it is raining it hurts
* When articulating "I/You/He/We/etc. have drizzle" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "It drizzles" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
And when articulating "become droplets" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "drizzle" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
* When articulating "I/You/He/We/etc. had rain" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "It rained" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
* When articulating "I/You/He/We/etc. have snow" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "It snows" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
"It's raining" (It/S + rains/P)/GC "It rains"
"It's snowing" (It/S + snows/P)/GC "It snows"
"I'm going" (I/S + go/P)/GC "I go."
"I'm eating" (I/S + eat/P)/GC "I eat (an apple)"
It seems to me ~ << I think ~
* When articulating "I think ~ " with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture, "It seems to me ~ " is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
methinks (I/C2/Ch + think/P/Ch) "I think"
methought (I/C2/Ch + thought/T/Ch) "I thought"
2. "existential it"??
Our Living Language "I told Anse it likely won't be no need." This quotation from William Faulkner's As I Lay Dying demonstrates a use of it that occurs in some vernacular varieties of American speech. It is used instead of Standard English there when there functions as a so-called existential -- that is, when there indicates the mere existence of something rather than a physical location, as in It was nothing I could do. Existential it is hardly a recent innovation -- it appears in Middle English; in Elizabethan English, as in Marlowe's Edward II: "Cousin, it is no dealing with him now"; and in modern American literature as well. Although most British and American varieties no longer have this historical feature, it still occurs in some Southern-based dialects and in African American Vernacular English. Use of existential it may actually be increasing in some places, such as Smith Island, Maryland, a historically isolated community. While older Smith Islanders sometimes use existential it rather than there, younger islanders almost always do. • In some American vernacular dialects, particularly in the South (including the Appalachian and Ozark mountains), speakers may pronounce it as hit in stressed positions, especially at the beginning of a sentence, as in Hit's cold out here! This pronunciation is called a relic dialect feature because it represents the retention of an older English form. In fact, hit is the original form of the third person singular neuter pronoun and thus can be traced to the beginnings of the Old English period (c. 449-1100). Early in the history of English, speakers began to drop the h from hit, particularly in unaccented positions, as in I saw it yesterday. Gradually, h also came to be lost in accented positions, although hit persisted in socially prestigious speech well into the Elizabethan period. Some relatively isolated dialects in Great Britain and the United States have retained h, since linguistic innovations such as the dropping of h are often slow to reach isolated areas. But even in such places, h tends to be retained only in accented words. Thus, we might hear Hit's the one I want side by side with I took it back to the store. Nowadays, hit is fading even in the most isolated dialect communities and occurs primarily among older speakers. • This loss of h reflects a longstanding tendency among speakers of English to omit h's in unaccented words, particularly pronouns, such as 'er and 'im for her and him, as in I told 'er to meet me outside. This kind of h-loss is widespread in casual speech today, even though it is not reflected in spelling. See Note at Smith Island.
there /GC/S/Ch << over-there /P
here << over-here
That is, when articulating "over-there" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture, "there" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
And, when articulating "over-here" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture, "here" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
In conclusion, it can be said that "there/here" are (not proper but) GRECOnglish/GC words which are derived from "over-there" and "over-here" of genuine English /P adverb.
>> I told Anse it (there) likely won't be no need.
* When articulating "there" with/from English /P speaking posture, "it" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
>> Hit's cold out here!
* When articulating "it" with/from English /S speaking posture, "hit" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
>> I told 'er ('im) to meet me outside
^her^ and ^him^ are spoken as 'er and 'im respectively. (liaison-hole/LH)
Usage Note: The standard rule states that when the pronoun there precedes a verb such as be, seem, or appear, the verb agrees in number with the following grammatical subject: There is a great Italian deli across the street. There are fabulous wildflowers in the hills. There seems to be a blueberry pie cooking in the kitchen. There seem to be a few trees between the green and me. Nonetheless, it is common in speech for the contraction there's to be used when technically a hurtplural verb is called for, as in There's a couple of good reasons for going. The Usage Panel dislikes this construction, however. Seventy-nine percent reject the sentence There's only three things you need to know about this book. But when there's is followed by a compound subject whose first element is singular, the Panel feels differently: 56 percent accept the sentence In each of us there's a dreamer and a realist, and an additional 32 percent accept it in informal usage. The Panel is even more accepting of the sentence When you get to the stop light, there's a gas station on the left and a grocery store on the right; 58 percent accept it in formal use, while an additional 37 percent accept it in informal use. Although this usage would seem to violate the rules of subject and verb agreement, the attraction of the verb to the singular noun phrase following it is so strong that it is difficult to avoid the construction entirely. • There may be used as an intensive adjective when placed after a noun preceded by that, but it is considered nonstandard to place there between that and the noun. Thus that there dress is not an acceptable substitute for that dress there. This here is similarly considered nonstandard.
Usage: In correct usage, the verb should agree with the number of the subject in such constructions as there is a man waiting and there are several people waiting. However, where the subject is compound, it is common in speech to use the singular as in there's a police car and an ambulance outside
Re: Article of "<<=iΛ, iΛ=, aiΛ, Λai>> Pardon? Excuse me? Sorry? "There is Tom." for(e)bear" <<Column 6. There is Tom.>>
"there's" (there/P/Ch + are/S/Ch) "there are"
>> that there dress
* When articulating "that" with/from English /C1 speaking posture, "that there" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
4. Memorial Day
1. Also called Decoration Day. a day, May 30, set aside in most states of the U.S. for observances in memory of dead members of the armed forces of all wars: now officially observed on the last Monday in May.
2. any of several days, as April 26, May 10, or June 3, similarly observed in various Southern states.
Remembering Memorial Day
by Mike Krumboltz
5 hours ago
For many, Memorial Day brings to mind images of parades and picnics, of barbecues and baseball games. What's sometimes forgotten are the reasons for the holiday: The sacrifices made by American soldiers in times of conflict.
As the United States' death toll passes 1,000 in Afghanistan, Memorial Day takes on an especially poignant meaning this year. Here's a brief look at how the holiday got its start, and how people are searching for ways to honor the brave men and women who have lost their lives.
The first holiday
Originally, the holiday was known as "Decoration Day." It was started by a Civil War general named Gen. John Logan, who was the Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army of the Republic. General Logan sought a way to help the country come back together after the horrors and divide of the Civil War.
The holiday was first observed on May 30, 1868, and Gen. Logan chose that date for two very important reasons: First, the day did not mark the anniversary of a Civil War battle, and second "flowers would likely be in bloom all over the United States." Indeed, many took flowers to Arlington National Cemetery, an activity that still occurs every year.
More on Gen. John Logan
General John A. Logan has a tremendous legacy that goes well beyond his efforts to honor fallen soldiers. According to a museum dedicated to his memory, Gen. Logan led an inspired life and enjoyed a tremendous career. At different points, he was a United States congressman, a senator, and a candidate for the vice presidency. He and his running mate, James G. Blane, lost their bid, but "Logan’s popularity with veterans contributed to the narrowness of the defeat."
An official holiday
This may come as a bit of a surprise, but Memorial Day, despite having been around for over 100 years in one form or another, didn't become an official federal holiday until 1971, when Congress passed the National Holiday Act. This created a three-day weekend at the end of May. Prior to this, different states observed the holiday on different days.
The effect on Web search
Web lookups on "memorial day" and "celebrate memorial day" are both up over 500% during the past seven days. Additionally, queries on "memorial day quotes" and "memorial day history" are soaring, as are searches for "memorial day parades" and "memorial day flowers."
Also worth noting — the "national moment of remembrance." This moment takes place at 3 p.m. local time on Memorial Day and lasts one minute. According to Remember.gov, "the Moment does not replace traditional Memorial Day events; rather it is an act of national unity in which all Americans, alone or with family and friends, honor those who died for our freedom. It will help to reclaim Memorial Day as the sacred and noble holiday it was meant to be. In this shared remembrance, we connect as Americans."
decoration (fallen/S/Ch + soldiers'/P/Ch) "fallen soldiers'"
* "fallen soldiers's" is in usual/normal English speaking (which articulate "fallen" from English /T speaking posture and "soldiers" from English /S speaking posture, and "'s" from English /P speaking posture) pronounced as "fallen soldiers'".
That is, "Fallen Soldiers's Day" >> "Fallen Soldiers' Day" >> "Decoration Day"
* Decoration >> Memorial /GC/S/Ch/abT
That is, "decoration" is pronounced as "memorial" when articulated from Greek /GC/S/Ch/abT speaking posture.
May (fall/C1/Ch + en/T/Ch) fallen
30th (sold/P/Ch + ier/S/Ch) soldier
>> April 26,
April (fall/T/Ch + en/C1/Ch) fallen
26th (sold/C2/Ch + ier/T/Ch) soldier
>> May 10,
May (fall/C1/Ch + en/T/Ch) fallen
10th (sold/T/Ch + ier/C2/Ch) soldier
>> June 3,
June (fall/P/Ch + en/S/Ch) fallen
3rd (sold/S/Ch + ier/P/Ch) soldier
5. Mother's day
"Mother's day" (May/T/Ch + eighth/S/Ch) "May 8th"
mother (carn/P/Ch + ation/S/Ch) carnation
red (al/S/Ch + ive/P/Ch) alive
white (dea/P/Ch + d/S/Ch) dead
6. "hat trick"
>> men of a certain age
certain (midd/S/Ch + le/P/Ch) middle
"I believe" (I/T/Ch + think/C1/Ch) "I think"
"four-letter word" (sw/P/Ch + earword/S/Ch) swearword
"piggy bank" (pi/P/Ch + g/S/Ch) pig
Re: Article of "Root or stem?? << cih/칳 >> 아리랑 [(ŋ)a ri raŋ]" <<Column 7. 아리랑 [(ŋ)a ri raŋ]>>
* arirang 아리랑 >> elevation /GC/S/Ch/abT
mountain (e/P/Ch + elevation/C2/Ch) elevation
* "Apple computer" << P.C. /T
That is, "P.C." is pronounced as "Apple computer" when articulated from English /T speaking posture.
nickel (co/P/Ch + in/C2/Ch) coin
nickel (five/S/Ch + cents/P/Ch) "five cents"
nickel (five/S/Ch + dollars/P/Ch) "five dollars"
"Lone Star" (Tex/T/Ch + as/C2/Ch) Texas
(computer) mouse (hand/P/Ch + le/S/Ch) handle
wisdom tooth (mol/C2/Ch + ar/T/Ch) molar
midshipman (naval/T/Ch + academy/C2/Ch) "naval academy"
"hat trick" (three/C1/Ch + points/P/Ch) "three points"
"hat trick" (three/S/Ch + outs/P/Ch) "three outs"
"hat trick" (three/S/Ch + successes/C2/Ch) "three successes"
car (vehic/T + le/C2) vehicle [vi y=k ŋ=l]
"club soda" (sod/C2/Ch + a/T/Ch) soda
"soda water" (sod/T/Ch + a/C2/Ch) soda
"red carpet" (welc/T/Ch + ome/C2/Ch) welcome
homepage (si/C2/Ch + te/P/Ch) site
"Come on!" (come/S/Ch + here/P/Ch)/FS "Come here!"
"for the first time" (firstl/P/Ch + y/S/Ch) firstly
Hollywood (fil/S/Ch + m/P/Ch) film
"Los Angeles" (Cal/S/Ch + ifornia/P/Ch) California
tycoon (shog/S/Ch + un/P/Ch) shogun
millionaire (ri/P/Ch + ch/S/Ch) rich
"face-lift" (cosmetic/C1/Ch + surgery/P/Ch) "cosmetic surgery"
bulldog (do/S/Ch + g/P/Ch) dog
1. a privilege of a public nature conferred on an individual, group, or company by a government: a franchise to operate a bus system.
2. the right or license granted by a company to an individual or group to market its products or services in a specific territory.
3. a store, restaurant, or other business operating under such a license.
4. the territory over which such a license extends.
5. the right to vote: to guarantee the franchise of every citizen.
franchise (pr/S/Ch + ivilege/P/Ch) privilege
franchise (licen/S/Ch + se/P/Ch) license
franchise (rest/S/Ch + aurant/P/Ch) restaurant
franchise (terr/S/Ch + itory/P/Ch) territory
franchise (righ/S/Ch + t/P/Ch) right
6. a privilege arising from the grant of a sovereign or government, or from prescription, which presupposes a grant.
7. Sports Slang. a player of great talent or popular appeal, considered vitally important to a team's success or future.
8. a legal immunity or exemption from a particular burden, exaction, or the like.
9. Obsolete. freedom, esp. from imprisonment, servitude, or moral restraint.
franchise (gr/S/Ch + ant/P/Ch) grant
franchise (pl/S/Ch + ayer/P/Ch) player
franchise (immun/S/Ch + ity/P/Ch) immunity
franchise (fr/S/Ch + eedom/P/Ch) freedom
–verb (used with object)
10. to grant (an individual, company, etc.) a franchise: The corporation has just franchised our local dealer.
franchise (licen/S/Ch + se/P/Ch) license
* enfranchise >> franchise /GC/S/Ch/abT
Can 1 and may 1 are frequently but not always interchangeable in senses indicating possibility: A power failure can (or may) occur at any time. Despite the insistence by some, that can means only “to be able” and may means “to be permitted,” both are regularly used in seeking or granting permission: Can (or May) I borrow your tape recorder? You can (or may) use it tomorrow. Sentences using can occur chiefly in spoken English. May in this sense occurs more frequently in formal contexts: May I address the court, Your Honor? In negative constructions, can't or cannot is more common than may not: You can't have it today. I need it myself. The contraction mayn't is rare.
Can but and cannot but are formal and now somewhat old-fashioned expressions suggesting that there is no possible alternative to doing something. Can but is equivalent to can only: We can but do our best. Cannot but is the equivalent of cannot help but: We cannot but protest against these injustices. See also cannot, help.
Usage Note: Generations of grammarians and teachers have insisted that can should be used only to express the capacity to do something, and that may must be used to express permission. But children do not use can to ask permission out of a desire to be stubbornly perverse. They have learned it as an idiomatic expression from adults: After you clean your room, you can go outside and play. As part of the spoken language, this use of can is perfectly acceptable. This is especially true for negative questions, such as Can't I have the car tonight? probably because using mayn't instead of can't sounds unnatural. Nevertheless, in more formal usage the distinction between can and may still has many adherents. Only 21 percent of the Usage Panel accepts can instead of may in the sentence Can I take another week to submit the application? The heightened formality of may sometimes highlights the speaker's role in giving permission. You may leave the room when you are finished implies that permission is given by the speaker. You can leave the room when you are finished implies that permission is part of a rule or policy rather than a decision on the speaker's part. For this reason, may sees considerable use in official announcements: Students may pick up the application forms tomorrow.
* can >> may /GC/S/Ch/abT
That is, when articulating "can [kæ w=n]" with/from GRECOnglish/GC /S/Ch/abT speaking posture, "may [(=m ye) hih]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced, which means that "may" is (not proper English but) GRECOnglish/GC word.
"be permitted to" ("=m ye"/P/Ch + hih/C1/Ch) may [(=m ye) hih]