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(Comparative) study (in structure/mode/ways of pronunciation, articulation, phonetics, or whatever; that is, in differences of speaking mouth postures and resultant speaking weight/force center points) between English/foreign languages and mother tongue, for better (more practical/effective/smooth) hearing/speaking of English/foreign languages.       Copyright.   Young-Won Kim,   yw@voicespec.com
open : home | main | Kor | book | FUN member : main II | Kor II


::: Comparative phonetics, brd2 :::


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Name   Young-Won Kim
Subject   Pyrrho/Galen/Avicenna/Averroes/Maimonides, 'Albertus Magnus', 'Thomas Aquinas', 'Duns Scotus', Copernicus
Pyrrho
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Pyrrho ,    

Full name                  Pyrrho
Born                     ca. 360 BC                      Elis, Greece
Died                     ca. 270 BC
School Skepticism

"BC 360"                               (Pyrr/S + ho/P)/+bp                                Pyrrho
Elis                                     (Pyrr/S + ho/P)/+cp                                Pyrrho

*                     Elis  >>  Greece /GC/Ch/S/abT

"BC 270"                               (Pyrr/S + ho/P) /Ch                                Pyrrho

*        While taking Korea/전라-도 [zΛn  la  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak) "Buddha" or "석가모니 [sΛg  ga  mo  ni]"   (or Siddhārtha Gautama, Siddhattha Gotama   or   Kassapa Buddha    or   revolutionary, pioneer, innovator, groundbreaker, or mastermind)  or  "Washington"  from Korea/평안-도 [pyΛŋ  ŋan  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      "Pyrrho [P=  y=  r=  r=  ho]"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*                  [P=  y=  r=  r=  ho]  >>  Pyrrho /T

>>         Pyrrhonism founded by Aenesidemus in the 1st century BC

*                  Aenesidemus /C2  >>  Pyrrhonism /T

>>        his pupil Timon of Phlius (the Sillographer).

"Timon of Phlius"                      (Pyrrh/S + "-o's pupil"/P)                     "Pyrrho's pupil"

>>         acatalepsia,     which connotes the ability to withhold assent from doctrines regarding the truth of things in their own nature; against every statement its contradiction may be advanced with equal justification.

acatalepsia                   (Pyrrh/P + "-o's philosophy"/C2)/abT/Ch                   "Pyrrho' philosophy"

*                    acatalepsia  >>  "ability to withhold assent" /C2  >>  "from doctrines" /C1



Galen
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Galen ,  

Re:      Article of   "Archimedes/Aspasia/Euclid/Hipparchus/Hippocrates/Leonidas/Pericles/Ptolemy/Solon/Themistocles/Epicurus"     <<Column  Hippocrates>>

>>         Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (September AD 129 – 199/217; Greek: Γαληνός, Galēnos, from adjective "γαληνός", "calm"[1]), better known as Galen of Pergamon

Galen                          (Hipp/P + ocrates/C1)/Ch/abT                         Hippocrates

"129"                                    (G/C1 + alen/P)                                     Galen

*                     "129"  >>  September /GC/Ch/S/abT
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Hippocrates ,    
"200"                                  (G/C1 + alen/P)/Ch                                   Galen

"199"                                    (G/C2 + alen/P)                                     Galen
"217"                                    (G/C2 + alen/P)                                     Galen

*                            Galen  >>  "Galen of Pergamon" /P

>>         son of Aelius Nicon, a wealthy architect with scholarly interests

"Aelius Nicon"                       (G/S + "-alen's father"/P)                       "Galen's father"

*                            "Aelius Nicon"  >>  "wealthy architect" /P



Avicenna
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Avicenna ,    

*             Archimedes  >>  Euclid /P  >>  Hipparchus /P/Ch  >>  Hippocrates /T  >>  Ptolemy /T/Ch  >>  "Claudius Ptolemy" /GC/S/abT  >>  Avicenna /S

Born                   c. 980                Afshana, near Bukhara (capital of Samanid Empire), in present Day Uzbekistan
Died            December 10, 1037 (aged 56–57)                   Hamadan, Persia (Greater Iran)

"980"                       ([ŋ=  w=]/C2 + Avicenna/P)/+bp                             Avicenna
Afshana                      ([ŋ=  w=]/C2 + Avicenna/P)/+cp                            Avicenna

*                          Afshana  >>  Bukhara /C2

"1037"                       ([ŋ=  w=]/C1 + Avicenna/P)/+bp                           Avicenna
December                        ([ŋ=  w=]/C1 + Avicenna/P)/+cp                        Avicenna
"10th"                      ([ŋ=  w=]/C1 + Avicenna/P)/Ch/+bp                          Avicenna
Hamadan                       ([ŋ=  w=]/C1 + Avicenna/P)/Ch/+cp                      Avicenna

*                          Hamadan  >>  Persia /C2

>>            under a physician named Koushyar

Koushyar                      ([ŋ=  w=]/S + "Avicenna's teacher"/P)                     "Avicenna's teacher"

>>       He wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived.

"450"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "Avicenna's treatise"/C1)/abT/Ch                   "Avicenna's treatise"

>>             His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine,[14] which was a standard medical text at many medieval universities.[15] The Canon of Medicine was used as a text-book in the universities of Montpellier and Louvain as late as 1650.[16]     Ibn Sīnā's Canon of Medicine provides a complete system of medicine according to the principles of Galen (and Hippocrates).[17][18]

"Book of Healing"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "Avicenna's work"/C1)/abT                   "Avicenna's work"
"Canon of Medicine"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "Avicenna's work"/C2)/abT                   "Avicenna's work"

*            "Canon of Medicine"  >>  textbook /GC/S/abT  >>  Montpellier /T  >>  Louvain /T/Ch

*            "Montpellier and Louvain"  >>  universities /T/Ch  >>  "1650" /S

>>              his 14-volume The Canon of Medicine

"Canon of Medicine"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "Avicenna's work"/C2)/abT                   "Avicenna's work"
"14-volume"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "Avicenna's work"/C2)/abT/Ch                   "Avicenna's work"

>>           Avicenna's four humours and temperaments

hot                   ([ŋ=  w=]/S + "Avicenna's four humours"/P)/+bp                  "Avicenna's four humours"
cold                   ([ŋ=  w=]/S + "Avicenna's four humours"/P)/+cp                  "Avicenna's four humours"
moist                   ([ŋ=  w=]/S + "Avicenna's four humours"/P)/Ch/+bp                  "Avicenna's four humours"
dry                   ([ŋ=  w=]/S + "Avicenna's four humours"/P)/Ch/+cp                  "Avicenna's four humours"

>>              List of works

This is the list of some of Avicenna's well-known works:[94][95][96]

Sirat al-shaykh al-ra’is          (The Life of Ibn Sina),       ed. and trans. WE. Gohlman, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1974. (The only critical edition of Ibn Sina’s autobiography, supplemented with material from a biography by his student Abu ‘Ubayd al-Juzjani. A more recent translation of the Autobiography appears in D. Gutas, Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition: Introduction to Reading Avicenna’s Philosophical Works, Leiden: Brill, 1988.)[94]
Al-Isharat wa-‘l-tanbihat            (Remarks and Admonitions),         ed. S. Dunya, Cairo, 1960; parts translated by S.C. Inati, Remarks and Admonitions, Part One: Logic, Toronto, Ont.: Pontifical Institute for Mediaeval Studies, 1984, and Ibn Sina and Mysticism, Remarks and Admonitions: Part 4, London: Kegan Paul International, 1996.[94]
Al-Qanun fi’l-tibb          (The Canon of Medicine),       ed. I. a-Qashsh, Cairo, 1987. (Encyclopedia of medicine.)[94]
Risalah fi sirr al-qadar          (Essay on the Secret of Destiny),      trans. G. Hourani in Reason and Tradition in Islamic Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.[94]
Danishnama-i ‘ala’i            (The Book of Scientific Knowledge),         ed. and trans. P Morewedge, The Metaphysics of Avicenna, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973.[94]
Kitab al-Shifa’          (The Book of Healing).          (Ibn Sina’s major work on philosophy. He probably began to compose al-Shifa’ in 1014, and completed it in 1020.) Critical editions of the Arabic text have been published in Cairo, 1952–83, originally under the supervision of I. Madkour[94]
Kitab al-Najat          (The Book of Salvation),          trans. F. Rahman, Avicenna’s Psychology: An English Translation of Kitab al-Najat, Book II, Chapter VI with Historical-philosophical Notes and Textual Improvements on the Cairo Edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1952. (The psychology of al-Shifa’.)
Hayy ibn Yaqdhan          a Persian myth.        A novel called Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, based on Avicenna's story, was later written by Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) in the 12th century and translated into Latin and English as Philosophus Autodidactus in the 17th and 18th centuries respectively. In the 13th century, Ibn al-Nafis wrote his own novel Fadil ibn Natiq, known as Theologus Autodidactus in the West, as a critical response to Hayy ibn Yaqdhan.[97]

*                   "Avicenna's work"  >>  "Sirat al-shaykh al-ra’is" /P/Ch
*                   "Avicenna's work"  >>  "Al-Isharat wa-‘l-tanbihat" /T
*                   "Avicenna's work"  >>  "Al-Qanun fi’l-tibb" /T/Ch
*                   "Avicenna's work"  >>  "Risalah fi sirr al-qadar" /P
*                   "Avicenna's work"  >>  "Danishnama-i ‘ala’i" /S/Ch
*                   "Avicenna's work"  >>  "Kitab al-Shifa" /S
*                   "Avicenna's work"  >>  "Kitab al-Najat" /C2/Ch
*                   "Avicenna's work"  >>  "Hayy ibn Yaqdhan" /C2

>>          Persian Works
Danishnama-i ‘Alai
Danishnama-i ‘Alai is called "the Book of Knowledge for [Prince] 'Ala ad-Daulah". One of Avicenna's important Persian work is the Daaneshnaame (literally: the book of knowledge) for Prince 'Ala ad-Daulah (the local Buyid ruler). The linguist aspects of the Dāneš-nāma and the originality of their Persian vocabulary are of great interest to Iranian philologists. Avicenna created new scientific vocabulary that had not existed before in the modern Persian language. The Dāneš-nāma covers such topics as logic, metaphysics, music theory and other sciences of his time. This book has translated to English by Parwiz Mowewedge.[98]

Andar Danesh-e-Rag
Andar Danesh-e-Rag is called "On the science of the pulse". This book contains nine chapters on the science of the pulse and is condensed synonpsis.

*                   "Avicenna's work"  >>  "Danishnama-i ‘Alai" /GC/S/abT/Ch
*                   "Avicenna's work"  >>  "Andar Danesh-e-Rag" /GC/S/abT



Averroes
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Averroes ,      

*             Archimedes  >>  Euclid /P  >>  Hipparchus /P/Ch  >>  Hippocrates /T  >>  Ptolemy /T/Ch  >>  "Claudius Ptolemy" /GC/S/abT  >>  Avicenna /S  >>  Averroes /S/Ch

Full name                 ʾAbū l-Walīd Muḥammad bin ʾAḥmad bin Rušd
Born                          1126                                      Córdoba, Al-Andalus
Died                   December 10, 1198 (aged 71–72)                Marrakech, Morocco

"1126"                       ([ŋ=  w=]/S + Averroes/P)/+bp                             Averroes
Córdoba                        ([ŋ=  w=]/S + Averroes/P)/+cp                           Averroes

*                          Córdoba  >>  "Al-Andalus" /C2

"1198"                       ([ŋ=  w=]/C2 + Averroes/P)/+bp                            Averroes
December                       ([ŋ=  w=]/C2 + Averroes/P)/+cp                         Averroes
"10th"                       ([ŋ=  w=]/C2 + Averroes/P)/Ch/+bp                         Averroes
Marrakech                     ([ŋ=  w=]/C2 + Averroes/P)/Ch/+cp                       Averroes

*                          Marrakech  >>  Morocco /C2

>>        His grandfather Abu Al-Walid Muhammad (d. 1126) was chief judge of Córdoba under the Almoravids.     His father, Abu Al-Qasim Ahmad, held the same position until the Almoravids were replaced by the Almohads in 1146.[7]

"Abu Al-Walid Muhammad"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/S + "Averroes' grandfather"/P)                    "Averroes' grandfather"
"died 1126"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/S + "Averroes' grandfather"/P)/Ch                    "Averroes' grandfather"

*                  "Abu Al-Walid Muhammad"  >>  "chief judge of Córdoba" /C2  >>  "under Almoravids" /C2/Ch

"Abu Al-Qasim Ahmad"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/C2 + "Averroes' father"/P)/+bp                    "Averroes' father"

*                  "Abu Al-Qasim Ahmad"  >>  "chief judge of Córdoba" /P  >>  "1146" /S

>>         The Incoherence of the Incoherence (Tahafut al-tahafut), in which he defended Aristotelian philosophy against al-Ghazali's claims in The Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahafut al-falasifa).

"Tahafut al-tahafut"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/S + "Averroes' work"/P)/+bp                    "Averroes' work"
"al-Ghazali"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/S + "Averroes' work"/P)/+cp                    "Averroes' work"

*                   "al-Ghazali"  >>  "Tahafut al-falasifa" /GC/S/abT/Ch

>>         Averroes is also a highly regarded legal scholar of the Maliki school.   Perhaps his best-known work in this field is Bidāyat al-Mujtahid wa Nihāyat al-Muqtaṣid

"Bidāyat al-Mujtahid wa Nihāyat al-Muqtaṣid"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/S + "Averroes' work"/P)/Ch                    "Averroes' work"

>>           In medicine, Averroes wrote a medical encyclopedia called Kulliyat ("Generalities", i.e. general medicine), known in its Latin translation as Colliget.

Kulliyat                     ([ŋ=  w=]/C1 + "Averroes' work"/P)                    "Averroes' work"

*                    Kulliyat  >>  Colliget /GC/S/abT/Ch

>>            List of works

Logic
Short Commentary
[1] Short Commentary on Aristotle's Organon / Tajrīd al-ʾaqāwīl al-ḍarūrīya min ṣināʿat al-manṭiq (Aka: Al-ḍarūrī; Al-ḍarūrī fī l-manṭiq; Kitāb fī l-manṭiq; Muḫtaṣar fī l-manṭiq) ca. 552/1157

*                    "Averroes' Commentary"  >>  "Tajrīd al-ʾaqāwīl al-ḍarūrīya min ṣināʿat al-manṭiq" /GC/S/abT/Ch

Middle Commentaries
[2] Middle Commentary on the Isagoge / Talḫīṣ madḫal fī Fūrfūrīyūš (Aka: Talḥīṣ kitāb ʾĪsāġūjī)
Talḫīṣ kitāb ʾArisṭū fī l-manṭiq

[3] Middle Commentary on the Categories / Talḫīṣ kitāb al-maqūlāt
[4] Middle Commentary on Peri hermeneias / Talḫīṣ kitāb al-ʿibāra
[5] Middle Commentary on the Prior Analytics / Talḫīṣ kitāb al-qiyās
[6] Middle Commentary on the Posterior Analytics / Talḫīṣ kitāb al-burhān (Aka: Talḫīṣ kitāb al-burhān li-ʾArisṭūṭālīs; Talḫīṣ kitāb al-burhān lahū)
[7] Middle Commentary on the Topics / Talḫīṣ kitāb al-jadal
[8] Middle Commentary on the Sophistici Elenchi / Talḫīṣ kitāb al-safsaṭa
[9] Middle Commentary on the Rhetoric / Talḫīṣ al-ḫiṭāba [570/1175 or 571/1176]
[10] Middle Commentary on the Poetics / Talḫīṣ kitāb al-šiʿr

*                    "Averroes' Commentary"  >>  "Talḫīṣ madḫal fī Fūrfūrīyūš" /T/Ch
*                    "Averroes' Commentary"  >>  "Talḫīṣ kitāb al-maqūlāt" /T
*                    "Averroes' Commentary"  >>  "Talḫīṣ kitāb al-ʿibāra" /P/Ch
*                    "Averroes' Commentary"  >>  "Talḫīṣ kitāb al-qiyās" /P
*                    "Averroes' Commentary"  >>  "Talḫīṣ kitāb al-burhān" /C2/Ch
*                    "Averroes' Commentary"  >>  "Talḫīṣ kitāb al-jadal" /C2
*                    "Averroes' Commentary"  >>  "Talḫīṣ kitāb al-safsaṭa" /C1/Ch
*                    "Averroes' Commentary"  >>  "Talḫīṣ al-ḫiṭāba" /C1
*                    "Averroes' Commentary"  >>  "Talḫīṣ kitāb al-šiʿr" /GC/S/abT

Long Commentaries
[11] Long Commentary on the Prior Analytics (?) / Šarḥ kitāb al-qiyās li-ʾArisṭūṭālīs (Aka: Kitāb šarḥ kitāb al-qiyās li-ʾArisṭū)
[12] Long Commentary on the Posterior Analytics / Šarḥ kitāb al-burhān

*                    "Averroes' Commentary"  >>  "Šarḥ kitāb al-qiyās li-ʾArisṭūṭālīs" /S/Ch
*                    "Averroes' Commentary"  >>  "Šarḥ kitāb al-burhān" /S

Questions
[13] Questions on Logic / Qućsita in libros logicć Aristotelis (Part of: Masāʿil fī l-ḥikma, aka: Muqaddimāt fī l-ḥikma)

*                    "Averroes' Question"  >>  "Qućsita in libros logicć Aristotelis" /S

Questions on the Isagoge
[13.1] On Alfarabi on the Isagoge about genus and differentia / Kalām ʿalā qawl ʾAbī Naṣr fī l-madḫal wa-l-jins wa-l-faṣl yuštarikān

*            "Averroes' Question on Isagoge"  >>  "Kalām ʿalā qawl ʾAbī Naṣr fī l-madḫal wa-l-jins wa-l-faṣl yuštarikān" /C1

Questions on the Categories
[13.2] On substantial and accidental universals / Al-qawl fī kullīyāt al-jawhar wa-kullīyāt al-ʾaʿraḍ (Aka: Bāb ʿalā maqūla ʾawwal kitāb ʾAbī Naṣr (?), Maqāla ʿalā ʾawwal maqūla ʾAbī Naṣr (?))

*            "Averroes' Question on Categories"  >>  "Al-qawl fī kullīyāt al-jawhar wa-kullīyāt al-ʾaʿraḍ" /C2

Questions on Peri hermeneias
[13.3] On the copula and on derived nouns / Maqāla fī l-kalima wa-l-ism al-muštaqq (Aka: Kalām lahū ʿalā l-kalima wa-l-ism al-muštaqq, Min kitāb al-ʿibāra li-ʾAbī Naṣr)
[13.4] On compound and simple predicates / Min kitāb al-ʿibāra (Aka: De prćdicatis compositis et divisis)

*            "Averroes' Question on Peri hermeneias"  >>  "Maqāla fī l-kalima wa-l-ism al-muštaqq" /C2
*            "Averroes' Question on Peri hermeneias"  >>  "Min kitāb al-ʿibāra" /C1

Questions on the Prior Analytics
[13.5] On the definition: Critique of the positions of Alexander and Alfarabi / Al-qawl fī l-ḥadd wa-naqd mā ḏahaba ʾilayhī al-ʾIskandar wa-ʾAbū Naṣr (Aka: Maqāla fī l-ḥadd (juzʾ al-qiyās) wa-naqd maḏahabay al-ʾIskandar wa-ʾAbī Naṣr; De definitione termini)
[13.6] Critique of Avicenna's position on the conversion of premises / Naqd maḏhab Ibn Sīnā fī inʿikās al-qaḍāyā (Aka: Maqāla fī naqd maḏhab Ibn Sīnā fī ʿaks al-qaḍāyā; De conversionibus)
[13.7] Critique of Themistius's position on the contingent syllogisms in the first and second figure / Naqd maḏhab Tāmisṭiyūs fī l-maqāyīs al-mumkina fī l-šaklayn al-ʾawwal wa-l-ṯānī (Aka: De conditione syllogismorum contingentium circa duo eorum attributa, videlicet de numerositate illationis, et de figura in qua non concludunt)
[13.8] Chapter on absolute premises / Maqāla fī l-muqaddima al-muṭlaqa (Aka: Quid sit propositio absoluta id est de inesse)
[13.9] On the types of conclusions in compound syllogisms / Al-qawl fī jihāt al-natāʾij fī l-maqāyīs al-murakkaba wa-fī maʿnā al-maqūl ʿalā l-kull
[13.10] Chapter on the dependency of the types of conclusions from the types of premises / Maqāla [...] fī luzūm jihāt al-natāʾij li-jihāt al-muqaddimāt
[13.11] On the mixing of contingent and necessary premises / De mistione contingentis et necessarii
[13.12] Chapter on the dependency of the conclusions from mixed syllogisms
[13.13] Chapter on the meaning of "predicated on everything" / Maqāla [...] fī maʿnā al- maqūl ʿalā l-kull wa-ġayr ḏālika
[13.14] Chapter on conditional syllogisms / Maqāla fī l-maqāʾis al-šarṭīya (Aka: Maqāla fī l-qiyās; De conditionali, an per ipsum ostendatur qućsitum primum ignotum)
[13.15] Exposition of Alfarabi's commentary on the first book of the Prior Analytics / Talḫīṣ šarḥ ʾAbī Naṣr [li-]l-maqāla al-ʾūlā min al-qiyās li-l-ḥakīm...

*            "Averroes' Question on Prior Analytics"  >>  "Al-qawl fī l-ḥadd wa-naqd mā ḏahaba ʾilayhī al-ʾIskandar wa-ʾAbū Naṣr" /C2
*            "Averroes' Question on Prior Analytics"  >>  "Naqd maḏhab Ibn Sīnā fī inʿikās al-qaḍāyā" /C1
*            "Averroes' Question on Prior Analytics"  >>  "Naqd maḏhab Tāmisṭiyūs fī l-maqāyīs al-mumkina fī l-šaklayn al-ʾawwal wa-l-ṯānī" /S
*            "Averroes' Question on Prior Analytics"  >>  "Maqāla fī l-muqaddima al-muṭlaqa" /T
*            "Averroes' Question on Prior Analytics"  >>  "Al-qawl fī jihāt al-natāʾij fī l-maqāyīs al-murakkaba wa-fī maʿnā al-maqūl ʿalā l-kull" /P
*            "Averroes' Question on Prior Analytics"  >>  "Maqāla [...] fī luzūm jihāt al-natāʾij li-jihāt al-muqaddimāt" /T/Ch
*            "Averroes' Question on Prior Analytics"  >>  "De mistione contingentis et necessarii" /P/Ch
*            "Averroes' Question on Prior Analytics"  >>  "Chapter on dependency of conclusions from mixed syllogisms" /C1/Ch
*            "Averroes' Question on Prior Analytics"  >>  "Maqāla [...] fī luzūm jihāt al-natāʾij li-jihāt al-muqaddimāt" /GC/S/abT/Ch
*            "Averroes' Question on Prior Analytics"  >>  "Maqāla fī l-maqāʾis al-šarṭīya" /GC/S/abT
*            "Averroes' Question on Prior Analytics"  >>  "Talḫīṣ šarḥ ʾAbī Naṣr [li-]l-maqāla al-ʾūlā min al-qiyās li-l-ḥakīm" /C2/Ch

Questions on the Posterior Analytics
[13.16] On the predicates in demonstrations / Al-qawl fī l-maḥmūlāt al-barāhīn (Aka: Epistola de primitate prćdicatorum in demonstrationibus)
[13.17] On Alfarabi's Book on Demonstration / Min kitāb al-burhān li-ʾAbī Naṣr
[13.18] On the definition of individuals / Al-qawl fī ḥadd al-šaḫṣ (Aka: An definitio sit particularis aut universalis tantum)
[13.19] On the three types of definition in relation to demonstrations / De triplici genere diffinitionum in ordine ad demonstrationem
[13.20] On whether the middle term is the cause of the major term / De medio demonstrationis an sit causa maioris extremi
[13.21] Treatise on the disagreement of Alfarabi and Aristotle on the order of the Posterior Analytics and the rules of demonstrations and definitions / Kitāb fī mā ḫālafa ʾAbū Naṣr li-ʾArisṭū fī kitāb al-burhān min tartībihī wa-qawānīn al-barāhīn wa-l-ḥudūd (Aka: De conditionibus prćmissarum demonstrationis)
[13.22] On the conditions for the necessity of the premises of demonstrations / De conditionibus quć requiruntur ad necessitatem prćmissarum demonstrationum
[13.23] On how a demonstration can be transferred from one science to another / Quomodo fiat translatio ab una arte in aliam
[13.24] On demonstrations quia / De demonstrationibus quia
[13.25] On the sense in which the definition is better known than the thing defined / Quomodo definitio sit notior ipso definito
[13.26] On the definitions which are said to differ from demonstrations in their order / De definitionibus quć dicuntur positione differentes a demonstratione

*            "Averroes' Question on Posterior Analytics"  >>  "Al-qawl fī l-maḥmūlāt al-barāhīn" /GC/S/abT/Ch
*            "Averroes' Question on Posterior Analytics"  >>  "Min kitāb al-burhān li-ʾAbī Naṣr" /P/Ch
*            "Averroes' Question on Posterior Analytics"  >>  "Al-qawl fī ḥadd al-šaḫṣ" /T/Ch
*            "Averroes' Question on Posterior Analytics"  >>  "De triplici genere diffinitionum in ordine ad demonstrationem" /C1/Ch
*            "Averroes' Question on Posterior Analytics"  >>  "De medio demonstrationis an sit causa maioris extremi" /S/Ch
*            "Averroes' Question on Posterior Analytics"  >>  "Kitāb fī mā ḫālafa ʾAbū Naṣr li-ʾArisṭū fī kitāb al-burhān min tartībihī wa-qawānīn al-barāhīn wa-l-ḥudūd" /C1
*            "Averroes' Question on Posterior Analytics"  >>  "De conditionibus quć requiruntur ad necessitatem prćmissarum demonstrationum" /C2
*            "Averroes' Question on Posterior Analytics"  >>  "Quomodo fiat translatio ab una arte in aliam" /C2/Ch
*            "Averroes' Question on Posterior Analytics"  >>  "De demonstrationibus quia" /T
*            "Averroes' Question on Posterior Analytics"  >>  "Quomodo definitio sit notior ipso definito" /P
*            "Averroes' Question on Posterior Analytics"  >>  "De definitionibus quć dicuntur positione differentes a demonstratione" /GC/S/abT

Philosophy of Nature
Physics
[14] Short Commentary on the Physics / Jawāmiʿ al-samāʾ al-ṭabīʿī (Part of: Al-jawāmiʿ fī l-falsafa; Jawāmiʿ kutub ʾArisṭūṭālīs fī l-ṭabīʿīyāt wa-l-ʾilāhīyāt)
[15] Middle Commentary on the Physics / Talḫīṣ kitāb al-samāʾ al- al-ṭabīʿī (Aka: [...] li-ʾArisṭūṭālīs; Talḫīṣ al- ṭabīʿī; Wa-laḫaṣa kitāb al-samāʿ al-ṭabīʿī li-ʾArisṭūṭālīs)
[16] Long Commentary on the Physics / Šarḥ [kitāb] al-samāʾ al-ṭabīʿī

*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Physics"  >>  "Jawāmiʿ al-samāʾ al-ṭabīʿī" /GC/S/abT
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Physics"  >>  "Talḫīṣ kitāb al-samāʾ al- al-ṭabīʿī" /C1
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Physics"  >>  "Šarḥ [kitāb] al-samāʾ al-ṭabīʿī" /P

On the Heavens
[17] Short Commentary on De cćlo / Jawāmiʿ al-samāʾ wa-l-ʿālam (Part of: Al-jawāmiʿ fī l-falsafa; Jawāmiʿ kutub ʾArisṭūṭālīs fī l-ṭabīʿīyāt wa-l-ʾilāhīyāt)
[18] Middle Commentary on De cćlo / Talḫīṣ [kitāb] al-samāʾ wa-l-ʿālam
[19] Long Commentary on De cćlo / Šarḥ kitāb al-samāʾ wa-l-ʿālam (Aka: Šarḥ kitāb al-samāʾ wa-l-ʿālam li-ʾArisṭūṭālīs; Šarḥ al-samāʾ wa-l-ʿālam)
[20] De substantia orbis

*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Heaven"  >>  "Jawāmiʿ al-samāʾ wa-l-ʿālam" /P
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Heaven"  >>  "Talḫīṣ [kitāb] al-samāʾ wa-l-ʿālam" /C2
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Heaven"  >>  " Šarḥ kitāb al-samāʾ wa-l-ʿālam" /C1
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Heaven"  >>  "De substantia orbis" /T

On Generation and Corruption
[21] Short Commentary on De generatione et corruptione / Jawāmiʿ kitāb al-kaun wa-l-fasād (Part of: Al-jawāmiʿ fī l-falsafa; Jawāmiʿ kutub ʾArisṭūṭālīs fī l-ṭabīʿīyāt wa-l-ʾilāhīyāt)
[22] Middle Commentary on De generatione et corruptione / Talḫīṣ [kitāb] al-kaun wa-l-fasād 567/1172

*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Generation and Corruption"  >>  "Jawāmiʿ kitāb al-kaun wa-l-fasād" /P
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Generation and Corruption"  >>  "Talḫīṣ [kitāb] al-kaun wa-l-fasād" /GC/S/abT

Meteorology
[23] Short Commentary on the Meteorology / Jawāmiʿ kitāb al-ʾaṯār al-ʿulwīya (Part of: Al-jawāmiʿ fī l-falsafa; Jawāmiʿ kutub ʾArisṭūṭālīs fī l-ṭabīʿīyāt wa-l-ʾilāhīyāt)
[24] Middle Commentary on the Meteorology / Talḫīṣ [kitāb] al-ʾāṯār al-ʿulwīya

*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Meteorology"  >>  "Jawāmiʿ kitāb al-ʾaṯār al-ʿulwīya" /P
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Meteorology"  >>  "Talḫīṣ [kitāb] al-ʾāṯār al-ʿulwīya" /T

Biology
[25] Middle(?) Commentary on De animalibus / Talḫīṣ tisʿ maqālāt min kitāb al-ḥayawān (Aka: Talḫīṣ tisʿ maqālāt min kitāb al-ḥayawān wa-ḏālika min al-ḥādīya ʿašr ʾilā ʾāḫar al-diwān; Talḫīṣ fī l-maqāla al-ḥādīya ʿašara min kitāb al-ḥayawān li-ʾArisṭūṭālīs wa-ḏālika tisʿ maqālāt; Kitāb al-ḥayawān) 565/1169
[26] Chapter on animals / Maqāla fī l-ḥayawān (Aka: Kalām lahū ʿalā l-ḥayawān)
[27] Short Commentary on De plantis

*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Biology"  >>  "Talḫīṣ tisʿ maqālāt min kitāb al-ḥayawān" /GC/S/abT
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Biology"  >>  "Maqāla fī l-ḥayawān" /P
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Biology"  >>  "Short Commentary on De plantis" /C2

Questions
[28] Questions on the Philosophy of Nature / Sefer ha-derušim ha-ṭibʿiyim

*            "Averroes' Question on Philosophy of Nature"  >>  "Sefer ha-derušim ha-ṭibʿiyim" /T

Psychology
Commentaries
[29] "Book on the Soul" or Short Commentary on De anima / Kitāb al-nafs
[30] Middle Commentary on De anima / Talḫīṣ kitāb al-nafs 577/1181
[31] Long Commentary on De anima / Šarḥ kitāb al-nafs (Aka: Šarḥ kitāb al-nafs li-ʾArisṭūṭālīs)
[32] Commentary on the Parva naturalia / Talḫīṣ al-ḥiss wa-l-maḥsūs. Sevilla, 13. Rabīʿ al-ʾāḫar 565 [ca. 01/04/1170]

*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Psychology"  >>  "Kitāb al-nafs" /T
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Psychology"  >>  "Talḫīṣ kitāb al-nafs" /P
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Psychology"  >>  "Šarḥ kitāb al-nafs" /C2
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Psychology"  >>  "Talḫīṣ al-ḥiss wa-l-maḥsūs" /C1

Treatises on the Intellect
[33] Enquiry whether the intellect in us, named the material intellect, is able to know in the end the separate forms or not =Epistle on the possibility of conjunction / Kitāb fī l-faḥṣ hal yumkin al-ʿaql ʾallaḏī fīnā wa-huwa al-musammā bi-l-hayūlānī ʾan yaʿqila al-ṣuwar al-mufāriqa bi-ʾāḫirihī ʾau lā yumkin ḏālika wa-huwa al-maṭlūb ʾallaḏī kāna ʾArisṭūṭālīs waʿadanā bi-l-faḥṣ ʿanhū fī kitāb al-nafs (Aka: ʾIggeret ʾefšarut ha-debequt)
[34] Chapter on the conjunction of the separate intellect with man / Maqāla fī ttiṣāl al-ʿaql al-mufāriq bi-l-ʾinsān (Aka: Masʾala fī ʿilm al-nafs suʾila ʿanhā fa-ʾajāba fīha; Epistola de connexione intellectus abstracti cum homine)
[35] Chapter on the conjunction of intellect with man / Maqāla fī ttiṣāl al-ʿaql bi-l-ʾinsān (Aka: Maqāla ʾaiḍan fī ttiṣāl al-ʿaql bi-l-ʾinsān; Maqāla fī ḏālika ʾaiḍan)
[36] Chapter on the intellect / Maqāla fī l-ʿaql (Aka: Maqāla ʾuḫrā fī ʿilm al-nafs ʾaiḍan)
[37] Commentary on Alexander's treatise on the intellect / Šarḥ maqālat al-ʾIskandar fī l-ʿaql
[38] Commentary on Avempace's epistle on the conjunction of the intellect with man / Šarḥ risālat ittiṣāl al-ʿaql bi-l-ʾinsān li-bn al-Ṣāʾiġ

*                    "Averroes' Treatise on Intellect"  >>  "Kitāb fī l-faḥṣ hal yumkin al-ʿaql ʾallaḏī fīnā wa-huwa al-musammā bi-l-hayūlānī ʾan yaʿqila al-ṣuwar al-mufāriqa bi-ʾāḫirihī ʾau lā yumkin ḏālika wa-huwa al-maṭlūb ʾallaḏī kāna ʾArisṭūṭālīs waʿadanā bi-l-faḥṣ ʿanhū fī kitāb al-nafs" /C2
*                    "Averroes' Treatise on Intellect"  >>  "Maqāla fī ttiṣāl al-ʿaql al-mufāriq bi-l-ʾinsān" /C1
*                    "Averroes' Treatise on Intellect"  >>  "Maqāla fī ttiṣāl al-ʿaql bi-l-ʾinsān" /P
*                    "Averroes' Treatise on Intellect"  >>  "Maqāla fī l-ʿaql" /S
*                    "Averroes' Treatise on Intellect"  >>  "Šarḥ maqālat al-ʾIskandar fī l-ʿaql" /GC/S/abT
*                    "Averroes' Treatise on Intellect"  >>  "Šarḥ risālat ittiṣāl al-ʿaql bi-l-ʾinsān li-bn al-Ṣāʾiġ" /T

ʿAbd Allāh Ibn Rušd (son of Averroes)
[39] On whether the active intellect unites with the material intellect whilst it is clothed with the body / Hal yattaṣilu bi-l-ʿaql al-hayūlānī al-ʿaql al-faʿʿāl wa-huwa multabis bi-l-jism

*                    "Abd Allāh Ibn Rušd"  >>  "Hal yattaṣilu bi-l-ʿaql al-hayūlānī al-ʿaql al-faʿʿāl wa-huwa multabis bi-l-jism" /S

Anonymous
[40] De animć beatudine / Tractatus Aueroys de perfectione naturali intellectus secundum mentem philosophi

*                    Anonymous  >>  "Tractatus Aueroys de perfectione naturali intellectus secundum mentem philosophi" /C2

Metaphysics
Commentaries
[41] Short Commentary on the Metaphysics / Jawāmiʿ kitāb mā baʿd al-ṭabīʿa (Part of: Jawāmiʿ kutub ʾArisṭūṭālīs fī l-ṭabīʿīyāt wa-l-ʾilāhīyāt; Al-gawāmiʿ fī l-falsafa)
[42] Middle Commentary on the Metaphysics / Talḫīṣ mā baʿd al-ṭabīʿa (Aka: Talḫīṣ kitāb mā baʿd al-ṭabīʿa li-ʾArisṭūṭālīs; Kitāb talḫīṣ mā baʿd al-ṭabīʿa li-ʾArisṭūṭālīs; Averrois in septem libros media expositio ab Hćlia Cretensi in latinum conversa, Ante hac nunquam excusa, summis vigiliis elaborata) Cordova, 25. Rabīʿ al-ʾāḫar 570 [11/23/1174].
[43] Long Commentary on the Metaphysics / Šarḥ mā baʿd al-ṭabīʿa.

*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Metaphysics"  >>  "Jawāmiʿ kitāb mā baʿd al-ṭabīʿa" /C2
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Metaphysics"  >>  "Talḫīṣ mā baʿd al-ṭabīʿa" /T
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Metaphysics"  >>  "Šarḥ mā baʿd al-ṭabīʿa" /P

Practical Philosophy
[44] Middle Commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics
[45] Epitome of Plato's Republic

*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Practical Philosophy"  >>  "Middle Commentary on Nicomachean Ethics" /GC/S/abT
*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Practical Philosophy"  >>  "Epitome of Plato's Republic" /P

Mathematics
[46] Epitome of the Almagest

*                    "Averroes' Commentary on Mathematics"  >>  "Epitome of Almagest" /P



Maimonides
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Maimonides ,  

*             Archimedes  >>  Euclid /P  >>  Hipparchus /P/Ch  >>  Hippocrates /T  >>  Ptolemy /T/Ch  >>  "Claudius Ptolemy" /GC/S/abT  >>  Avicenna /S  >>  Averroes /S/Ch  >>  Maimonides /C2

Full name             Moses ben Maimon      ("Maimonides")
Born                              1135                                 Córdoba, Spain
Died                   12 December 1204 (aged 67–68)         Fostat, Egypt, or Cairo, Egypt[1]

"1135"                            (M/S + aimonides/P)/+bp                            Maimonides
Córdoba                           (M/S + aimonides/P)/+cp                            Maimonides

*                          Córdoba  >>  Spain /S

"1204"                           (M/S + aimonides/P)/Ch/+bp                          Maimonides
December                        (M/S + aimonides/P)/Ch/+bp                          Maimonides
"12th"                           (M/C2 + aimonides/P)/Ch/+bp                         Maimonides
Fostat                           (M/C2 + aimonides/P)/Ch/+cp                         Maimonides

*                          Fostat  >>  Cairo /GC/S/abT/Ch  >>  Egypt /T

>>       Maimonides studied Torah under his father Maimon, who had in turn studied under Rabbi Joseph ibn Migash - a student of Isaac Alfasi

Maimon                    (M/S + "-aimonides' father"/P)/Ch/+bp                    "Maimonides' father"
Torah                      (M/S + "-aimonides' father"/P)/Ch/+cp                    "Maimonides' father"

"Rabbi Joseph ibn Migash"                    (M/C2 + "-aimon's teacher"/P)/Ch                    "Maimon's teacher"
"Rabbi Joseph ibn Migash"                    ([ŋ=  w=]/C2 + "Isaac Alfasi's student"/P)/Ch                    "Isaac Alfasi's student"

>>      The 13 principles of faith

"13 principles of faith"                      (M/C1 + aimonides/P)                     Maimonides

*                  "first principle of faith"  >>  "existence of God" /P/Ch
*                  "second principle of faith"  >>  "God's unity" /P/Ch
*                  "third principle of faith"  >>  "God's spirituality and incorporeality" /P/Ch
*                  "fourth principle of faith"  >>  "God's eternity" /P/Ch
*                  "fifth principle of faith"  >>  "God alone should be object of worship" /P/Ch
*                  "sixth principle of faith"  >>  "Revelation through God's prophets" /P/Ch
*                  "seventh principle of faith"  >>  "preeminence of Moses among prophets" /P/Ch
*                  "eighth principle of faith"  >>  "God's law given on Mount Sinai" /P/Ch
*                  "ninth principle of faith"  >>  "immutability of Torah as God's Law" /P/Ch
*                  "tenth principle of faith"  >>  "God's foreknowledge of human actions" /P/Ch
*                  "eleventh principle of faith"  >>  "Reward of good and retribution of evil" /P/Ch
*                  "twelfth principle of faith"  >>  "coming of Jewish Messiah" /P/Ch
*                  "thirteenth principle of faith"  >>  "resurrection of dead" /P/Ch

"Mishneh Torah"                    (M/P/Ch + aimonides/C1/Ch)/abT                     Maimonides

*         "Mishneh Torah"  >>  "Repetition of Torah" /GC/S/abT/Ch  >>  "Book of Strong Hand" /S/Ch

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Mishneh+Torah ,  
>>        The Mishneh Torah was compiled between 1170 and 1180 (4930-4940), while Maimonides was living in Egypt, and is regarded as Maimonides' magnum opus.

"1170"                    (Mishn/P/Ch + "-eh Torah"/C2/Ch)/abT                     "Mishneh Torah"
"1180"                    (Mishn/P/Ch + "-eh Torah"/C1/Ch)/abT                     "Mishneh Torah"

>>                 4930- 1170 = 3760

"thirty-seven-sixty"                         (J/S + "ewish calendar"/P)                     "Jewish calendar"

>>               The books and sections

1.   HaMadda' (Knowledge):

HaMadda                          (Mish/C2 + "-neh Torah"/P)                     "Mishneh Torah"

*                         HaMadda  >>  Knowledge /P

a.   Yesodei ha-Torah:      Belief in God and other Jewish principles of faith
b.   De'ot:         general proper behavior
c.   Talmud Torah:          see Torah study
d.   Avodah Zarah:          the prohibition against idolatry
e.   Teshuvah:           the law and philosophy of repentance

*                         HaMadda  >>  "Yesodei ha-Torah" /C2

"Belief in God and other Jewish principles of faith"                    (Y/C2 + "-esodei ha-Torah"/P)                  "Yesodei ha-Torah"

*                         HaMadda  >>  De'ot /C2/Ch

"general proper behavior"                        (D/S + e'ot/P)                               De'ot

*                         HaMadda  >>  "Talmud Torah" /T

"Torah study"                        (T/C1 + "-almud Torah"/P)                      "Talmud Torah"

*                         HaMadda  >>  "Avodah Zarah" /T/Ch

"prohibition against idolatry"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/S + "Avodah Zarah"/P)                    "Avodah Zarah"

*                         HaMadda  >>  Teshuvah /T

"law and philosophy of repentance"                      (T/C1 + eshuvah/P)                    Teshuvah

2.   Ahavah (Love):         the precepts which must be observed at all times if the love due to God is to be remembered continually    (prayer,   tefillin).

Ahavah                            (Mishn/P + "-eh Torah"/S)                       "Mishneh Torah"

*                         Ahavah  >>  Love /P

"precepts which must be observed at all times if love due to God is to be remembered continually"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/S + Ahavah/P)                    Ahavah

*     "precepts which must be observed at all times if love due to God is to be remembered continually"  >>  prayer /T/Ch  >>  tefillin /T

3.   Zemanim (Times):

Zemanim                    (Mishn/P + "-eh Torah"/C2)/abT/Ch                   "Mishneh Torah"

*                         Zemanim >>  Times /P

a.   Shabbat
b.   Eruvin,       a Rabbinic device that facilitates Sabbath observance
c.  Yom Tov:       prohibitions on major Jewish holidays that are different from the prohibitions of Sabbath
d.  Shevitat `Asor:     laws of Yom Kippur, except for the Temple service    (see Avodat Yom ha-Kippurim, below)
e.  Hametz u-Matza:         see Passover
f.   Shofar ve-Lulav ve-Sukkah:             see Rosh Hashanah and Sukkot
g.  Hanukah u-Megillah:         see Hanukkah and Purim

*                         Zemanim  >>  Shabbat /GC/S/abT/Ch

*                         Zemanim  >>  Eruvin /GC/S/abT

"Rabbinic device that facilitates Sabbath observance"                 ([ŋ=  y=]/C1 + Eruvin/P)                 Eruvin

*                         Zemanim  >>  "Yom Tov" /P/Ch

"prohibitions on major Jewish holidays that are different from prohibitions of Sabbath"                 (Y/S + "-om Tov"/P)                 "Yom Tov"

*                         Zemanim  >>  "Shevitat `Asor" /P

"laws of Yom Kippur, except for Temple service"                 (Sh/C2 + "-evitat `Asor"/P)                 "Shevitat `Asor"

"Avodat Yom ha-Kippurim"                 (Sh/P + "-evitat `Asor"/S)                 "Shevitat `Asor"

*                         Zemanim  >>  "Hametz u-Matza" /T/Ch

Passover                        (H/C2 + "-ametz u-Matza"/P)                     "Hametz u-Matza"

*                         Zemanim  >>  "Shofar ve-Lulav ve-Sukkah" /T

"Rosh Hashanah and Sukkot"                    (Sh/P + "-ofar ve-Lulav ve-Sukkah"/C2)/abT/Ch                   "Shofar ve-Lulav ve-Sukkah"

*                         Zemanim  >>  "Hanukah u-Megillah" /C2/Ch

"Hanukkah and Purim"                    (H/S + "-anukah u-Megillah"/P)                     "Hanukah u-Megillah"

4.  Nashim (Women):

Nashim                       (Mishn/P + "-eh Torah"/C2)/abT                      "Mishneh Torah"

*                         Nashim  >>  Women /P

a.  Ishut:      laws of marriage, including kiddushin and the ketubah
b.  Geirushin:      laws of divorce
c.  Yibum va-Chalitzah:     laws of levirate marriage
d.  Na'arah Betulah:      the law of a man who seduces or rapes an unmarried woman
e.  Sotah        laws concerning a woman suspected of infidelity

*                         Nashim  >>  Ishut /GC/S/abT/Ch

"laws of marriage, including kiddushin and ketubah"                    (Ish/P + ut/C2)/abT/Ch                   Ishut

*                         Nashim  >>  Geirushin /GC/S/abT

"laws of divorce"                            (G/P + eirushin/S)                           Geirushin

*                         Nashim  >>  "Yibum va-Chalitzah" /S/Ch

"laws of levirate marriage"                    (Y/P + "-ibum va-Chalitzah"/C1)/abT/Ch                   "Yibum va-Chalitzah"

*                         Nashim  >>  "Na'arah Betulah" /S

"law of man who seduces or rapes unmarried woman"                  (N/P + "-a'arah Betulah"/S)                 "Na'arah Betulah"

*                         Nashim  >>  Sotah /P/Ch

"laws concerning woman suspected of infidelity"                    (S/P + otah/C2)/abT/Ch                    Sotah

5.  Kedushah (Holiness)

Kedushah                        (Mis/S + "-hneh Torah"/P)                        "Mishneh Torah"

*                         Kedushah  >>  Holiness /C2/Ch

a.  Issurei Biah:      forbidden sexual relations, including niddah, incest and adultery.    Since intermarriage with non-Jews is forbidden, the laws of conversion to Judaism are also included.
b.  Ma'akhalot Assurot:      laws of forbidden foods    (see kashrut)
c.  Shechitah:      laws of ritual slaughter

*                         Kedushah  >>  "Issurei Biah" /C2

"forbidden sexual relations, including niddah, incest and adultery"                     (Iss/P + "urei Biah"/C1)/abT                   "Issurei Biah"

*            "forbidden sexual relations, including niddah, incest and adultery" >>  "Since intermarriage with non-Jews is forbidden, the laws of conversion to Judaism are also included" /C2

*                         Kedushah  >>  "Ma'akhalot Assurot" /T/Ch

"laws of forbidden foods"                  (M/S + "-a'akhalot Assurot"/P)                 "Ma'akhalot Assurot"

*                         "laws of forbidden foods"  >>  kashrut /C2

*                         Kedushah  >>  Shechitah /S

"laws of ritual slaughter"                          (Sh/P + echitah/S)                      Shechitah

6.  Hafla'ah (Separation):        laws of vows and oaths

Hafla'ah                         (Mish/S + "-neh Torah"/P)/Ch                      "Mishneh Torah"

*                         Hafla'ah  >>  Separation /P

Shevuot:      Laws of vows (to refrain from doing an action)
Nedarim:     Laws of oaths (to do an action)
Nezirot:      Laws of Nazirites
Erachin:       Laws of donations to the temple

*                         Hafla'ah  >>  Shevuot /C2

"Laws of vows"                          (Sh/P + evuot/C2)/abT/Ch                        Shevuot

*                         "Laws of vows"  >>  "to refrain from doing action" /C1/Ch

*                         Hafla'ah  >>  Nedarim /S/Ch

"Laws of oaths"                                (N/P + edarim/S)                            Nedarim

*                         "Laws of oaths"  >>  "to do action" /P

*                         Hafla'ah  >>  Nezirot /C1

"Laws of Nazirites"                              (N/C1 + ezirot/P)                           Nezirot

*                         Hafla'ah  >>  Erachin /GC/S/abT

7.  Zera'im (Seeds):       agricultural laws

Zera'im                        (Mishn/P + "-eh Torah"/C1)/abT                    "Mishneh Torah"

*                         Zera'im  >>  Seeds /T/Ch

"agricultural laws"                             (Z/S + era'im/P)                             Zera'im

a.  Kilayim:       Laws of forbidden mixtures
b.  Aniyim:      Laws of obligatory gifts to the poor
c.  Terumot:     Laws of obligatory gifts to the priests
d.  Maaser:      Laws of tithes
e.  Sheini:       Laws of secondary tithes
f.   Bikurim:       Laws of first fruit offerings
g.  Shemittah:      Laws of the sabbatical year

*                         Zera'im  >>  Kilayim /C2

"Laws of forbidden mixtures"                       (Ki/C2 + layim/P)                        Kilayim

*                         Zera'im  >>  Aniyim /C2/GC/S/abT/Ch

"Laws of obligatory gifts to poor"                  ([ŋ=  w=]/C1 + Aniyim/P)                 Aniyim

*                         Zera'im  >>  Terumot /P

"Laws of obligatory gifts to priests"                  (T/P + erumot/C1)/abT/Ch                  Terumot

*                         Zera'im  >>  Maaser /T/Ch

"Laws of tithes"                               (M/P + aaser/S)                               Maaser

*                         Zera'im  >>  Sheini /S/Ch

"Laws of secondary tithes"                          (Sh/C1 + eini/P)                          Sheini

*                         Zera'im  >>  Bikurim /P/Ch

"Laws of first fruit offerings"                     (Bi/C2 + kurim/P)                          Bikurim

*                         Zera'im  >>  Shemittah /S

"Laws of sabbatical year"                     (Sh/C1 + emittah/P)                       Shemittah

8.  Avodah (Divine Service):     the laws of the Temple in Jerusalem

Avodah                     (Mishn/P + "-eh Torah"/C1)/abT/Ch                    "Mishneh Torah"

*                         Avodah  >>  "Divine Service" /GC/S/abT/Ch

"Laws of Temple in Jerusalem"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/S + Avodah/P)                      Avodah

9.  Korbanot (Offerings):      laws for offerings in the Temple, excepting those of the whole community

Korbanot                       (Mishn/P + "-eh Torah"/S)/Ch                      "Mishneh Torah"

*                         Korbanot  >>  Offerings /T

"laws for offerings in Temple"                  (K/P + orbanot/C2)/abT/Ch                  Korbanot

"excepting those of whole community"                  (K/C1 + orbanot/P)                  Korbanot

10.  Tohorah (Cleanness):     the rules of ritual purity

Tohorah                        (Mish/C2 + "-neh Torah"/P)/Ch                      "Mishneh Torah"

*                         Tohorah  >>  Cleanness /P/Ch

"rules of ritual purity"                            (T/S + ohorah/P)                          Tohorah

11.  Nezikin (Injuries):     criminal and tort law

Nezikin                          (Mish/C2 + "-neh Torah"/T)                        "Mishneh Torah"

*                         Nezikin  >>  Injuries /GC/S/abT/Ch

"criminal and tort law"                          (N/C1 + ezikin/P)                            Nezikin

12.  Kinyan (Acquisition):     laws of the marketplace

Kinyan                        (Mishn/T + "-eh Torah"/C1)/abT                      "Mishneh Torah"

*                         Kinyan  >>  Acquisition /GC/S/abT

"laws of marketplace"                     (Kiny/P + an/C2)/abT/Ch                         Kinyan

13.  Mishpatim (Rights):      civil law

Mishpatim                        (Mish/P + "-neh Torah"/T)                       "Mishneh Torah"

*                         Mishpatim  >>  Rights /P/Ch

"civil law"                             (Mish/C1 + patim /P)                              Mishpatim

14.  Shofetim (Judges):       the laws relating legislators, the Sanhedrin, the king, and the judges.   It also addresses the Noahide Laws and those pertaining to messianic times.

Shofetim                          (Mishn/T + "-eh Torah"/S)                        "Mishneh Torah"

*                         Shofetim  >>  Judges /T/Ch

"laws relating legislators, Sanhedrin, king, and judges"                  (Sh/P + ofetim/C1)/abT/Ch                  Shofetim
"It also addresses Noahide Laws and those pertaining to messianic times"                  (Sh/P + ofetim/C2)/abT/Ch                  Shofetim


http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Maimonides ,  
>>            His most forceful opponents were the rabbis of Provence (Southern France), and a running critique by Rabbi Abraham ben David (Raavad III) is printed in virtually all editions of Mishneh Torah.

"rabbis of Provence"                    (M/P/Ch + "-aimonides' opponents"/C2/Ch)/abT                     "Maimonides' opponent"
"Rabbi Abraham ben David"                    (M/P/Ch + "-aimonides' opponent"/C1/Ch)/abT                     "Maimonides' opponent"

*                    "Rabbi Abraham ben David"  >>  "Raavad III" /P


>>            Mishnah
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Mishnah#Commentaries ,  
>>     The Mishnah or Mishna     (Hebrew: משנה, "repetition", from the verb shanah שנה, or "to study and review",    also "secondary"[1](derived from the adj. שני)) is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions called the "Oral Torah" and the first major work of Rabbinic Judaism.[2]     It was redacted c. 220 CE by Judah haNasi when, according to the Talmud, the persecution of the Jews and the passage of time raised the possibility that the details of the oral traditions dating from Pharisaic times (536 BCE – 70 CE) would be forgotten.     It is thus named for being both the one written authority (codex) secondary (only) to the Tanakh as a basis for the passing of judgment, a source and a tool for creating laws, and the first of many books to complement the Bible in a certain aspect. The Mishnah is also called Shas (an acronym for Shisha Sedarim - the "six orders"), in reference to its six main divisions.[3]    Rabbinic commentaries on the Mishnah over the next three centuries[4] were redacted as the Gemara, which, coupled with the Mishnah, comprise the Talmud.

Mishna                     (Mishn/T + "-eh Torah"/C1)/abT                      "Mishneh Torah"
Mishnah                    (Mishn/T + "-eh Torah"/C2)/abT                      "Mishneh Torah"

*                    Mishna  >>  study /S  >>  shanah /GC/S/abT  >>  secondary /T
*                    Mishnah  >>  review /T  >>  repetition /GC/S/abT/Ch

*                    Torah  >>  "Oral Torah" /C2

"220"                     ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "Oral Torah"/C2)/abT/Ch                     "Oral Torah"
" Judah haNasi "                    ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "Oral Torah"/C2)/abT                  "Oral Torah"

"BC 536"                       (Ph/C1 + "-arisaic times"/S)                       "Pharisaic times"
"70"                            (Ph/C2 + "-arisaic times"/S)                       "Pharisaic times"

Shas                                      (Mish/C1 + na/S)                                Mishna

*                         Shas  >>   "Shisha Sedarim" /T  >>   "six orders" /P

Gemara                                    (Mish/P + nah/T)                              Mishnah

*                               Gemara  >> Talmud /T
*                               Mishnah  >> Talmud /T

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Mishnah#Commentaries ,  
>>      The Mishnah reflects debates between 70-200 CE by the group of rabbinic sages known as the Tannaim.[5]

"70"                                   (Mish/C2 + na/S)                                   Mishna
"200"                                  (Mish/C1 + na/S)                                   Mishna

debate                                  (Mish/S + na/T)                                   Mishna
Tannaim                               (Mish/S + na/T)/Ch                                 Mishna

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Mishnah#Commentaries ,  
>>     The six orders are:

Zeraim ("Seeds"),             dealing with prayer and blessings, tithes and agricultural laws (11 tractates)
Moed ("Festival"),              pertaining to the laws of the Sabbath and the Festivals (12 tractates)
Nashim ("Women"),             concerning marriage and divorce, some forms of oaths and the laws of the nazirite (7 tractates)
Nezikin ("Damages"),           dealing with civil and criminal law, the functioning of the courts and oaths (10 tractates)
Kodashim ("Holy things"),          regarding sacrificial rites, the Temple, and the dietary laws (11 tractates) and
Tohorot ("Purities"),            pertaining to the laws of purity and impurity, including the impurity of the dead, the laws of food purity and bodily purity (12 tractates).

"six orders"                                (Mish/P + na/T)                                  Mishna

Zeraim                                 (f/T + "-irst order"/P)                            "first order"
Moed                                (s/T + "-econd order"/P)                        "second order"
Nashim                                (th/T + "-ird order"/P)                           "third order"
Nezikin                               (f/T + "-ourth order"/P)                         "fourth order"
Kodashim                                 (f/T + "-ifth order"/P)                         "fifth order"
Tohorot                                  (s/T + "-ixth order"/P)                        "sixth order"

*                               Zeraim  >>  Seeds /P
*                               Moed  >>  Festival /P
*                               Nashim  >>  Women /P
*                               Nezikin  >>  Damages /P
*                               Kodashim  >>  "Holy things" /P
*                               Tohorot  >>  Purities /P

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Maimonides ,  
>>            Works and bibliography

Judaic and philosophical works
Maimonides composed works of Jewish scholarship, rabbinic law, philosophy, and medical texts. Most of Maimonides's works were written in Judeo-Arabic. However, the Mishneh Torah was written in Hebrew.    His Judaism texts were:

Commentary on the Mishna      (Hebrew Pirush Hamishnayot, Arabic siraj), written in Judeo-Arabic. This text was one of the first commentaries of its kind; its introductory sections are widely quoted.
Sefer Hamitzvot (trans. The Book of Commandments).
Sefer Ha'shamad (letter of Martydom)
Mishneh Torah, also known as Sefer Yad ha-Chazaka, a comprehensive code of Jewish law;
Guide for the Perplexed, a philosophical work harmonising and differentiating Aristotle's philosophy and Jewish theology. Written in Judeo-Arabic. The first translation of this work into Hebrew was done by Samuel ibn Tibbon
Teshuvot,     collected correspondence and responsa, including a number of public letters (on resurrection and the afterlife, on conversion to other faiths, and Iggereth Teiman - addressed to the oppressed Jewry of Yemen).
Treatise on Logic (Arabic: Maqala Fi-Sinat Al-Mantiq) has been printed 17 times, including editions in Latin (1527), German (1805, 1822, 1833, 1828), French (1935), and English (1938), and in an abridged Hebrew form.

*                   "Maimonides' philosophical work"  >>   "Commentary on Mishnah" /C1
*                   "Maimonides' philosophical work"  >>   "Sefer Hamitzvot" /T
*                   "Maimonides' philosophical work"  >>   "Sefer Ha'shamad" /C2
*                   "Maimonides' philosophical work"  >>   "Mishneh Torah" /GC/S/abT/Ch
*                   "Maimonides' philosophical work"  >>   "Guide for Perplexed" /T/Ch
*                   "Maimonides' philosophical work"  >>   Teshuvot /P/Ch
*                   "Maimonides' philosophical work"  >>   "Treatise on Logic" /S/Ch

Medical works
Maimonides wrote ten known medical works in Arabic that have been translated by the Jewish medical ethicist Fred Rosner into contemporary English.[15]

Extracts from Galen,     or The Art of Cure, is essentially an extract of Galen's extensive writings.
Commentary on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates is interspersed with his own views.
Medical Aphorisms of Moses     titled Fusul Musa in Arabic ("Chapters of Moses," Pirkei Moshe in Hebrew) contains 1500 aphorisms and many medical conditions are described.
Treatise on Hemorrhoids     discusses also digestion and food.
Treatise on Cohabitation     contains recipes as aphrodisiacs and anti-aphrodisiacs.
Treatise on Asthma      discusses climates and diets and their effect on asthma and emphasizes the need for clean air.
Treatise on Poisons and Their Antidotes     is an early toxicology textbook that remained popular for centuries.
Regimen of Health     is a discourse on healthy living and the mind-body connection.
Discourse on the Explanation of Fits      advocates healthy living and the avoidance of overabundance.
Glossary of Drug Names     represents a pharmacopeia with 405 paragraphs with the names of drugs in Arabic, Greek, Syrian, Persian, Berber, and Spanish.

*                   "Maimonides' medical work"  >>   "Extracts from Galen" /GC/S/abT
*               "Maimonides' medical work"  >>   "Commentary on Aphorisms of Hippocrates" /P
*                   "Maimonides' medical work"  >>   "Medical Aphorisms of Moses" /C2
*                   "Maimonides' medical work"  >>   "Treatise on Hemorrhoids" /S
*                   "Maimonides' medical work"  >>   "Treatise on Asthma" /C1
*               "Maimonides' medical work"  >>   "Treatise on Poisons and Their Antidotes" /GC/S/abT/Ch
*                   "Maimonides' medical work"  >>   "Regimen of Health" /P/Ch
*                   "Maimonides' medical work"  >>   "Discourse on Explanation of Fits" /C1/Ch
*                   "Maimonides' medical work"  >>   "Glossary of Drug Names" /S/Ch

Treatise on logic
In his twenties, Maimonides wrote a Treatise on logic (Makalah fi-sina'at al-mantik in Arabic).    

*                   "Maimonides' Treatise on logic"  >>   "Makalah fi-sina'at al-mantik" /C1



Albertus Magnus
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Albertus+Magnus ,    

*             Archimedes  >>  Euclid /P  >>  Hipparchus /P/Ch  >>  Hippocrates /T  >>  Ptolemy /T/Ch  >>  "Claudius Ptolemy" /GC/S/abT  >>  Avicenna /S  >>  Averroes /S/Ch  >>  Maimonides /C2  >>  "Albertus Magnus" /P/Ch

Born                    ca. 1193/1206                             Lauingen, Bavaria
Died              November 15, 1280(1280-11-15)              Cologne, Holy Roman Empire

"1193"                 ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "Albertus Magnus"/C1)/Ch/abT                 "Albertus Magnus"
"1206"                 ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "Albertus Magnus"/C1)/abT/Ch/+bp                 "Albertus Magnus"
Lauingen                 ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "Albertus Magnus"/C1)/abT/Ch/+cp                 "Albertus Magnus"

*                        Lauingen  >>  Bavaria /P

"1280"                 ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "Albertus Magnus"/C1)/abT/+bp                 "Albertus Magnus"
November                ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "Albertus Magnus"/C1)/abT/+cp                 "Albertus Magnus"
"15th"                 ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "Albertus Magnus"/C2)/abT/+bp                 "Albertus Magnus"
Cologne                 ([ŋ=  w=]/P + "Albertus Magnus"/C2)/abT/+cp                 "Albertus Magnus"

*                        Cologne  >>  "Holy Roman Empire" /P

>>     also known as Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a Dominican friar and a bishop

*       "Albertus Magnus"  >>  "Albert the Great" /C2/Ch  >>  "Albert of Cologne" /GC/S/abT  >>  "Dominican friar and bishop"/P/Ch



Thomas Aquinas
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Thomas+Aquinas ,  

*             Archimedes  >>  Euclid /P  >>  Hipparchus /P/Ch  >>  Hippocrates /T  >>  Ptolemy /T/Ch  >>  "Claudius Ptolemy" /GC/S/abT  >>  Avicenna /S  >>  Averroes /S/Ch  >>  Maimonides /C2  >>  "Albertus Magnus" /P/Ch  >>  ("Thomas Aquinas" /C2)/T

*                     "Thomas Aquinas"  >>  Aquinas /C1

Born                             1225                                Aquino, Kingdom of Sicily
Died                7 March 1274(1274-03-07) (aged 49)            Fossanova, Kingdom of Sicily

"1225"                      (Th/C2 + "omas Aquinas"/S)/+bp                    "Thomas Aquinas"
Aquino                      (Th/C2 + "omas Aquinas"/S)/+cp                    "Thomas Aquinas"

*                     Aquino  >>  "Kingdom of Sicily" /P

"1274"                      (Th/C1 + "omas Aquinas"/S)/+bp                    "Thomas Aquinas"
March                       (Th/C1 + "omas Aquinas"/S)/+cp                    "Thomas Aquinas"
"7th"                      (Th/C1 + "omas Aquinas"/S)/Ch/+bp                    "Thomas Aquinas"
Fossanova                      (Th/C1 + "omas Aquinas"/S)/Ch/+cp                    "Thomas Aquinas"

*                     Fossanova  >>  "Kingdom of Sicily" /P

>>        Saint Thomas Aquinas,   O.P.,   also Thomas of Aquin or Aquino; (Aquino, 1225 – Fossanova, 7 March 1274) was an Italian priest of the Catholic Church in the Dominican Order, and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, known as Doctor Angelicus (the Angelic Doctor) and Doctor Communis or Doctor Universalis (the Common or Universal Doctor).[1]

"Saint Thomas Aquinas"                      (Th/T + "omas Aquinas"/S)                    "Thomas Aquinas"
"O.P."                       (Th/T + "omas Aquinas"/S)/Ch                     "Thomas Aquinas"

"Thomas of Aquin"                      (Th/T + "omas Aquinas"/C2)                    "Thomas Aquinas"
"Thomas of Aquino"                      (Th/T + "omas Aquinas"/C2)/Ch                    "Thomas Aquinas"

*          "Thomas of Aquin"  >>  priest /GC/S/abT/Ch/+bp  >>  Italian /GC/S/abT/Ch/+cp
*          "Thomas of Aquino"  >>  "Catholic Church" /GC/S/abT/Ch/+bp  >>  "Dominican Order" /GC/S/abT/Ch/+cp

"Doctor Angelicus"                      (Th/P + "omas Aquinas"/T)                    "Thomas Aquinas"
"Doctor Communis"                      (Th/C2 + "omas Aquinas"/T)                    "Thomas Aquinas"
"Doctor Universalis"                      (Th/C1 + "omas Aquinas"/T)                    "Thomas Aquinas"

>>       in the father Count Landulf of Aquino's castle placed in Roccasecca, in the same Contea di Aquino (Kingdom of Sicily, in the present-day: Lazio).    Through his mother, Theodora Countess of Theate, Thomas was related to the Hohenstaufen dynasty of Holy Roman emperors.[4] Landulf's brother Sinibald was abbot of the original Benedictine abbey at Monte Cassino.

Landulf                    (Th/P + "omas Aquinas' father"/T)                  "Thomas Aquinas' father"

Theodora                    (Th/P + "omas Aquinas' mother"/T)/Ch/+bp                  "Thomas Aquinas' mother"
"Countess of Theate"                    (Th/P + "omas Aquinas' mother"/T)/Ch/+cp                  "Thomas Aquinas' mother"

Sinibald                       (L/P + "-andulf's brother"/T)/+bp                  "Landulf's brother"
abbot                         (L/P + "-andulf's brother"/T)/+cp                  "Landulf's brother"
"Benedictine abbey"                    (L/P + "-andulf's brother"/T)/Ch/+bp                  "Landulf's brother"
"Monte Cassino"                    (L/P + "-andulf's brother"/T)/Ch/+cp                  "Landulf's brother"



Duns Scotus
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Duns+Scotus ,  

*             Archimedes  >>  Euclid /P  >>  Hipparchus /P/Ch  >>  Hippocrates /T  >>  Ptolemy /T/Ch  >>  "Claudius Ptolemy" /GC/S/abT  >>  Avicenna /S  >>  Averroes /S/Ch  >>  Maimonides /C2  >>  "Albertus Magnus" /P/Ch  >>  ("Thomas Aquinas" /C2)/T  >>  ("Duns Scotus" /C2)/T/Ch

*             Archimedes  >>  Euclid /P  >>  Hipparchus /P/Ch  >>  Hippocrates /T  >>  Ptolemy /T/Ch  >>  "Claudius Ptolemy" /GC/S/abT  >>  Avicenna /S  >>  Averroes /S/Ch  >>  Maimonides /C2  >>  "Albertus Magnus" /P/Ch  >>  ("Thomas Aquinas" /C2)/T  >>  ("Duns Scotus" /C2)/T/Ch

Full name                  John Duns Scotus
Born                         c. 1265                          Duns, Berwickshire, Scotland
Died                       8 November 1308                           Cologne, Germany

"1265"                          (D/S + "-uns Scotus"/T)/+bp                         "Duns Scotus"
Duns "                          (D/S + "-uns Scotus"/T)/+cp                         "Duns Scotus"

*                          Duns  >>  Berwickshire /P/+bp  >>  Scotland /P/+cp

"1308"                        (D/S + "-uns Scotus"/T)/Ch/+bp                       "Duns Scotus"
November                      (D/S + "-uns Scotus"/T)/Ch/+cp                      "Duns Scotus"
"8th"                        (D/C2 + "-uns Scotus"/T)/Ch/+bp                       "Duns Scotus"
Cologne                     (D/C2 + "-uns Scotus"/T)/Ch/+cp                       "Duns Scotus"

*                         Cologne  >>  Germany /P

>>        Blessed John (Johannes) Duns Scotus, O.F.M. (c. 1265 – 8 November 1308) was one of the more important theologians and philosophers of the High Middle Ages. He was nicknamed Doctor Subtilis for his penetrating and subtle manner of thought.

"John Duns Scotus"                    (D/P + "-uns Scotus"/C1)/abT/Ch                  "Duns Scotus"
Blessed                          (D/P + "-uns Scotus"/C1)/abT                       "Duns Scotus"

*                      "Duns Scotus"  >>  "O.F.M." /T

>>          Works
Opus Oxoniense
Tractatus de Primo Principio
Quaestiones Quodlibetales

"Opus Oxoniense"                    (D/T + "-uns Scotus' work"/P)                  "Duns Scotus' work"
"Tractatus de Primo Principio"                    (D/T + "-uns Scotus' work"/P)/Ch                  "Duns Scotus' work"
"Quaestiones Quodlibetales"                    (D/P + "-uns Scotus' work"/T)                  "Duns Scotus' work"



Nicolaus Copernicus
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Nicolaus+Copernicus ,  

*             Archimedes  >>  Euclid /P  >>  Hipparchus /P/Ch  >>  Hippocrates /T  >>  Ptolemy /T/Ch  >>  "Claudius Ptolemy" /GC/S/abT  >>  Avicenna /S  >>  Averroes /S/Ch  >>  Maimonides /C2  >>  "Albertus Magnus" /P/Ch  >>  ("Thomas Aquinas" /C2)/T  >>  ("Duns Scotus" /C2)/T/Ch  >>  (Copernicus /GC/S/abT)/T

*                            Copernicus  >>  "Nicolaus Copernicus" /T

Born           19 February 1473(1473-02-19),              Toruń (Thorn), Royal Prussia, Kingdom of Poland
Died        24 May 1543(1543-05-24) (aged 70),      Frombork (Frauenburg), Prince-Bishopric of Warmia, Kingdom of Poland

"1473"                            (C/S + opernicus/T)/+bp                              Copernicus
February                          (C/S + opernicus/T)/+cp                              Copernicus
"19th"                           (C/S + opernicus/T)/Ch/+bp                            Copernicus
Toruń                            (C/S + opernicus/T)/Ch/+cp                            Copernicus

*                 Toruń  >>  Thorn /GC/S/Ch/abT  >>  "Royal Prussia" /T  >>  "Kingdom of Poland" /C2

"1543"                            (C/C2 + opernicus/T)/+bp                             Copernicus
May                               (C/C2 + opernicus/T)/+cp                             Copernicus
"24th"                          (C/C2 + opernicus/T)/Ch/+bp                           Copernicus
Frombork                         (C/C2 + opernicus/T)/Ch/+cp                         Copernicus

*         Frombork  >>  Frauenburg /GC/S/Ch/abT  >>  "Prince-Bishopric of Warmia" /T  >>  "Kingdom of Poland" /C2

>>            The oldest biography of Nicolaus Copernicus was completed on 7th October 1588 by Bernardino Baldi.[3]

"Bernardino Baldi"                (C/S + "-opernicus' biography"/T)/+bp                   "Copernicus' biography"
"1588"                (C/S+ "-opernicus' biography"/T)/+cp                   "Copernicus' biography"
October                (CS + "-opernicus' biography"/T)/Ch/+bp                   "Copernicus' biography"
"7th"                (C/S + "-opernicus' biography"/T)/Ch/+cp                   "Copernicus' biography"

>>        His brother Andreas (Andrew) became an Augustinian canon at Frombork (Frauenburg).   His sister Barbara, named after her mother, became a Benedictine nun and, in her final years (she died after 1517), prioress of a convent in Chełmno (Culm, Kulm).   His sister Katharina married the businessman and Toruń city councilor Barthel Gertner and left five children, whom Copernicus looked after to the end of his life.[4]

Andreas                (C/S + "-opernicus' brother"/T)/+bp                   "Copernicus' brother"

*                       Andreas  >>  Andrew /P

"Augustinian canon"                (C/S + "-opernicus' brother"/T)/+cp                   "Copernicus' brother"
Frombork                (C/S + "-opernicus' brother"/T)/Ch                   "Copernicus' brother"

Barbara                  (C/S + "-opernicus' sister"/T)/+bp                     "Copernicus' sister"
mother                   (C/S + "-opernicus' sister"/T)/+cp                     "Copernicus' sister"
"Benedictine nun"                  (C/S + "-opernicus' sister"/T)/Ch/+bp                     "Copernicus' sister"
"prioress of convent in Chełmno"                  (C/S + "-opernicus' sister"/T)/Ch/+cp                     "Copernicus' sister"

*                             Chełmno  >>  Kulm /T  >>  Culm /P

Katharina                  (C/C2 + "-opernicus' sister"/T)/+bp                     "Copernicus' sister"
"Barthel Gertner"                  (C/C2 + "-opernicus' sister")/T)/+cp                     "Copernicus' sister"
"businessman and Toruń city councilor"                  (C/C2 + "-opernicus' sister"/T)/Ch/+bp                     "Copernicus' sister"
"five children"                  (C/C2 + "-opernicus' sister"/T)/Ch/+cp                     "Copernicus' sister"

>>        De revolutionibus

"De revolutionibus"                    (C/T + "-opernicus' work"/S)                     "Copernicus' work"

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DATE: 2011.05.17 - 18:19

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