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(Comparative) study (in structure/mode/ways of pronunciation, articulation, phonetics, or whatever; that is, in differences of speaking mouth postures and resultant speaking weight/force center points) between English/foreign languages and mother tongue, for better (more practical/effective/smooth) hearing/speaking of English/foreign languages.       Copyright.   Young-Won Kim,   yw@voicespec.com
open : home | main | Kor | book | FUN member : main II | Kor II


::: Comparative phonetics, brd2 :::


90 11 View counter   Join Member Login Admin
Name   Young-Won Kim
Subject   >> grafting
1.  Up-to-now study shows that articulations of (so-called) alphabet seeds -- of primaries (a, Λ, o, u, =, i), digraphs, trigraphs etc. -- produce word sounds    which have vowel array of "binary/barbarous feature" of "=Λ=Λ=Λ=Λ= - - "   except the first vowel,   in both Korean and English,  while Korean has "top/bottom-crushed articulation ball like (the shape of) round/flat tomato /abT"   and English has "articulation ball of simple/round ball like (the shape of) basketball /abR".


A.    We already know:       articulations of those binary/barbarous-feature English (word) sounds with/from Greek/GRECOnglish/GC (CLASSICAL Attic) secondary /S speaking posture   (of cp; low in the mouth.  bp; Low/Front in the mouth)    produce  modern English sounds    (so as to avoid the vowel array of "binary/barbarous feature" of "=Λ=Λ=Λ=Λ= - - ").


If articulating [iaΛ=]   from /S/mES,          “insurmountable"/+-,  “overwhelming"/+bp,  “hopeless"/+cp,      and   “invincible"/Ch/+-,  “impassable"/Ch/+bp,  “unconquerable"/Ch/+cp are pronounced.

*  insurmountable [ŋ(i=a)h  h=h  n=h  s=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  m=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  n=h  t=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  b=h  hΛh  l=h  ŋ=h  hΛh]*[f(i=uΛ)h  h=h  h=l  c=h  p=h  hΛh  h=l  y=h];         overwhelming [ŋ(=æ)h  h=h  v=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  w=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  l=h  m=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  n=h  hΛh  g=h]*[v(i=uo)h  h=h  h=r  y=h  h=n  p=h  hΛh  h=l  y=h];         hopeless [h(i=a)h  h=h  ŋ=h  p=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  l=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  s=h  hΛh  s=h]*[z(i=uΛ)h  h=h  h=m  y=h  p=h  hΛh  h=l  y=h];                  invincible [ŋ(i=o)h  h=h  n=h  v=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  n=h  hΛh  c=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  b=h  l=h  hΛh  ŋ=h]*[g(i=uΛ)h  h=h  h=f  w=h  p=h  hΛh  h=l  y=h];          impassable [ŋ(=æ)h  h=h  m=h  p=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  s=h  hΛh  s=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  b=h  l=h  hΛh  ŋ=h]*[h(i=uΛ)h  h=h  h=r  w=h  h=m  p=h  hΛh  h=l  y=h];         unconquerable [ŋ(=æ)h  h=h  n=h  c=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  n=h  hΛh  s=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  r=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  b=h  hΛh  l=h  ŋ=h  hΛh]*[f(i=uΛ)h  h=h  h=l  f=h  p=h  hΛh  h=l  y=h]


1)  That is,   articulation of [ŋ(i=a)h  h=h  n=h  s=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  m=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  n=h  t=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  b=h  hΛh  l=h  ŋ=h  hΛh]  or  [ŋ(i=a)  n=  sΛ  ŋ=  mΛ  ŋ=  ŋΛ  n=  tΛ  ŋ=  bΛ  l=h  ŋΛ]    with/from Greek/GRECOnglish/GC (CLASSICAL Attic) secondary /S speaking posture       produces  modern English sound of "insurmountable [ŋin  sΛ  ma  ŋ=n  tΛ  b=l]"        though the word itself of "insurmountable" is presumed as having been coined for the sound of [ŋ(i=a)  n=  sΛ  ŋ=  mΛ  ŋ=  ŋΛ  n=  tΛ  ŋ=  bΛ  l=h  ŋΛ]   with/from Greek/GRECOnglish/GC (CLASSICAL Attic) primary /P speaking posture   by Greek/GRECOnglish/GC (influenced) linguists.

English-mother-tongue people imitate   [ŋin  sΛ  ma  ŋ=n  tΛ  b=l] of Greek/GRECOnglish/GC sound   by speaking [ŋin  sΛ] with/from (English) Tertiary /T (that is,  Phoenician/Canaanite)   speaking posture of both cp/bp on the lowest neck/throat      and [ma  ŋ=n  tΛ  b=l] with/from (the chest (circle) /Ch of) English primary /P speaking posture of cp on the vocal CORDS slanted backwards/below and bp on the lowest neck/throat


2)  And    articulation of [ŋ(i=o)h  h=h  n=h  v=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  n=h  hΛh  c=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  b=h  l=h  hΛh  ŋ=h]  or  [ŋ(i=o)  n=  vΛ  ŋ=  nΛ  c=  ŋΛ  b=  lΛh  ŋ=]    with/from /GC /S speaking posture       produces  modern English sound of "invincible [ŋin  vin  sΛ  b=l]"        though "invincible" is presumed as having been coined for the sound of [ŋ(i=o)  n=  vΛ  ŋ=  nΛ  c=  ŋΛ  b=  lΛh  ŋ=]   with/from /GC /P speaking posture   by /GC linguists.

English-mother-tongue people imitate   [ŋin  vin  sΛ  b=l] of Greek/GRECOnglish/GC sound   by speaking [ŋin] with/from (the mouth/Mo of) English /P speaking posture,   and [vin  sΛ  b=l] with/from /Ch /P speaking posturee.


3)  And    articulation of [ŋ(=æ)h  h=h  n=h  c=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  n=h  hΛh  s=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  r=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  b=h  hΛh  l=h  ŋ=h  hΛh]  or  [ŋ(=æ)  n=  cΛ  ŋ=  nΛ  s=  ŋΛ  ŋ=  rΛ  ŋ=  bΛ  l=  ŋΛ]    with/from /GC /S posture       produces  modern English sound of "unconquerable [ŋΛn  kaŋ  kΛ  rΛ  b=l]"        though "unconquerable" is presumed as having been coined for the sound of [ŋ(=æ)  n=  cΛ  ŋ=  nΛ  s=  ŋΛ  ŋ=  rΛ  ŋ=  bΛ  l=  ŋΛ]   with/from /GC /P speaking posture   by /GC linguists.

English-mother-tongue people imitate   [ŋΛn  kaŋ  kΛ  rΛ  b=l] of Greek/GRECOnglish/GC sound   by speaking [ŋΛn] with/from (English) /T posture,     [kaŋ  kΛ] with/from English /P/Ch posture,   and [rΛ  b=l] with/from /P/Mo speaking posture.


4)  And    articulation of [ŋ(=æ)h  h=h  v=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  w=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  l=h  m=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  n=h  hΛh  g=h]  or  [ŋ(=æ)  v=  ŋΛ  w=  ŋΛ  l=  mΛ  ŋ=  nΛ  g=]    with/from /GC /S posture       produces  modern English sound of "overwhelming [ŋo  ŋ=  vΛ  wel  miŋ]"        though "overwhelming" is presumed as having been coined for the sound of [ŋ(=æ)  v=  ŋΛ  w=  ŋΛ  l=  mΛ  ŋ=  nΛ  g=]   with/from /GC /P posture   by /GC linguists.

English-mother-tongue people imitate   [ŋo  ŋ=  vΛ  wel  miŋ] of /GC sound   by speaking [ŋo  ŋ=  vΛ] with/from (English) /T posture,     [wel] with/from English /P/Mo posture,   and [miŋ] with/from /P/Ch speaking posture.


5)  And    articulation of [h(i=a)h  h=h  ŋ=h  p=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  l=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  s=h  hΛh  s=h]  or  [h(i=a)  ŋ=  pΛ  ŋ=  lΛ  ŋ=  sΛ  s=]    with/from /GC /S posture       produces  modern English sound of "hopeless [ho  ŋ=  p=  li  s=]"        though "hopeless" is presumed as having been coined for the sound of [h(i=a)  ŋ=  pΛ  ŋ=  lΛ  ŋ=  sΛ  s=]   with/from /GC /P posture   by /GC linguists.

English-mother-tongue people imitate   [ho  ŋ=  p=  li  s=] of /GC sound   by speaking [ho  ŋ=  p=] with/from (English) /T posture,     [li] with/from English /P/Ch posture,   and [s=] with/from /P/Mo speaking posture.


6)  And    articulation of [ŋ(=æ)h  h=h  m=h  p=h  hΛh  ŋ=h  s=h  hΛh  s=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  b=h  l=h  hΛh  ŋ=h]  or  [ŋ(=æ)  m=  pΛ  ŋ=  sΛ  s=  ŋΛ  b=  lΛ  ŋ=]    with/from /GC /S posture       produces  modern English sound of "impassable [ŋim  pæ  sΛ  b=l]"        though "impassable" is presumed as having been coined for the sound of [ŋ(=æ)  m=  pΛ  ŋ=  sΛ  s=  ŋΛ  b=  lΛ  ŋ=]   with/from /GC /P posture   by /GC linguists.

English-mother-tongue people imitate   [ŋim  pæ  sΛ  b=l] of /GC sound   by speaking [ŋim] with/from (English) /T posture,     [pæ] with/from English /P/Mo posture,   and [sΛ  b=l] with/from /P/Ch speaking posture.


B.    Korea has   ten (administration) provinces of  "1/서울시/(City of) Seoul [sΛ  w=l],  2/경기도 [g(iΛ)ŋ  gi  do],  3/강원도 [gaŋ  wΛn  do],  4/충청도 [cuŋ  cΛŋ  do] (North/South),  5/전라도 [zΛn  la  do] (N/S),  6/경상도 [g(iΛ)ŋ  saŋ  do] (N/S),  7/제주도 [ze  zu  do],  8/황해도 [h(oa)ŋ  hæ  do],  9/함경도 [ham  g(iΛ)ŋ  do] (N/S),  10/평안도 [p(iΛ)ŋ  ŋan  do] (N/S)"       while U.S.A. has 51 states.

In study of dialects,    Korean ten (administration) provinces have their own/different speaking postures    like the following:         (Speaking of Seoul usually represents the standard language of Korea.        And speaking of the others usually represent dialects)


1/서울시/(City of) Seoul [sΛ  w=l],            (Southern half of 경기도 [g(iΛ)ŋ  gi  do])
/P:     primary speaking posture of cp on the vocal CORDS and bp on the lowest neck/throat.
/S:     secondary speaking posture of cp on the vocal CORDS & bp front/low in the mouth (circle).


2/경기도 [g(iΛ)ŋ  gi  do] (North),  
/P:     cp on the vocal CORDS and bp on the lowest neck/throat.
/S:     Both cp/bp on the vocal CORDS.


3/강원도 [gaŋ  wΛn  do],  
/P:     cp on the vocal CORDS and bp on the lowest neck/throat.
/S:     cp on the vocal CORDS and bp on the middle point between front/middle and front/high in the mouth (circle).


4/충청도 [cuŋ  cΛŋ  do] (North/South),  
/P:     cp on the vocal CORDS and bp on the lowest neck/throat.
/S:     cp on the vocal CORDS and bp on the middle point between front/middle and the center point in the mouth (circle).


5/전라도 [zΛn  la  do] (N/S),  
/P:     cp on the vocal CORDS and bp on the lowest neck/throat.
/S:     cp on the vocal CORDS and bp front/middle in the mouth (circle).


6/경상도 [g(iΛ)ŋ  saŋ  do] (N/S),  
/P:     cp on the vocal CORDS and bp on the lowest neck/throat.
/S:     cp on the vocal CORDS and bp front/high in the mouth (circle).


7/제주도 [ze  zu  do],  
/P:     cp on the vocal CORDS and bp on the middle between the vocal CORDS & the lowest neck/throat.
/S:     cp on the vocal CORDS & bp front/low in the mouth (circle).


8/황해도 [h(oa)ŋ  hæ  do],  
/P:     Both cp/bp on the vocal CORDS.
/S:     cp on the vocal CORDS and bp on the middle point between front/middle and the center point in the mouth (circle).
While always taking double posture, speaking from /P posture.


9/함경도 [ham  g(iΛ)ŋ  do] (N/S),  
/P:     cp on the vocal CORDS and bp on the highest neck/throat.
/S:     cp on the vocal CORDS & bp front/low in the mouth (circle).


10/평안도 [p(iΛ)ŋ  ŋan  do] (N/S)
/P:     Both cp/bp on the vocal CORDS.
/S:     cp on the vocal CORDS and bp front/high in the mouth (circle).
While always taking double posture, speaking from /P posture.


The above means Korean people are comprised of (at least) ten linguistic races/clans       though Korean (history) textbooks argue that Korean people are comprised of one race.


If articulating [iaΛ=]   from Korean /S/SS(SPHENOIDAL sinuses),           “넘을-수-없는[va  r=  nΛ  m=  sΛ]*[q(=uæ)h  h=h  h=s  y=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  m=h]*[v(i=ua)h  h=h  h=z  y=h  h=n  ŋ=h  hΛh  m=h]/insurmountable”/+-,   "대항할-수-없는[vog  w=  vΛ  r=  ŋΛ  m=]*[x(i=ua)h  h=h  h=z  y=h  h=n  ŋ=h  hΛh  m=h]*[d(i=uΛ)h  h=h  h=n  y=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  m=h]/overwhelming"/+bp,   “불가능한[gæ  r=  mΛ  g=]*[v(i=uo)h  h=h  h=z  y=h  h=n  ŋ=h  hΛh  m=h]*[v(=uæ)h  h=h  h=r  w=h  h=m  ŋ=h  hΛh  m=h]/hopeless"/+cp,   "정복할-수-없는[zag  g=  vΛ  m=  ŋΛ  m=]*[v(i=uΛ)h  h=h  h=z  y=h  h=n  ŋ=h  hΛh  m=h]*[s(i=ua)h  h=h  h=g  y=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  m=h]/invincible”/+-,  "넘을-수-없는[vær  w=m  gΛ  m=  gΛ]*[h(i=ua)h  h=h  h=z  w=h  h=n  ŋ=h  hΛh  m=h]*[f(i=ua)h  h=h  h=n  y=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  m=h]/impassable"/+bp/Ch,   “정복하기-어려운[væs  y=  kΛ  m=  ŋΛ  m=  ŋΛ]*[d(i=ua)h  h=h  h=l  y=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  m=h]*[h(i=ua)h  h=h  h=m  y=h  ŋ=h  hΛh  m=h]/unconquerable"/+cp/Ch are pronounced.


1)  That is,   articulation of [va  r=  nΛ  m=  sΛ] with/from 8/황해도 [h(oa)ŋ  hæ  do] speaking posture       produces  modern Korean sound of "넘을-수-없는 [nΛm  ŋ=l  su  ŋΛb  n=n]".

Seoul people imitate   "넘을-수-없는 [nΛm  ŋ=l  su  ŋΛb  n=n]"   by speaking [nΛm  ŋ=l] with/from Seoul /P/Ch posture,     [su] with/from Seoul /S posture      and [ŋΛb  n=n] with/from Seoul /P/Ch posture.


2)  And,   articulation of [vog  w=  vΛ  r=  ŋΛ  m=] with/from 2/경기도 [g(iΛ)ŋ  gi  do] (North) speaking posture       produces  modern Korean sound of "대항할-수-없는 [dæ  haŋ  hal  su  ŋΛb  n=n]".

Seoul people imitate   "대항할-수-없는 [dæ  haŋ  hal  su  ŋΛb  n=n]"   by speaking [dæ] with/from Seoul /P/Ch posture,     [haŋ] with/from Seoul /S posture,       [hal] with/from Seoul /P/Ch posture,     [su] with/from Seoul /S posture,      and [ŋΛb  n=n] with/from Seoul /P/Ch posture.


3)  And,   articulation of [gæ  r=  mΛ  g=] with/from 7/제주도 [ze  zu  do] /P speaking posture       produces  modern Korean sound of "불가능한 [bul  ga  n=ŋ  han]".

Seoul people imitate   "불가능한 [bul  ga  n=ŋ  han]"   by speaking [bul] with/from Seoul /P/Ch posture,     [ga  n=ŋ] with/from Seoul /S posture,       [han] with/from Seoul /P/Ch posture,     [su] with/from Seoul /S posture,      and [ŋΛb  n=n] with/from Seoul /P/Ch posture.


4)  And,   articulation of [zag  g=  vΛ  m=  ŋΛ  m=] with/from 5/전라도 [zΛn  la  do] (N/S) /S speaking posture       produces  modern Korean sound of "정복할-수-없는 [zΛŋ  bog  hal  su  ŋΛb  n=n]".

Seoul people imitate   "정복할-수-없는 [zΛŋ  bog  hal  su  ŋΛb  n=n]"   by speaking [zΛŋ] with/from Seoul /P posture,     [bog] with/from Seoul /S/Ch posture,       [hal] with/from Seoul /P posture,     [su] with/from Seoul /S/Ch posture,      and [ŋΛb  n=n] with/from Seoul /P posture.


5)  And,   articulation of [vær  w=m  gΛ  m=  gΛ] with/from 6/경상도 [g(iΛ)ŋ  saŋ  do] (N/S) /P speaking posture       produces  modern Korean sound of "넘을-수-없는 [nΛm  ŋ=l  su  ŋΛb  n=n]".

Seoul people imitate   "넘을-수-없는 [nΛm  ŋ=l  su  ŋΛb  n=n]"   by speaking [nΛm  ŋ=l] with/from Seoul /P posture,     [su] with/from Seoul /S/Ch posture,       [hal] with/from Seoul /P posture,     [su] with/from Seoul /S/Ch posture,      and [ŋΛb  n=n] with/from Seoul /P posture.


6)  And,   articulation of [væs  y=  kΛ  m=  ŋΛ  m=  ŋΛ] with/from 4/충청도 [cuŋ  cΛŋ  do] (North/South) /P speaking posture       produces  modern Korean sound of "정복하기-어려운 [zΛŋ  bog  ha  gi  ŋΛ  r(iΛ)  w=n]".

Seoul people imitate   "정복하기-어려운 [zΛŋ  bog  ha  gi  ŋΛ  r(iΛ)  w=n]"   by speaking [zΛŋ] with/from Seoul /P posture,     [bog] with/from Seoul /S/Ch posture,       [ha] with/from Seoul /P posture,     [gi] with/from Seoul /S/Ch posture,      [ŋΛ] with/from Seoul /P posture,      and [r(iΛ)  w=n] with/from Seoul /S/Ch posture.


2.      I designate  the above English/Korean procedure/behavior for avoiding the vowel array of "binary/barbarous feature" of "=Λ=Λ=Λ=Λ= - - " as  "grafting".

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grafting ,    
Korean speaking has   one scion of speaking posture set of "1/서울시/(City of) Seoul [sΛ  w=l]"   and   nine rootstocks of speaking posture sets of "2/경기도 [g(iΛ)ŋ  gi  do],  3/강원도 [gaŋ  wΛn  do],  4/충청도 [cuŋ  cΛŋ  do] (North/South),  5/전라도 [zΛn  la  do] (N/S),  6/경상도 [g(iΛ)ŋ  saŋ  do] (N/S),  7/제주도 [ze  zu  do],  8/황해도 [h(oa)ŋ  hæ  do],  9/함경도 [ham  g(iΛ)ŋ  do] (N/S),  10/평안도 [p(iΛ)ŋ  ŋan  do] (N/S)".

On the other hand,        English speaking has   three scions of speaking posture sets of "English itself, CYRILLIC, and Phoenician"    and     one rootstock of speaking posture set of GRECOnglish/GC.


*         When articulating       "grafting"       with/from GRECOnglish/GC /P/Ch/abR speaking posture,      "graft" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

    
3.      The below imitation de facto means that English-mother-tongue people speak "impassable"   not as one word   but as three (phonetically independent) words of [ŋim], [pæ] and [sΛ  b=l].

English-mother-tongue people imitate   "impassable [ŋim  pæ  sΛ  b=l]" of /GC sound   by speaking [ŋim] with/from (English) /T posture,     [pæ] with/from English /P/Mo posture,   and [sΛ  b=l] with/from /P/Ch speaking posture.


And the below imitation de facto means that Korean-mother-tongue people speak "정복하기-어려운 [zΛŋ  bog  ha  gi  ŋΛ  r(iΛ)  w=n]"   not as one word   but as six (phonetically independent) words of [zΛŋ], [bog], [ha], [gi], [ŋΛ] and [r(iΛ)  w=n].

Seoul people imitate   "정복하기-어려운 [zΛŋ  bog  ha  gi  ŋΛ  r(iΛ)  w=n]"   by speaking [zΛŋ] with/from Seoul /P posture,     [bog] with/from Seoul /S/Ch posture,       [ha] with/from Seoul /P posture,     [gi] with/from Seoul /S/Ch posture,      [ŋΛ] with/from Seoul /P posture,      and [r(iΛ)  w=n] with/from Seoul /S/Ch posture.


4.     But the below "crashing/booming/rumbling/cracking/cabaret/nightclub" are not words by "grafting" of "binary/barbarous feature" of "=Λ=Λ=Λ=Λ= - - "    and pronounced phonetically   (not as a few words    but) as one simple word respectively.

crashing                                       (crash/T + 's/P)
booming                                       (boom/T + 's/P)
rumbling/+cp, pealing/+bp                    (explosion/T + 's/P)
cracking                                       (detonation/T + 's/P)

beer/T/Ch + house/S/Ch :   cabaret
wine/S + house/T : naiclub/nightclub

Re:     Article of    "nightclub.  something, a-bit/too-much/make-much-of, much-as,  quote/unquote,  split infinitive?  <go>"        <<Column 11.  cabaret/nightclub,  restaurant>>


And the below " 음식점[ŋ=m  sig  zΛm], etc." are not words by "grafting" of "binary/barbarous feature" of "=Λ=Λ=Λ=Λ= - - "    and pronounced phonetically   (not as a few words    but) as one simple word respectively.



식사[sig  sa]/T/Ch/meal + 집/S/Ch : 음식점[ŋ=m  sig  zΛm]

** 선무당 [sΛn  mu  daŋ];                서투른/S/Ch + 무당/T/Ch
서투른 [sΛ  tu  r=n] /S;      clumsy, unskilled, unpracticed.   (or possibly “new/green/immature”),
무당 [mu  daŋ] /P;  shaman

** 잔꾀 [xan  g(oi)];         작은/T/Ch + 꾀/S/Ch
작은 [zag  ŋ=n] /S;          petty/little, shallow, childish, immature, primitive.
꾀 [g(oi)] /P;            selfish wile(s), guile

Re:     Article of   "Root or stem??  << cih/칳 >>   아리랑 [(ŋ)a  ri  raŋ]"        <<Column 7.  아리랑 [(ŋ)a  ri  raŋ]>>

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