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(Comparative) study (in structure/mode/ways of pronunciation, articulation, phonetics, or whatever; that is, in differences of speaking mouth postures and resultant speaking weight/force center points) between English/foreign languages and mother tongue, for better (more practical/effective/smooth) hearing/speaking of English/foreign languages.       Copyright.   Young-Won Kim,   yw@voicespec.com
open : home | main | Kor | book | FUN member : main II | Kor II


::: Comparative phonetics, brd2 :::


90 11 View counter   Join Member Login Admin
Name   Young-Won Kim
Subject   >>                                        Korea,  한국 [han gug], 韓國 or 瀚國 ??

1.                               Korea,    한국 [han gug], 韓國 or 瀚國 ??

한국 [han gug]  :  韓國 [h(u=a)n g(u=)g]  or  瀚國 [h(=ua)n g(=u)g]  or  [h(a=u)n g(ui=)g]/Gandhara


Re:   Article of  "Why alternative of for poss. -s?   woman/gentleman;   Gandhara/한국, Parthia/Japan;   Korea/Core"   <<Column 5>>

Re:   Article of  "Tibet/단국[dan-gug]/배달[b-dal]/닙본(Nippon)[nib=bon]    &   Persia/Gandhara/한국[han-gug]"


As homonym,
"한국 [han gug]" (which is the Korean name of "Korea") can be spoken (when analyzing more critically) in at least three/3 different articulation/pronunciations:  1) [h(a=u)n g(ui=)g] Korea 강원도/江原道 [gaŋ wΛn do] dialect primary/P speaking;  2) [h(u=a)n g(u=)g] Korea Seoul primary/P speaking;  3) [h(=ua)n g(=u)g] Korea Seoul secondary/S speaking with coarticulation of Chinese speaking posture.


!)             한국 [h(a=u)n g(ui=)g] Korea 강원도/江原道 [gaŋ wΛn do] dialect primary/P speaking

"한국" [h(a=u)n g(ui=)g] is the pronunciation from Korea 강원도/江原道 [gaŋ wΛn do] dialect primary/P speaking posture.


When trying to speak "한국" [h(a=u)n g(ui=)g] from English/Phoenician /T speaking posture,   "Gandhara"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

When trying to speak "한국" [h(a=u)n g(ui=)g] or "Gandhara" from English/Phoenician /T speaking posture,   "Persia [pe r= si ha]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


* As homonym,
Gandhara-phonetically-corresponding "Persia [pe r= si ha]" is different from "Persia [pe r= s(ia)]" which fought Athens/Sparta.

*                       Persia [pe r= si ha] /T/Ch  >>  Gandhara /T

*                       Iraq  >>  Persia [pe r= s(ia)] /mGC            (Greece/Egypt/Turkey/Iraq)
    

When trying to speak "한국" [h(a=u)n g(ui=)g] or "Gandhara" or "Persia [pe r= si ha]" from English/CYRILLIC /C2 speaking posture,   "art"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*                              art  >>  arts /mGC

When trying to speak "한국" [h(a=u)n g(ui=)g] or "Gandhara" or "Persia [pe r= si ha]" or "art" from English/CYRILLIC /C2 CHEST/Ch speaking posture,   "fine art"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


When trying to speak "한국" [h(a=u)n g(ui=)g] or "Gandhara" or "Persia [pe r= si ha]" or "art" or "fine art" from Korea Seoul primary/P CHEST/Ch speaking posture,   "예술 [ŋ(ia) sul]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

When trying to speak "한국" [h(a=u)n g(ui=)g] or "Gandhara" or "Persia [pe r= si ha]" or "art" or "fine art" or "예술 [ŋ(ia) sul]" from Korea Seoul secondary/S CHEST/Ch speaking posture,   "미술 [mi sul]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


* "예술 [ŋ(ia) sul]" or "미술 [mi sul]" is phonetically/meaningfully corresponding to "art" or "fine art".


Interestingly, Korea 강원도/江原道 [gaŋ wΛn do] dialect speaking posture shows the below phonetic correspondence.
That is,
when trying to speak "Bactria" from Korea 강원도/江原道 [gaŋ wΛn do] dialect primary/P speaking posture,   "百濟/백제[bg  je]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


Bactria; 百濟/백제[bg  je]
Cyrus; 新羅/신라[sin  la]
Sogdiana; 高句麗/고구려[go  gu  r(iΛ)]
*  Parthia; (Japan/Nippon/)日本/일본[ŋil  bon]

** Gandhara; 韓國/한국[han  gug]
Susiana; 扶餘/부여[bu  ŋ(iΛ)]
Aria; 朝鮮/조선[jo  sΛn]
Cappadocia; 高麗/고려[go  r(iΛ)]

Caspian Sea; 渤海/발해[bal  h].
Aral Sea; 樂浪/낙랑[nag  raŋ],
Scythia; 古朝鮮/고조선[go  jo  sΛn],
Media; 馬韓/마한[ma  han],

[Media/T + s/P]; 伽倻/가야[ga  ŋ(ia)]

韓國/한국[han gug],  百濟/백제[bg ze],  高麗/고려[go r(iΛ)], 新羅/신라[sin la], 朝鮮/조선[zo sΛn], 扶餘/부여[bu ŋ(iΛ)], 高句麗/고구려[go gu r(iΛ)], 渤海/발해[bal h], 樂浪/낙랑[nag raŋ], 古朝鮮/고조선[go zo sΛn], 馬韓/마한[ma han], 伽倻/가야[ga ŋ(ia)]  are historical/ancient dynasty/nations (of Korean) in the Korean peninsula (and its neighbor).



2)                           한국 [h(u=a)n g(u=)g] Korea Seoul primary/P speaking
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseon ,    
>> Joseon (Hangul: 조선; Hanja: 朝鮮; July 1392 October 1897) (also Chosŏn, Choson, Chosun), was a Korean state founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye that lasted for approximately five centuries. ~ ~

"李成桂 이성계 (not 'Yi Seong-gye') [ŋi sΛŋ g(ie)]" is the name/pronunciation from Korea 함경도/咸鏡道 [ham g(iΛ)ŋ do] dialect speaking posture.

* When Korean-style name is spoken by Koreans, the first/third (or odd-order) sound (E.G. [ŋi] & [g(ie)] of [ŋi sΛŋ g(ie)]) are articulated with/from primary/P speaking posture and the second/fourth (or even-order) sounds (E.G. [sΛŋ] of [ŋi sΛŋ g(ie)]) are articulated with/from secondary/S speaking posture.

**  When trying to speak all sounds of "[ŋi sΛŋ g(ie)] 李成桂 이성계" from Korea 함경도/咸鏡道 [ham g(iΛ)ŋ do] dialect primary/P speaking posture,   "朝鮮 조선 (not "Joseon" but) [zo sΛn]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
    
That is, the country name of "朝鮮 조선 [zo sΛn]" has been derived from the person name of "[ŋi sΛŋ g(ie)] 李成桂 이성계".


**  When trying to speak "朝鮮 조선 [zo sΛn]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ gi do]/개성-시 [g sΛŋ si] dialect secondary/S speaking posture,   "李氏-朝鮮 (Mr. 李's 朝鮮) 이씨-조선 [ŋi si zo sΛn]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


**  When trying to speak "李氏-朝鮮 (Mr. 李's 朝鮮) 이씨-조선 [ŋi si zo sΛn]" from Korea Seoul primary/P speaking posture,   "한국 [h(u=a)n g(u=)g]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

>> Korean Empire
In 1897, the Joseon dynasty proclaimed the Korean Empire (18971910), and King Gojong became Emperor Gojong. ~ ~

*  When trying to speak "한국 [h(u=a)n g(u=)g]" from Korea/황해-도 [hwaŋ h do] dialect secondary/S CHEST/Ch speaking posture,   "大韓帝國 (D-Han Empire) 대한제국 [d han ze gug]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_Korea ,  
>> 20th century
In 1948, the South adopted the provisional government's name of Daehan Minguk (대한민국, 大韓民國; see above), known in English as the Republic of Korea.

*  When trying to speak "大韓帝國 (D-Han Empire) 대한제국 [d han ze gug]" from Korea 강원도/江原道 [gaŋ wΛn do] dialect primary/P CHEST/Ch speaking posture,   "大韓民國 (D Han people nation) 대한민국 [d han min gug]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


>> Meanwhile, the North became the Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk (조선 민주주의 인민공화국, 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國) literally the "Joseon Democratic People's Republic", known in English as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Korea ,  
~ ~ initiated by the country's first President, Kim Il-sung. ~ ~

**  When trying to speak all sounds of "(not "Kim Il-sung" but) [gim ŋil sΛŋ] 金日成 김일성" from Chinese speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea 강원도/江原道 [gaŋ wΛn do] dialect speaking posture,   "조선 민주주의 인민공화국 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國 (zo sΛn Democratic People's Republic) [zo sΛn min zu zu ŋ= ŋi ŋin min goŋ h(oa) gug]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
    
That is, the country name of "조선 민주주의 인민공화국 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國 (zo sΛn Democratic People's Republic) [zo sΛn min zu zu ŋ= ŋi ŋin min goŋ h(oa) gug]" has been derived from the person name of "[gim ŋil sΛŋ] 金日成 김일성".



3) 한국 [h(=ua)n g(=u)g] Korea Seoul secondary/S speaking with coarticulation of Chinese speaking posture

"한국" [h(=ua)n g(=u)g] is the pronunciation from Korea Seoul secondary/S speaking posture with coarticulation of Chinese speaking posture.


When trying to speak "한국" [h(=ua)n g(=u)g] from English/CYRILLIC /C2 CHEST/Ch speaking posture,   "civilization"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

When trying to speak "한국" [h(=ua)n g(=u)g] or "civilization" from Korea Seoul primary/P speaking posture,   "文明 문명 [mun m(iΛ)ŋ]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*     "文明 문명 [mun m(iΛ)ŋ]" is phonetically/meaningfully corresponding to "civilization".


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Korea ,  
A)              Samhan (삼한, 三韓)

"Sam han 삼한, 三韓" is the pronunciation from Chinese speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ gi do]/개성-시 [g sΛŋ si] dialect speaking posture.

When trying to speak "Sam han 삼한, 三韓" from English primary/P speaking posture,   "prehistory"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
    
When trying to speak "Sam han 삼한, 三韓" or "prehistory" from Korea Seoul secondary/S CHEST/Ch speaking posture,   "歷史以前 역사이전 [ŋ(iΛ)g sa ŋi zΛn]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

>>                      "歷史以前 역사이전 [ŋ(iΛ)g sa ŋi zΛn]"

歷史 역사 [ŋ(iΛ)g sa] ---- history
以前 이전 [ŋi zΛn] ------- early


When trying to speak "Sam han 삼한, 三韓" or "history early" from English primary/P speaking posture,   "prehistory"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
    
When trying to speak "Sam han 삼한, 三韓" or "history early" or "prehistory" from Korea Seoul secondary/S CHEST/Ch speaking posture,   "歷史以前 역사이전 [ŋ(iΛ)g sa ŋi zΛn]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


>>         馬韓 마한 Mahan, 辰韓 진한 Jinhan [zin han], 弁韓 변한 Byeonhan [b(iΛ)n han]

*  When trying to speak "Sam han 삼한, 三韓" or "history early" or "prehistory" or "歷史以前 역사이전 [ŋ(iΛ)g sa ŋi zΛn" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ gi do]/개성-시 [g sΛŋ si] dialect secondary/S speaking posture,   "馬韓 마한 Mahan/+bp" or "辰韓 진한 Jinhan [zin han]/+-" or "弁韓 변한 Byeonhan [b(iΛ)n han]/+cp" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.



B)                        Three Kingdoms Era

"Goguryeo 高句麗 고구려 [go gu r(iΛ)]",   "Baekje 百濟 백제 [bg ze]",   "Silla 新羅 신라 [sin la]"

When trying to speak "한국" [h(=ua)n g(=u)g] or "civilization" or "文明 문명 [mun m(iΛ)ŋ]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ gi do]/개성-시 [g sΛŋ si] dialect primary/P speaking posture,   "Goguryeo 高句麗 고구려 [go gu r(iΛ)]/+cp" or "Baekje 百濟 백제 [bg ze]/+-" or "Silla 新羅 신라 [sin la]/+bp"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

When trying to speak "한국" [h(=ua)n g(=u)g] or "civilization" or "文明 문명 [mun m(iΛ)ŋ]" or "Goguryeo 高句麗 고구려 [go gu r(iΛ)]/+cp" or "Baekje 百濟 백제 [bg ze]/+-" or "Silla 新羅 신라 [sin la]/+bp" from English/Phoenician /T speaking posture,   "Korea"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.



C)                         Gaya 가야 (伽倻) [ga ŋ(ia)]

"Gaya 가야 (伽倻) [ga ŋ(ia)]" is the pronunciation from Korea 경상도/慶尙道 [gyΛŋ saŋ do] dialect primary/P speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea Seoul speaking posture.


When trying to speak "Gaya 가야 (伽倻) [ga ŋ(ia)]" from English/CYRILLIC /C2 speaking posture,   "neutral"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

When trying to speak "Gaya 가야 (伽倻) [ga ŋ(ia)]" or "neutral" from Korea Seoul secondary/S CHEST/Ch speaking posture,   "中立國 중립국 [zuŋ lib gug]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

* "中立國 중립국 [zuŋ lib gug]" is phonetically/meaningfully corresponding to "neutral (power/state/country)".



D)                     Later Three Kingdoms

*           "崩壞 붕괴 [buŋ g(oi)]" is phonetically/meaningfully corresponding to "collapse".

*  When trying to speak "崩壞 붕괴 [buŋ g(oi)]" or "collapse" from Chinese speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea/황해-도 [hwaŋ h do] dialect speaking posture,   "統一新羅 통일신라 [toŋ ŋil sin la]/+-" or "高麗 고려 [go r(iΛ)]/+bp" or "後百濟 후백제 [hu bg ze]/+cp"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.        Vice versa.


**  When trying to speak "Silla 新羅 신라 [sin la]" or "崩壞 붕괴 [buŋ g(oi)]" or "collapse" from Chinese speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea/황해-도 [hwaŋ h do] dialect speaking posture,   "統一新羅 통일신라 [toŋ ŋil sin la]/+-"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.        Vice versa.

**  When trying to speak "Goguryeo 高句麗 고구려 [go gu r(iΛ)]" or "崩壞 붕괴 [buŋ g(oi)]" or "collapse" from Chinese speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea/황해-도 [hwaŋ h do] dialect speaking posture,   "高麗 고려 [go r(iΛ)]/+bp"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.        Vice versa.

**  When trying to speak "Baekje 百濟 백제 [bg ze]" or "崩壞 붕괴 [buŋ g(oi)]" or "collapse" from Chinese speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea/황해-도 [hwaŋ h do] dialect speaking posture,   "後百濟 후백제 [hu bg ze]/+cp"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.        Vice versa.


* "崩壞 붕괴 [buŋ g(oi)]" or "collapse" or "統一新羅 통일신라 [toŋ ŋil sin la]/+-" or "高麗 고려 [go r(iΛ)]/+bp" or "後百濟 후백제 [hu bg ze]/+cp"  >>  Core /mGC



E)                    日本/일본 [ŋil bon],               Japan

* When trying to speak "Japan [z pn]" or "Korean's colony" from Korea 제주도/濟州道(島)[ze zu do] dialect primary/P /Ch speaking posture,  "일본 [ŋil bon], more correctly [ŋ(u=i)l b(uo)n]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


**  When trying to speak "Baekje 百濟 백제 [bg ze]" or "崩壞 붕괴 [buŋ g(oi)]" or "collapse" from Chinese speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ gi do]/개성-시 [g sΛŋ si] dialect speaking posture,   "일본 [ŋil bon] , more correctly [ŋ(ui)l b(=uo)n]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.        Vice versa.

* "일본 [ŋil bon] , more correctly [ŋ(ui)l b(=uo)n]" or "崩壞 붕괴 [buŋ g(oi)]" or "collapse" or "統一新羅 통일신라 [toŋ ŋil sin la]/+-" or "高麗 고려 [go r(iΛ)]/+bp" or "後百濟 후백제 [hu bg ze]/+cp"  >>  Core /mGC


**  When trying to speak "統一新羅 통일신라 [toŋ ŋil sin la]/+-" from Korea 경상도/慶尙道 [gyΛŋ saŋ do] dialect speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ gi do]/개성-시 [g sΛŋ si] dialect primary/P speaking posture,   "일본 [ŋil bon] , more correctly [ŋ(=ui)l b(=o)n]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.        Vice versa.

* "統一新羅 통일신라 [toŋ ŋil sin la]/+-" or "일본 [ŋil bon] , more correctly [ŋ(=ui)l b(=o)n]"  >>  Korea /T



G)                             발해 [bal h] 渤海
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balhae ,    
Balhae (698 926) (Hangul:발해, Korean pronunciation: [parhe], Bohai [渤海] in Chinese, Бохай or Пархэ in Russian) was a Korean kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo that existed during the North South states period of Korea along with Unified Silla. After Goguryeo's capital and southern territories fell to Unified Silla, Dae Jo-yeong, a former Goguryeo general, whose father was Dae Jung-sang, established Jin (振, Zhen in Chinese), later called Balhae. It was a successor state to Goguryeo.
Balhae occupied southern parts of Manchuria (Northeast China) and Primorsky Krai, and the northern part of the Korean peninsula. It was defeated by the Khitans in 926, and most of its northern territories were absorbed into the Liao Dynasty while the southern parts were absorbed into Goryeo.


* The below shows (the possibility) that all about "Balhae, 발해 [bal h] 渤海" are fiction.


*                    발해  >>  "대조영이 세운 나라" /서울1

*                    만주  >>  대조영 /황해1


* 대조영 大祚榮  >>  "고구려의 장수" /황해2  >>  "대중상의 아들" /평안2 /Ch  >>  "대야발의 형" /평안1


발해의 시조(?~719). 고구려의 유민으로, 698년에 진(震)을 세워 왕이 되고, 713년에 고구려의 옛 영토를 회복하여 국호를 발해로 고쳤다. 재위 기간은 698~719년이다.

2333 ----------- 698 (3031) 충청2/Ch 진(震) ~ 719 (3052) 충청1/Ch,      713 (3046) 전라1/Ch

* 대조영 大祚榮  >>  3031 /충청2/Ch  >>  진(震) /충청2  >>  3052 /충청1/Ch  >>  3046 /전라1/Ch

*                   발해  >>  (parhe :/중국/Ch)/평안  >>  (Bohai /중국/Ch )/황해

대중상(大仲象, ? ~ 698년) 혹은 걸걸중상(乞乞仲象)은 고구려의 장수이자 고구려의 부흥을 이끈 지도자이다. 대중상은 고구려의 동화된 속말말갈(粟末靺鞨)인 고구려 장수로 보는 것이 일반적이다. 대중상은 발해(渤海)의 시조인 대조영(大祚榮)과 대야발 형제의 부친이다.

*                  점령/conquest  >>  (발해 /황해1/Ch) /평안

*                    "Caspian Sea"  >>  (발해 /황해1/Ch) /평안



2.                          韓國 or 瀚國 ??                 ("한국"의 한자 표기를 바꿉시다)

"한국"을 한자로 표기하는데 있어,

韓國은 발생 기원이 "이성계"에서 비롯되어, "조선 - 이씨조선"을 거쳐 이루어졌고, 다시 대한제국과 대한민국으로 연결되는 반면,

瀚國은 "문명/civilization"에서 시작하여, 고구려/백제/신라를 거쳐 (영어) Korea에 연결되고, 다시 통일신라, 후백제, 고려를 거쳐 (또 하나의 외국어) Core로 연결되는데,

(한나라 한) 韓이 억지 해석으로 한국을 가리킬 수 있다고 우기나, 오히려 중국의 과거 왕조로 이해되기 쉬운 반면,

(넓고 큰 모양 한) 瀚은 국명으로 손색이 없다고 보여,

한국의 한자 표기를 韓國이 아닌 瀚國으로 하는 것이 좋다고 생각됩니다.
여러분은 어떻게 생각하십니까?

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DATE: 2012.07.17 - 14:46

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