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(Comparative) study (in structure/mode/ways of pronunciation, articulation, phonetics, or whatever; that is, in differences of speaking mouth postures and resultant speaking weight/force center points) between English/foreign languages and mother tongue, for better (more practical/effective/smooth) hearing/speaking of English/foreign languages.       Copyright.   Young-Won Kim,   yw@voicespec.com
open : home | main | Kor | book | FUN member : main II | Kor II


::: Comparative phonetics, brd2 :::


90 11 View counter   Join Member Login Admin
Name   Young-Won Kim
Subject   Archimedes/Aspasia/Euclid/Hipparchus/Hippocrates/Leonidas/Pericles/Ptolemy/Solon/Themistocles/Epicurus
Archimedes
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Archimedes ,    

Born             c. 287 BC               Syracuse, Sicily       Magna Graecia
Died             c. 212 BC (aged around 75)               Syracuse

"BC 287"                      ([ŋ=  w=]/S + Archimedes/P)/+bp                       Archimedes
Syracuse                      ([ŋ=  w=]/S + Archimedes/P)/+cp                       Archimedes

*                             Syracuse >> Sicily /GC/S/Ch/abT >> "Magna Graecia" /P

"BC 212"                      ([ŋ=  w=]/S + Archimedes/P)/Ch/+bp                       Archimedes
Syracuse                      ([ŋ=  w=]/S + Archimedes/P)/Ch/+cp                       Archimedes

*         While taking Korea/경상-도 [gyΛŋ  saŋ  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak) "Buddha" or "석가모니 [sΛg  ga  mo  ni]"   (or Siddhārtha Gautama, Siddhattha Gotama   or   Kassapa Buddha    or   revolutionary, pioneer, innovator, groundbreaker, or mastermind)  or  "Washington"  from Japanese /S speaking posture,     "Archimedes [ŋA  r=  c=  hi  me  de  s=]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

>>                       The Golden Crown
The most widely known anecdote about Archimedes tells of how he invented a method for determining the volume of an object with an irregular shape.   According to Vitruvius, a votive crown for a temple had been made for King Hiero II, who had supplied the pure gold to be used, and Archimedes was asked to determine whether some silver had been substituted by the dishonest goldsmith.[13]   Archimedes had to solve the problem without damaging the crown, so he could not melt it down into a regularly shaped body in order to calculate its density. While taking a bath, he noticed that the level of the water in the tub rose as he got in, and realized that this effect could be used to determine the volume of the crown.   For practical purposes water is incompressible,[14] so the submerged crown would displace an amount of water equal to its own volume.   By dividing the mass of the crown by the volume of water displaced, the density of the crown could be obtained.   This density would be lower than that of gold if cheaper and less dense metals had been added.   Archimedes then took to the streets naked, so excited by his discovery that he had forgotten to dress, crying "Eureka!" (Greek: "εὕρηκα!," meaning "I have found it!"). The test was conducted successfully, proving that silver had indeed been mixed in.[15]

*     Archimedes >> crown /T/+bp >> "golden crown" /P/+cp >> Vitruvius /GC/S/Ch/abT  >> temple /C2 >> "Marcus Vitruvius Pollio" /GC/S/abT

votive                                (g/P + olden/C2)/abT/Ch                             golden

"King Hiero II"                          (Vitru/C1 + vius/P)                               Vitruvius

silver                              (Hi [h=  w=]/P + ero/S)                                 Hiero

goldsmith                                (sil/S + ver/P)                                     silver
dishonest                                (sil/S + ver/P)/Ch                                 silver

bath                    (dish/P + "-onest goldsmith"/S)/+bp                   "dishonest goldsmith"
naked                    (dish/P + "-onest goldsmith"/S)/+cp                   "dishonest goldsmith"

eureka                                  (cr/P + own/S)/Ch                                  crown

*                              eureka >> "I know" /GC/S/Ch/abT

Surviving works

On the Equilibrium of Planes (two volumes)
On the Measurement of a Circle
On Spirals
On the Sphere and the Cylinder (two volumes)
On Conoids and Spheroids
On Floating Bodies (two volumes)
The Quadrature of the Parabola
(O)stomachion
Archimedes' cattle problem
The Sand Reckoner
The Method of Mechanical Theorems

*        While taking Korea/경상-도 [gyΛŋ  saŋ  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak) "장아함경 [zaŋ  ŋa  ham  gyΛŋ], 長阿含經"  from Korea/평안-도 [pyΛŋ  ŋan  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,     " On Equilibrium of Planes [ŋO  n=  ŋE  qu  ŋi  li  b=  ri  ŋu  m=  ŋo  f=  P=  la  ne  s=]/+bp"   or   "On Equilibrium of Planes [ŋO  n=  ŋE  qu  ŋi  li  b=  ri  ŋu  m=  ŋo  f=  P=  la  ne  s=]/+cp"   or  "On Measurement of Circle [ŋO  n=  Me  ŋa  su  re  me  n=  t=  ŋo  f=  Ci  r=  c=  le]/+bp/Ch"   or   "On Spirals [ŋO  n=  S=  pi  ra  l=  s=]/+cp/Ch" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*        While taking Korea/전라-도 [zΛn  la  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak) "장아함경 [zaŋ  ŋa  ham  gyΛŋ], 長阿含經"  from Korea/평안-도 [pyΛŋ  ŋan  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,     "On Sphere and Cylinder [ŋO  n=  S=  p=  he  re  ŋa  n=  d=  C=  y=  li  n=  de  r=]/+bp"   or   "On Sphere and Cylinder [ŋO  n=  S=  p=  he  re  ŋa  n=  d=  C=  y=  li  n=  de  r=]/+cp"   or  "On Conoids and Spheroids [ŋO  n=  Co  no  ŋi  d=  s=  ŋa  n=  d=  S=  p=  he  ro  ŋi  d=  s=]/+bp/Ch"   or   "On Floating Bodies [ŋO  n=  F=  lo  ŋa  ti  n=  g=  Bo  di  ŋe  s=]/+cp/Ch" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*        While taking Japanese speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak) "장아함경 [zaŋ  ŋa  ham  gyΛŋ], 長阿含經"  from Korea/평안-도 [pyΛŋ  ŋan  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,     " On Floating Bodies [ŋO  n=  F=  lo  ŋa  ti  n=  g=  Bo  di  ŋe  s=]/+bp"   or   "Quadrature of Parabola [Qu  ŋa  d=  ra  tu  re  ŋo  f=  Pa  ra  bo  la]/+cp"   or  "stomachion [s=  to  ma  c=  hi  ŋo  n=]/+bp/Ch"   or   "Archimedes' cattle problem [ŋA  r=  c=  hi  me  de  s='  ca  t=  t=  le  p=  ro  b=  le  m=]/+cp/Ch" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*        While taking Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak) "장아함경 [zaŋ  ŋa  ham  gyΛŋ], 長阿含經"  from Korea/평안-도 [pyΛŋ  ŋan  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,     "Sand Reckoner [Sa  n=  d=  Re  c=  ko  ne  r=]/+bp"   or   "Method of Mechanical Theorems [Me  t=  ho  d=  ŋo  f=  Me  c=  ha  ni  ca  l=  T=  he  ŋo  re  m=  s=]/+cp"   or  "Lemmas or Liber Assumptorum [Le  m=  ma  s=  ŋo  r=  Li  be  r=  ŋA  s=  su  m=  p=  to  ru  m=]/+bp/Ch"   or   "Heron's formula [He  ro  n='  s=  fo  r=  mu  la]/+cp/Ch" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

Apocryphal works
Archimedes' Book of Lemmas or Liber Assumptorum is a treatise with fifteen propositions on the nature of circles. The earliest known copy of the text is in Arabic. The scholars T. L. Heath and Marshall Clagett argued that it cannot have been written by Archimedes in its current form, since it quotes Archimedes, suggesting modification by another author. The Lemmas may be based on an earlier work by Archimedes that is now lost.[55]
It has also been claimed that Heron's formula for calculating the area of a triangle from the length of its sides was known to Archimedes.[c] However, the first reliable reference to the formula is given by Heron of Alexandria in the 1st century AD.[56]



Aspasia
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Aspasia ,  
>>     Aspasia     (ca. 470 BC[1][2]–ca. 400 BC,[1][3] Greek: Ἀσπασία)   was a Milesian woman who was famous for her involvement with the Athenian statesman Pericles.[4]    Very little is known about the details of her life. She spent most of her adult life in Athens, and she may have influenced Pericles and Athenian politics.

*          Sappho >> Aspasia /T >> "Milesian woman" /T/Ch >> Pericles /C2/+bp >> Athens /C2/+cp

"BC 470"                            ([ŋ=  w=]/C1 + Aspasia/P)                             Aspasia
"BC 400"                         ([ŋ=  w=]/C1 + Aspasia/P)/Ch                            Aspasia

>>        Ancient writers also reported that Aspasia was a brothel keeper and a harlot, although these accounts are disputed by modern scholars, on the grounds that many of the writers were comic poets concerned with defaming Pericles.[5] Some researchers question even the historical tradition that she was a hetaera, or courtesan, and have suggested that she may actually have been married to Pericles.[α] Aspasia had a son by Pericles, Pericles the Younger, who later became a general in the Athenian military and was executed after the Battle of Arginusae. She is believed to have become the courtesan of Lysicles, another Athenian statesman and general, following the death of Pericles the Elder.

*          Aspasia >> harlot /GC/S/Ch/abT >> "brothel keeper" /GC/S/abT >> hetaera /P/Ch/+bp >> courtesan /P/Ch/+cp

"Pericles Junior"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/P + Aspasia/C1)/abT/Ch                    Aspasia
Lysicles                       ([ŋ=  w=]/P + Aspasia/C2)/abT/Ch/+bp                     Aspasia
courtesan                     ([ŋ=  w=]/P + Aspasia/C2)/abT/Ch/+cp                     Aspasia



Demosthenes
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Demosthenes ,  

Born               384 BC                  Athens
Died               322 BC                   Island of Calauria, modern Poros

*                          Pericles >> Demosthenes /S

*                       Demosthenes  >>  "BC 384" /T/Ch/+bp  >>  Athens /T/Ch/+cp
*                       Demosthenes  >>  "BC 322" /T/+bp  >>  "Island of Calauria" /T/+cp

Demosthenes' orations
 
Political
Olynthiacs 1-2-3 • First Philippic • On the Peace • Second Philippic • On the Halonnesus • On the Chersonese • Third Philippic • Fourth Philippic • Reply to Philip • Philip • On Organisation • On the Navy • For the Megalopolitans • On the Liberty of the Rhodians • On the Accession of Alexander

"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "Olynthiacs one" /P/+bp
"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "Olynthiacs two" /P/+cp
"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "Olynthiacs three" /P/+bp/Ch
"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "First Philippic" /P/+cp/Ch

"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "On Peace" /C2/+bp
"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "Second Philippic" /C2/+cp
"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "On Halonnesus" /C2/+bp/Ch
"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "On Chersonese" /C2/+cp/Ch

"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "Third Philippic" /T/+bp
"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "Fourth Philippic" /T/+cp
"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "Reply to Philip" /T/+bp/Ch
"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "Philip" /T/+cp/Ch

"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "On Organisation" /GC/S/Ch/abT/+bp
"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "On Navy" /GC/S/Ch/abT/+cp
"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "For Megalopolitans" /GC/S/abT/+bp
"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "On Liberty of Rhodians" /GC/S/abT/+cp

"Demosthenes' Political oration"  >>  "On Accession of Alexander" /S

Judicial
On the Crown • On the False Embassy • Against Leptines • Against Meidias • Against Androtion • Against Aristocrates • Against Timocrates • Against Aristogiton 1-2 • Against Aphobus 1-2-3 • Against Ontenor 1-2 • Against Zenothemis • Against Apatourius • Against Phormio • Against Lacritus • For Phormio • Against Pantaenetus • Against Nausimachus and Xenopeithes • Against Boeotus 1-2 • Against Spudias • Against Phaenippus • Against Macartatus • Against Leochares • Against Stephanus 1-2 • Against Evergus and Mnesibulus • Against Olympiodorus • Against Timotheus • Against Polycles • On the Trierarcic Crown • Against Callipus • Against Nicostratus • Against Conon • Against Callicles • Against Dionysodorus • Against Eubulides • Against Theocrines • Against Naeara
 
"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "On Crown" /GC/S/Ch/abT/+bp
"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "On False Embassy" /GC/S/Ch/abT/+cp
"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Leptines" /GC/S/abT/+bp
"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Meidias" /GC/S/abT/+cp

"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Androtion" /P/+bp
"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Aristocrates" /P/+cp
"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Timocrates" /P/+bp/Ch
"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Aristogiton one" /P/+cp /Ch

"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Aristogiton two" /C2/+bp
"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Aphobus one" /C2/+cp
"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Aphobus two" /C2/+bp/Ch
"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Aphobus three" /C2/+cp/Ch

"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Ontenor one" /T/+bp
"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Ontenor two" /T/+cp
"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Zenothemis" /T/+bp/Ch
"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Apatourius" /T/+cp/Ch

"Against Phormio"                (D/S + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/+bp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Lacritus"                (D/S + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/+cp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"For Phormio"                (D/S + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/Ch/+bp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Pantaenetus"                (D/S + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/Ch/+cp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"

"Against Nausimachus and Xenopeithes"                (D/P + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/S)/+bp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Boeotus one"                (D/P + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/S)/+cp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Boeotus two"                (D/P + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/S)/Ch/+bp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Spudias"                (D/P + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/S)/Ch/+cp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"

"Against Phaenippus"                (D/C1 + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/+bp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Macartatus"                (D/C1 + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/+cp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Leochares"                (D/C1 + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/Ch/+bp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Stephanus one"                (D/C1 + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/Ch/+cp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"

"Against Stephanus two"                (D/C2 + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/+bp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Evergus and Mnesibulus"                (D/C2 + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/+cp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Olympiodorus"                (D/C2 + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/Ch/+bp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Timotheus"                (D/C2 + "-emosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/Ch/+cp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"

"Against Polycles"                (De/S + "-mosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/+bp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"On Trierarcic Crown"                (De/S + "-mosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/+bp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Callipus"                (De/S + "-mosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/Ch/+bp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Nicostratus"                (De/S + "-mosthenes' Judicial oration"/P)/Ch/+cp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"

"Against Conon"                (Dem/P + "-osthenes' Judicial oration"/S)/+bp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Callicles"                (Dem/P + "-osthenes' Judicial oration"/S)/+cp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Dionysodorus"                (Dem/P + "-osthenes' Judicial oration"/S)/Ch/+bp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"
"Against Eubulides"                (Dem/P + "-osthenes' Judicial oration"/S)/Ch/+cp                "Demosthenes' Judicial oration"

"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Theocrines" /S/+bp
"Demosthenes' Judicial oration"  >>  "Against Naeara" /S/+cp

Epideictic
Funeral Oration • Erotic Essay

"Demosthenes' Epideictic oration"  >>  "Funeral Oration" /P/+bp
"Demosthenes' Epideictic oration"  >>  "Erotic Essay" /P/+cp



Euclid
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Euclid ,  

Born                     fl. 300 BC
Died                      unknown
Residence Alexandria, Egypt
Fields Mathematics
Known for Euclidean geometry
Euclid's Elements

*                   Archimedes  >>  Euclid /P

"BC 300"                                   (E/P + uclid/S)                                    Euclid

"Euclid's Elements"                         (ge/C2 + ometry/P)                           geometry

*                   mathematics /S  >>  geometry /C2  >>  science /P  >>  physics /T

<Euclid's Elements>

*                  "Euclid's Elements"  >>  "plane geometry" /T

"ratios and proportions"                     (E/P + "-uclid's Elements"/C1)/abT/Ch                   "Euclid's Elements"

"spatial geometry"                     (E/S + "-uclid's Elements"/P)                   "Euclid's Elements"


>>    Books 1 through 4 deal with plane geometry:

Book 1 contains Euclid's 10 axioms (5 named postulates—including the parallel postulate—and 5 named axioms) and the basic propositions of geometry:   the pons asinorum (proposition 5) , the Pythagorean theorem (Proposition 47), equality of angles and areas, parallelism, the sum of the angles in a triangle, and the three cases in which triangles are "equal" (have the same area).
Book 2 is commonly called the "book of geometrical algebra," because most of the propositions are geometric interpretations of algebraic identities, such as a(b + c + ...) = ab + ac + ... or (2a + b)2 + b2 = 2(a2 + (a + b)2).
Book 3 deals with circles and their properties: inscribed angles, tangents, the power of a point, Thales' theorem.
Book 4 constructs the incircle and circumcircle of a triangle, and constructs regular polygons with 4, 5, 6, and 15 sides.

"Book one"                     (pl/T + "-ane geometry"/P)/+bp                  "plane geometry"
"Book two"                     (pl/T + "-ane geometry"/P)/+cp                  "plane geometry"
"Book three"                   (pl/T + "-ane geometry"/P)/Ch/+bp                  "plane geometry"
"Book four"                    (pl/T + "-ane geometry"/P)/Ch/+cp                  "plane geometry"

"ten axioms"                     ("book w-"/P + [Λn]/C1)/abT/Ch                   "book wΛn"

*                     axiom /C2  >>  postulate /T

"book of geometrical algebra"                     (b/S + "-ook two"/P)                  "book two"

"circles and their properties"                     (b/C1 + "-ook three"/P)                  "book three"

"incircle and circumcircle of triangle"                     ("book f-"/P + our/C1)/abT/Ch                   "book four"


Books 5 through 10 introduce ratios and proportions:

Book 5 is a treatise on proportions of magnitudes. Proposition 25 has as a special case the inequality of arithmetic and geometric means.
Book 6 applies proportions to geometry: Similar figures.
Book 7 deals strictly with elementary number theory: divisibility, prime numbers, Euclid's algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor, least common multiple. Propositions 30 and 32 together are essentially equivalent to the fundamental theorem of arithmetic stating that every positive integer can be written as a product of primes in an essentially unique way, though Euclid would have had trouble stating it in this modern form as he did not use the product of more than 3 numbers.
Book 8 deals with proportions in number theory and geometric sequences.
Book 9 applies the results of the preceding two books and gives the infinitude of prime numbers (proposition 20), the sum of a geometric series (proposition 35), and the construction of even perfect numbers (proposition 36).
Book 10 attempts to classify incommensurable (in modern language, irrational) magnitudes by using the method of exhaustion, a precursor to integration.

"Book five"                     (r/T + "-atios and proportions"/S)/+bp                  "ratios and proportions"
"Book six"                     (r/T + "-atios and proportions"/S)/+cp                  "ratios and proportions"
"Book seven"                     (r/T + "-atios and proportions"/S)/Ch/+bp                  "ratios and proportions"
"Book eight"                     (r/T + "-atios and proportions"/S)/Ch/+cp                  "ratios and proportions"

"Book nine"                     (r/C2 + "-atios and proportions"/S)/+bp                  "ratios and proportions"
"Book ten"                     (r/C2 + "-atios and proportions"/S)/+cp                  "ratios and proportions"

*                    "Book five"  >>  "proportions of magnitudes" /GC/S/Ch/abT
*                    "Book six"  >>  "proportions to geometry" /GC/S/Ch/abT
*                    "Book seven"  >>  "elementary number theory" /GC/S/Ch/abT
*              "Book eight"  >>  "proportions in number theory and geometric sequences" /GC/S/Ch/abT

*                    "Book nine"  >>  "preceding two books" /GC/S/abT
*                    "Book ten"  >>  "incommensurable magnitudes" /GC/S/abT

Books 11 through to 13 deal with spatial geometry:

Book 11 generalizes the results of Books 1–6 to space: perpendicularity, parallelism, volumes of parallelepipeds.
Book 12 studies volumes of cones, pyramids, and cylinders in detail, and shows for example that the volume of a cone is a third of the volume of the corresponding cylinder. It concludes by showing the volume of a sphere is proportional to the cube of its radius by approximating it by a union of many pyramids.
Book 13 constructs the five regular Platonic solids inscribed in a sphere, calculates the ratio of their edges to the radius of the sphere, and proves that there are no further regular solids.
Euclid's method and style of presentationEuclid's axiomatic approach and constructive methods were widely influential.

"Book eleven"                     (sp/C2 + "-atial geometry"/S)/+bp                  "spatial geometry"
"Book twelve"                     (sp/C2 + "-atial geometry"/S)/+cp                  "spatial geometry"
"Book thirteen"                     (sp/C2 + "-atial geometry"/S)/Ch                  "spatial geometry"

*                    "Book eleven"  >>  "results of Books to six" /GC/S/abT
*                    "Book twelve"  >>  "cones, pyramids, and cylinders" /GC/S/abT  >>  "volumes of" /C1
*        "Book thirteen"  >>  "regular Platonic solids" /GC/S/abT  >>  five /GC/S/Ch/abT  >>  "inscribed in sphere" /C1

Apocrypha

>> apocryphal books XIV and XV of the Elements were sometimes included in the collection.[21] The spurious Book XIV was probably written by Hypsicles on the basis of a treatise by Apollonius. The book continues Euclid's comparison of regular solids inscribed in spheres, with the chief result being that the ratio of the surfaces of the dodecahedron and icosahedron inscribed in the same sphere is the same as the ratio of their volumes, the ratio being ~.
The spurious Book XV was probably written, at least in part, by Isidore of Miletus. This book covers topics such as counting the number of edges and solid angles in the regular solids, and finding the measure of dihedral angles of faces that meet at an edge.[21]

"Book fourteen"                     (r/C1 + "-atios and proportions"/S)/+bp                  "ratios and proportions"
"Book fifteen"                     (r/C1 + "-atios and proportions"/S)/+cp                  "ratios and proportions"

*        "Book fourteen"  >>  "comparison of regular solids" /GC/S/Ch/abT  >>  "inscribed in sphere" /C1  >>  Hypsicles /T  >>  Apollonius /P
*        "Book fifteen"  >>  "number of edges and solid angles" /GC/S/Ch/abT  >>  "in regular solids" /C1  >>  Isidore /T  >>  Miletus /P



Hipparchus
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Hipparchus ,  

Hipparchus,    or more correctly Hipparchos (Greek: Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos;    c. 190 BC – c. 120 BC), was a Greek astrologer, astronomer, geographer, and mathematician of the Hellenistic period. He is considered the founder of trigonometry.[1]

*                   Archimedes  >>  Euclid /P  >>  Hipparchus /P/Ch

"BC 190"                               (Hip/S + parchus/P)                             Hipparchus
"BC 120"                             (Hip/S + parchus/P)/Ch                           Hipparchus

>>    Although he wrote at least fourteen books,

Hipparchus' only preserved work is Τῶν Ἀράτου καὶ Εὐδόξου φαινομένων ἐξήγησις ("Commentary on the Phaenomena of Eudoxus and Aratus"). This is a highly critical commentary in the form of two books on a popular poem by Aratus based on the work by Eudoxus.[4] Hipparchus also made a list of his major works, which apparently mentioned about fourteen books, but which is only known from references by later authors. His famous star catalog was incorporated into the one by Ptolemy, and may be almost perfectly reconstructed by subtraction of two and two thirds degrees from the longitudes of Ptolemy's stars.

*                Hipparchus  >>  "Commentary on Phaenomena of Eudoxus and Aratus" /GC/S/Ch/abT

"fourteen books"                            (Hipp/T + archus/P)                         Hipparchus

"star catalog"                               (Hip/P + parchus/T)                         Hipparchus

>>       Hipparchus was recognized as the first mathematician known to have possessed a trigonometry table,

"trigonometry table"                       (Hip/C2 + parchus/T)                         Hipparchus

>>         Lunar theory and Orbit of the Moon,          Precession of the equinoxes

*         "trigonometry table"  >>  "Lunar theory" /S  >>  "Orbit of Moon" /GC/S/abT/+bp  >>  "Precession of equinoxes" /GC/S/abT/+cp



Hippocrates
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Hippocrates ,  

*                   Archimedes  >>  Euclid /P  >>  Hipparchus /P/Ch  >>  Hippocrates /T

Born              ca. 460 BC                     Kos, Greece
Died              ca. 370 BC                     Larissa, Greece

"BC 460"                          (Hip/C2 + pocrates/P)/+bp                           Hippocrates
Kos                                (Hip/C2 + pocrates/P)/+cp                           Hippocrates

*                      Kos  >>  Greece /P

"BC 370"                       (Hip/C2 + pocrates/P)/Ch/+bp                          Hippocrates
Larissa                         (Hip/C2 + pocrates/P)/Ch/+cp                          Hippocrates

*                      Larissa  >>  Greece /T

>>      Soranus wrote that Hippocrates' father was Heraclides, a physician; his mother was Praxitela, daughter of Tizane.    The two sons of Hippocrates, Thessalus and Draco, and his son-in-law, Polybus, were his students.    According to Galen, a later physician, Polybus was Hippocrates' true successor, while Thessalus and Draco each had a son named Hippocrates.[11][12]

Heraclides                     (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' father"/P)/+bp                    "Hippocrates' father"
physician                      (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' father"/P)/+cp                    "Hippocrates' father"

Praxitela                     (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' mother"/P)/+bp                    "Hippocrates' mother"
"daughter of Tizane"                     (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' mother"/P)/+cp                    "Hippocrates' mother"

Thessalus                       (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' son"/P)/+bp                    "Hippocrates' son"
student                         (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' son"/P)/+cp                    "Hippocrates' son"

Draco                       (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' son"/P)/Ch/+bp                    "Hippocrates' son"
student                       (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' son"/P)/Ch/+cp                    "Hippocrates' son"

Polybus                      (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' son-in-law"/P)/+bp                    "Hippocrates' son-in-law"
student                      (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' son-in-law"/P)/+cp                    "Hippocrates' son-in-law"

Polybus                        (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' successor"/P)                    "Hippocrates' successor"

Hippocrates                       (Th/C2 + "-essalus' son"/P)                      "Thessalus' son"
Hippocrates                         (Dr/C2 + "-aco's son"/P)                          "Draco's son"

>>       Soranus said that Hippocrates learned medicine from his father and grandfather, and studied other subjects with Democritus and Gorgias.

father                     (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' teacher"/P)/+bp                    "Hippocrates' teacher"
grandfather                     (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' teacher"/P)/+cp                    "Hippocrates' teacher"

Democritus                     (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' teacher"/P)/Ch/+bp                    "Hippocrates' teacher"
Gorgias                     (Hip/C2 + "-pocrates' teacher"/P)/Ch/+cp                    "Hippocrates' teacher"

Humorism
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Humorism ,  
Four Humors
Essentially, this theory held that the human body was filled with four basic substances, called four humors, which are in balance when a person is healthy.   All diseases and disabilities resulted from an excess or deficit of one of these four humors.   These deficits could be caused by vapors that were inhaled or absorbed by the body. The four humors were black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood.     Greeks and Romans, and the later Muslim and Western European medical establishments that adopted and adapted classical medical philosophy, believed that each of these humors would wax and wane in the body, depending on diet and activity. When a patient was suffering from a surplus or imbalance of one fluid, then his or her personality and physical health would be affected. This theory was closely related to the theory of the four elements: earth, fire, water and air;    earth predominantly present in the black bile, fire in the yellow bile, water in the phlegm, and all four elements present in the blood.[1]

*                 "human body"  >>  "four humors" /GC/S/Ch/abT

"black bile"                        (f/C1 + "-our humors"/P)/+bp                    "four humors"
"yellow bile"                       (f/C1 + "-our humors"/P)/+cp                    "four humors"
phlegm                         (f/C1 + "-our humors"/P)/Ch/+bp                    "four humors"
blood                           (f/C1 + "-our humors"/P)/Ch/+cp                    "four humors"

earth                         (f/C1 + "-our elements"/P)/+bp                      "four elements"
fire                           (f/C1 + "-our elements "/P)/+cp                      "four elements"
water                      (f/C1 + "-our elements"/P)/Ch/+bp                      "four elements"
air                         (f/C1 + "-our elements "/P)/Ch/+cp                      "four elements"

*                        "black bile"  >>  earth /T
*                        "yellow bile"  >>  fire /T
*                        phlegm  >>  water /T
*                        blood  >>  "four elements" /T

>>                   Father of Clinical Medicine         or               Father of Medicine

"Father of Clinical Medicine"                     (Hip/C1 + pocrates/P)                   Hippocrates

*                 "Father of Clinical Medicine"  >>  "Father of Medicine" /GC/S/Ch/abT

>>                    Hippocratic Corpus

"author of Hippocratic Corpus"                 (Hipp/P + ocrates/C2)/Ch/abT                  Hippocrates

>>          Notable among the treatises of the Corpus are The Hippocratic Oath; The Book of Prognostics; On Regimen in Acute Diseases; Aphorisms; On Airs, Waters and Places; Instruments of Reduction; On The Sacred Disease; etc.[29]

"Hippocratic Oath"                   (Hip/C2 + "-pocratic Corpus"/T)                 "Hippocratic Corpus"
"Book of Prognostics"                   (Hip/P + "-pocratic Corpus"/T)                 "Hippocratic Corpus"
"On Regimen in Acute Diseases"                   (Hip/C1 + "-pocratic Corpus"/T)                 "Hippocratic Corpus"
Aphorisms                     (Hip/S + "-pocratic Corpus"/T)                  "Hippocratic Corpus"
"On Airs"                    (Hip/C2 + "pocratic Corpus"/S)                    "Hippocratic Corpus"
"Waters and Places"                    (Hip/C1 + "-pocratic Corpus"/S)                    "Hippocratic Corpus"
"Instruments of Reduction"                   (Hipp/P + "-ocratic Corpus"/C1)                 "Hippocratic Corpus"
"On Sacred Disease"                   (Hipp/P + "-ocratic Corpus"/C2)                 "Hippocratic Corpus"

>>        After Hippocrates, the next significant physician was Galen, a Greek who lived from AD. 129 to AD. 200. Galen perpetuated Hippocratic medicine, moving both forward and backward.[57] In the Middle Ages, Arabs adopted Hippocratic methods.[58] After the European Renaissance, Hippocratic methods were revived in Europe and even further expanded in the 19th century. Notable among those who employed Hippocrates' rigorous clinical techniques were Sydenham, Heberden, Charcot and Osler. Henri Huchard, a French physician, said that these revivals make up "the whole history of internal medicine".[59]

Galen                          (Hipp/P + ocrates/C1)/Ch/abT                         Hippocrates

"129"                                    (G/C1 + alen/P)                                     Galen
"200"                                  (G/C1 + alen/P)/Ch                                   Galen

*                 Galen  >>  Sydenham /GC/S/Ch/abT  >>  Thomas /GC/S/abT

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Thomas+Sydenham ,    
Born                10 September 1624 (1624-09-10)               Wynford Eagle, Dorset
Died                29 December 1689 (1689-12-29) (aged 65)

"1624"                               (Syden/C1 + ham/P)/+bp                           Sydenham
September                           (Syden/C1 + ham/P)/+cp                           Sydenham
"10th"                             (Syden/C1 + ham/P)/+bp/Ch                         Sydenham
"Wynford Eagle"                     (Syden/C1 + ham/P)/+cp/Ch                        Sydenham

*                 "Wynford Eagle"  >>  Dorset /GC/S/Ch/abT

"1689"                               (Syden/C2 + ham/P)/+bp                           Sydenham
December                            (Syden/C2 + ham/P)/+cp                           Sydenham
"10th"                                (Syden/C2 + ham/P)/Ch                            Sydenham

*         Galen  >>  Sydenham /GC/S/Ch/abT  >>  Thomas /GC/S/abT  >>  Heberden /P  >>  William /P/Ch

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/William+Heberden ,  
Born                   1710                        London
Died                    17 May 1801

"1710"                                (He/C1 + berden/P)/+bp                           Heberden
London                                (He/C1 + berden/P)/+cp                           Heberden

"1801"                                (He/C2 + berden/P)/+bp                           Heberden
May                                   (He/C2 + berden/P)/+cp                           Heberden
"1801"                                (He/C2 + berden/P)/Ch                             Heberden

*         Galen  >>  Sydenham /GC/S/Ch/abT  >>  Thomas /GC/S/abT  >>  Heberden /P  >>  William /P/Ch  >>  Charcot /T  >>  "Jean-Martin" /T/Ch

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Jean-Martin+Charcot ,  
Born             November 29, 1825(1825-11-29)              Paris, France
Died             August 16, 1893(1893-08-16)                 Lac des Settons, Nièvre

"1825"                                (Ch/C1 + arcot/P)/+bp                               Charcot
November                             (Ch/C1 + arcot/P)/+cp                               Charcot
"29th"                               (Ch/C1 + arcot/P)/Ch/+bp                             Charcot
Paris                                 (Ch/C1 + arcot/P)/Ch/+cp                             Charcot

*                              Paris  >>  France /P

"1893"                                (Ch/C2 + arcot/P)/+bp                               Charcot
August                                (Ch/C2 + arcot/P)/+cp                               Charcot
"16th"                               (Ch/C2 + arcot/P)/Ch/+bp                             Charcot
"Lac des Settons"                        (Ch/C2 + arcot/P)/Ch/+cp                         Charcot

*                            "Lac des Settons"  >>  Nièvre /P

*         Galen  >>  Sydenham /GC/S/Ch/abT  >>  Thomas /GC/S/abT  >>  Heberden /P  >>  William /P/Ch  >>  Charcot /T  >>  "Jean-Martin" /T/Ch  >>  Osler /C2  >>  William /C2/Ch

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/William+Osler ,    
Born                      July 12, 1849(1849-07-12)                 Bond Head,     Canada West
Died               December 29, 1919(1919-12-29) (aged 70)         Oxford,           England

"1825"                         ([ŋ=  w=]/C1 + Osler/P)/+bp                                Osler
July                            ([ŋ=  w=]/C1 + Osler/P)/+cp                                Osler
"12th"                       ([ŋ=  w=]/C1 + Osler/P)/Ch/+bp                               Osler
"Bond Head"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/C1 + Osler/P)/Ch/+cp                           Osler

*                            "Bond Head"  >>  "Canada West" /P

"1919"                         ([ŋ=  w=]/C2 + Osler/P)/+bp                                Osler
December                           ([ŋ=  w=]/C2 + Osler/P)/+cp                            Osler
"29"                         ([ŋ=  w=]/C2 + Osler/P)/Ch/+bp                               Osler
Oxford                        ([ŋ=  w=]/C2 + Osler/P)/Ch/+cp                              Osler

*                             Oxford  >>  England /P



"Leonidas I"
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Leonidas+I ,  
Born             circa 540s BC                   Sparta
Died            August 11, 480 BC               Thermopylae
Children             Pleistarchuss
Parents              Anaxandridas II

"BC 540"                               (Le/C1 + onidas/P)                                Leonidas
Sparta "                               (Le/C1 + onidas/P)/Ch                             Leonidas

"BC 480"                             (Le/C2 + onidas/P)/+bp                              Leonidas
August                               (Le/C2 + onidas/P)/+cp                              Leonidas
"11th"                             (Le/C2 + onidas/P)/Ch/+bp                            Leonidas
Thermopylae                         (Le/C2 + onidas/P)/Ch/+cp                          Leonidas



Pericles
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Pericles ,  
c. 495 – 429 BC

"BC 495"                               (Per/C2 + icles/P)                                 Pericles
"BC 429"                               (Per/C2 + icles/P)/Ch                             Pericles

>>     son of the politician Xanthippus, who, although ostracized in 485–484 BC, returned to Athens to command the Athenian contingent in the Greek victory at Mycale just five years later. Pericles' mother, Agariste,

Xanthippus                        (Per/C2 + "-icles' father"/P)                       "Pericles' father"
Agariste                        (Per/C2 + "-icles' mother"/P)                       "Pericles' mother"



Ptolemy
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Ptolemy ,  

*             Archimedes  >>  Euclid /P  >>  Hipparchus /P/Ch  >>  Hippocrates /T  >>  Ptolemy /T/Ch  >>  "Claudius Ptolemy" /GC/S/abT


Born                    c. AD 90                      Egypt
Died              c. AD 168 (aged 77–78)           Alexandria, Egypt

"90"                               (Pt/C1 + olemy/P)/+bp                                 Ptolemy
Egypt                              (Pt/C1 + olemy/P)/+cp                                 Ptolemy

"168"                               (Pt/C1 + olemy/P)/Ch/+bp                             Ptolemy
Alexandria                           (Pt/C1 + olemy/P)/Ch/+cp                            Ptolemy

>>        Ptolemy was the author of several scientific treatises, at least three of which were of continuing importance to later Islamic and European science. The first is the astronomical treatise now known as   the Almagest (in Greek, Ἡ Μεγάλη Σύνταξις, "The Great Treatise", originally Μαθηματικὴ Σύνταξις, "Mathematical Treatise").    The second is the Geography, which is a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world.    The third is the astrological treatise known sometimes in Greek as the Apotelesmatika (Ἀποτελεσματικά), more commonly in Greek as the Tetrabiblos (Τετράβιβλος "Four books"), and in Latin as the Quadripartitum (or four books) in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day.

Almagest                        (Pt/C1 + "-olemy's treatise"/P)                         "Ptolemy's treatise"
Geography                      (Pt/C2 + "-olemy's treatise"/P)                         "Ptolemy's treatise"
Apotelesmatika                        (Pt/S + "-olemy's treatise"/P)                         "Ptolemy's treatise"

*                Almagest  >>  "Great Treatise" /GC/Ch/S/abT  >>  "Mathematical Treatise" /P
*                Apotelesmatika  >>  Tetrabiblos /GC/Ch/S/abT  >>  "Four books" /T  >>  Quadripartitum /C2


*                Geography  >>  Geographia /GC/Ch/S/abT



Solon
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Solon ,  

*        While taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak) "Buddha" or "석가모니 [sΛg  ga  mo  ni]"   (or Siddhārtha Gautama, Siddhattha Gotama   or   Kassapa Buddha    or   revolutionary, pioneer, innovator, groundbreaker, or mastermind)  or  "Washington"  from Korea/전라-도 [zΛn  la  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      "Solon [So  lo  n=]"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*                     [So  lo  n=]  >>  Solon /P

c. 638 BC–558 BC

"BC 638"                                (S/S + olon/P)                                      Solon
"BC 558"                                (S/S + olon/P)/Ch                                  Solon



Themistocles
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Themistocles ,  

c. 524–459 BC,

"BC 638"                            (Th/C2 + emistocles/P)                            Themistocles
"BC 459"                          (Th/C2 + emistocles/P)/Ch                          Themistocles

*        While taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak) "Buddha" or "석가모니 [sΛg  ga  mo  ni]"   (or Siddhārtha Gautama, Siddhattha Gotama   or   Kassapa Buddha    or   revolutionary, pioneer, innovator, groundbreaker, or mastermind)  or  "Washington"  from Korea/경상-도 [gyΛŋ  saŋ  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      "Themistocles [T=  he  mi  s=  to  c=  le  s=]"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*                    [T=  he  mi  s=  to  c=  le  s=]  >>  Themistocles /P



Epicurus
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Epicurus ,  

Full name                Epicurus
Born                  4 February 341 BCE                        Archonship of Sosigenes
Died                  270 BCE (aged 72)                         Archonship of Pytharatus

"BC 341"                               (E/S + picurus/P)/+bp                              Epicurus
February                               (E/S + picurus/P)/+cp                              Epicurus
"4th"                               (E/S + picurus/P)/Ch/+bp                              Epicurus
"Archonship of Sosigenes"                   (E/S + picurus/P)/Ch/+cp                     Epicurus

"BC 270"                                 (E/C2 + picurus/P)                               Epicurus
"Archonship of Pytharatus"                    (E/C2 + picurus/P)/Ch                       Epicurus

*        While taking Korea/평안-도 [pyΛŋ  ŋan  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak) "Buddha" or "석가모니 [sΛg  ga  mo  ni]"   (or Siddhārtha Gautama, Siddhattha Gotama   or   Kassapa Buddha    or   revolutionary, pioneer, innovator, groundbreaker, or mastermind)  or  "Washington"  from Korea/함경-도 [ham  gyΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      "Epicurus [ŋE  pi  cu  ru  s=]"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*                     [ŋE  pi  cu  ru  s=]  >>  Epicurus /S  >>  Epicureanism /GC/S/abT

>>              Epicurus's 300 written works

"300 works"                               (E/C1 + picurus/P)                              Epicurus

>>     For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia, peace and freedom from fear, and aponia, the absence of pain, and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends.

ataraxia                   (Ep/P + "-icurus' philosophy"/C1)/abT/Ch                   "Epicurus' philosophy"
aponia                     (Ep/P + "-icurus' philosophy"/C2)/abT/Ch                   "Epicurus' philosophy"

*                    ataraxia  >>  peace /P  >>  "freedom from fear" /T
*                    aponia  >>  "absence of pain" /P  >>  "life surrounded by friends" /T

>>             His parents, Neocles and Chaerestrate

Neocles                    (Ep/P + "-icurus' father"/C2)/abT/Ch                   "Epicurus' father"
Chaerestrate                   (Ep/P + "-icurus' mother"/C2)/abT/Ch                   "Epicurus' mother"

>>         he studied philosophy for four years under the Platonist teacher Pamphilus.

Pamphilus                    (Ep/P + "-icurus' teaher"/C2)/abT/Ch                   "Epicurus' teacher"

>>            He studied under Nausiphanes,

Nausiphanes                     (Ep/P + "-icurus' teaher"/S)                    "Epicurus' teacher"

>>         Epicurus' school, which was based in the garden of his house and thus called "The Garden",[5] had a small but devoted following in his lifetime. The primary members were Hermarchus, the financier Idomeneus, Leonteus and his wife Themista, the satirist Colotes, the mathematician Polyaenus of Lampsacus, and Metrodorus of Lampsacus, the most famous popularizer of Epicureanism.

Garden                        (Ep/P + "-icurus' school"/S)                        "Epicurus' school"

Hermarchus                       (E/C1 + "-picurus' pupil"/P)                      "Epicurus' pupil"

Idomeneus                       (E/C2 + "-picurus' pupil"/P)                      "Epicurus' pupil"

*                          Idomeneus  >>  financier /C2

Leonteus                          (E/S + "-picurus' pupil"/P)                       "Epicurus' pupil"

Themista                     (Ep/P + "-icurus' pupil"/C1)/abT/Ch                   "Epicurus' pupil"
Themista                     (Ep/P + "-icurus' wife"/C1)/abT/Ch                   "Epicurus' wife"

*                  "Epicurus' pupil"  >>  Colotes /P  >>  satirist /P/Ch
*              "Epicurus' pupil"  >>  "Polyaenus of Lampsacus" /C2  >> mathematician /C2/Ch
*                  "Epicurus' pupil"  >>  "Metrodorus of Lampsacus" /T  >>  "popularizer of Epicureanism" /P/Ch

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DATE: 2011.05.14 - 15:35

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