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(Comparative) study (in structure/mode/ways of pronunciation, articulation, phonetics, or whatever; that is, in differences of speaking mouth postures and resultant speaking weight/force center points) between English/foreign languages and mother tongue, for better (more practical/effective/smooth) hearing/speaking of English/foreign languages.       Copyright.   Young-Won Kim,   yw@voicespec.com
open : home | main | Kor | book | FUN member : main II | Kor II


::: Comparative phonetics, brd2 :::


90 11 View counter   Join Member Login Admin
Name   Young-Won Kim
Subject                                    "English    spelling/vocabulary"                   (Korean connection)
1.  [E  n  g  li  s  h]  >>  [ŋE  n=  g=  li  s=  h=]  >>  English /P

A)
*       While taking Japanese speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "국어 [gug  ŋΛ],  national/native language"   from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [g  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [ŋE  n=  g=  li  s=  h=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [ŋE  n=  g=  li  s=  h=]   from English /P speaking posture,      "English" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

B)
"English (people)"  <<  "England/S/Ch + 's/P"

>>    [E  n  g  la  n  d]  >>  [ŋE  n=  g=  la  n=  d=]  >>  England /S/Ch

*       While taking Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [g  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "국토 [gug  to], territory/realm"   from Korea/전라-도 [zΛn  la  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [ŋE  n=  g=  la  n=  d=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [ŋE  n=  g=  la  n=  d=]   from English /S/Ch speaking posture,      "England" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

C)
(possessive)   "-'s"  <<  [s=]

*       While taking Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [g  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "의 [ŋ=  y=],  's; of; belonging to"   from Chinese speaking posture,      [s=  ŋ=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [s=  ŋ=]   from English /P speaking posture,      " 's " (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

D)
>>       "father's pen"       &      "pen of father"

father /C2,    's /P,     pen /S

*      When continuously-speaking  "father's pen"  (without pause),     if try/intending to articulate   "father /C2,    's /GC/S/abT/Ch,     pen /S"   instead of    "father /C2,    's /P,     pen /S",         "pen of father"    is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

E)
>>      pronunciation of possessive " -'s "

.*       While "father /C2,    's /P,     pen /S"   is pronounced as   "father's [s=] pen",      "father /C2,    's /T/Ch,     pen /S"   is pronounced as   "father'z [z=] pen".

F)
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/'s ,  

Instead of "I/C2 + 's/P",      "I/C2 + 's/T/Ch"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced   as "my".

G)
>>       plural     "-s"

*       While taking Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [g  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "들 [d=l],  -s (plural)"   from Japanese /S speaking posture,      [s=  w=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [s=  w=]   from English /S/Ch speaking posture,      " -s [s=  ŋ=] " (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

.* Instead of "class/P + -s/S/Ch",      "class/P + -s/S"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced   as "classes".

* Articulation of   "child + s/GC/S/abT/Ch "   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced  as  "children".      "mice"

* Articulation of "(s [s=  ŋ=]/S/Ch)/P"   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced  as  "plural".


2.  [vo  ca  bu  la  r  y]  >>  [vo  ca  bu  la  r=  y=]  >>  vocabulary /S

*       While taking Korea/함경-도 [ham  gyΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "어휘 [ŋΛ  hwi], vocabulary; glossary"   from Chinese speaking posture,      [vo  ca  bu  la  r=  y=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [vo  ca  bu  la  r=  y=]   from English /S speaking posture,      "vocabulary" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


3.  [he  l=  p=]  >>  help /C1;         [gi  ve]  >>  give /P

A)
help
*       While taking Korea/경상-도 [gyΛŋ  saŋ  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "돕다 [dob  da],  help"   from Chinese speaking posture,      [he  l=  p=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [he  l=  p=]   from English/CYRILLIC /C1 speaking posture,      "help" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

B)
helped
*       While taking Korea/전라-도 [zΛn  la  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "도왔다 [do  was  da],  helped"   from Korea/강원-도 [gaŋ  wΛn  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [he  l=  p=  ŋe  d=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [he  l=  p=  ŋe  d=]   from English /P speaking posture,      "helped" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

C)
give
*       While taking Korea/강원-도 [gaŋ  wΛn  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "준다 [zun  da],  give"   from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [g  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [gi  ve]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [gi  ve]   from English /P speaking posture,      "give" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

D)
gave
*       While taking Korea/함경-도 [ham  gyΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "주었다 [zu  ŋΛs  da],  gave"   from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [g  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [ga  ve]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [ga  ve]   from English /P speaking posture,      "gave" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

E)
past
*       While taking Korea/평안-도 [pyΛŋ  ŋan  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "과거 [gwa  gΛ],  past"   from Korea/Seoul /S speaking posture,      [d=  ŋ=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [d=  ŋ=]   from English /S/Ch speaking posture,      "dw [d=  w=]" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

past/n.                         ([d=]/P + [w=]/C2)/Ch/abT                        "dw [d=  w=]"

*    That is,    "past" (of noun)   is a derived word,   from "dw",    which is now obsolete word,   though still used to make "past tense" of verb.


F)
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=gave&submit=Submit ,  
    gave [g  y=  v=]  <<  "give/P + 's/P +d(w)/S/Ch"

    [ga  ve]  >>  "gave [ge  ŋi  v=]" /P


    helped [hl  p=  t=]  <<  "help/C1 + 's/P +d(w)/S/Ch"

    [he  l=  p=  ŋe  d=]  >>  helped [hel  p=  t=] /P

*     That is,    English-mother-tongue people speak   "gave"   by expedient articulation of "give/P + 's/P +d(w)/S/Ch",    not properly by articulating  [ga  ve]  from /P.


(not [ge  ŋi  v=], but)  
[g  y=  v=]  >>  "have given" /GC/S/abT/Ch  >>  "had given" /T  >>  "will have given" /C1/+bp  >>  "shall have given" /C1/+cp

(not [hel  p=  t=], but)  
[hl  p=  t=]  >>  "have helped" /GC/S/abT/Ch  >>  "had helped" /T  >>  "will have helped" /C1/+bp  >>  "shall have helped" /C1/+cp


    "she give"  >>  "she gives" /GC/S/abT/Ch


G)
*       "present perfect", past perfect, and future perfect

"present perfect"                        ([d=]/T + [w=]/P)                        "dw [d=  w=]"
"past perfect"                          ([d=]/T + [w=]/C2)                        "dw [d=  w=]"
"future perfect"                         ([d=]/T + [w=]/S)                         "dw [d=  w=]"



H)
future
*       While taking Korea/충청-도 [cuŋ  cΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "미래 [mi  r],  future"   from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [g  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [t=  ŋ=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [t=  ŋ=]   from English /S/Ch speaking posture,      "tw [t=  w=]" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

future                         ([t=]/P + [w=]/C2)/Ch/abT                          "tw [d=  w=]"

*    That is,    "future" (of noun)   is a derived word,   from "tw",    which is now obsolete word,   though still used to make "future tense" of verb.


I)
"will give"

*       While taking Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [g  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "주겠다 [zu  ges  da],  will-give"   from Korea/전라-도 [zΛn  la  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [wi  l=  l=  gi  ve]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [wi  l=  l=  gi  ve]   from English /P speaking posture,      "will give" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


H)
Future tense
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Future+tense ,  
I will/shall go
I'm going to go / I am going to go
I'm to go / I am to go
I'm about to go / I am about to go
I must go
I should go
I can go
I may go
I might go

"will go"                         (g/C1 + "-o's tw"/S)/+bp                              "go's tw"
"shall go"                        (g/C1 + "-o's tw"/S)/+cp                              "go's tw"

*               "go  's  tw"  >>  "will go" /T/+bp  >>  "shall go" /T/+cp

*     That is,    English-mother-tongue people (or Frank Sinatra, at least)   speak   "will-give"   by expedient articulation of "(g/C1 + "-ive's tw"/S)/+bp",    not properly by articulating  [wi  l=  l=  gi  ve]  from /P   or not by articulating  "give/P  's/P  tw/S"  from /T/+bp.

http://www.ompersonal.com.ar/omclassics2/StormyWeather.htm ,  
All I do is pray the Lord above
Will let me
Walk in the sun once more

"be going to"                               (w/P + ill/C1)/Ch/abT                               will
"be going to"                              (sh/P + all/C2)/Ch/abT                              shall

*              "be ^going^ to"  >>  "be to"  >>  "be about to" /GC/S/abT/Ch    (liaison-hole/LH)

must                                          (w/T + ill/C2)                                     will
must                                         (sh/T + all/C1)                                    shall

*               must  >>  should /GC/S/abT/Ch  >>  can /C2  >>  may /P  >>  might /T



4.     pronouns:   I/you/he/etc.

A)   I
*       While Korea/Seoul speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "나 [na],  I"   from Korea/경상-도 [gyΛŋ  saŋ  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [ŋi]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [ŋi]   from English /P speaking posture,      "I" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

B)   you
*       While taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "너 [nΛ],  you"   from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [g  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [yo  ŋu]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [yo  ŋu]   from English /C1 speaking posture,      "you" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

C)  we
*       While taking Korea/전라-도 [zΛn  la  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "우리 [w=  ri],  we"   from Korea/함경-도 [ham  gyΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [we]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [we]   from English /P speaking posture,      "we [ŋ=  y=]" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

we                                      (I/P + s/S/Ch)                                     "I + s"

*     That is,    English-mother-tongue people   speak   "we"   by expedient articulation of "I/P + s/S/Ch",    not properly by articulating  [we]  from /P.


5.       boy/girl/child/infant

A)    boy
*       While taking Korea/황해-도 [hwaŋ  h  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "소년 [so  nyΛn],  boy/lad"   from Korea/함경-도 [ham  gyΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [la  d=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [la  d=]   from English /T speaking posture,      "lad" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

boy                                     (l/P + ad/C2)/Ch/abT                                lad

*                  boy  >>  kid /P  >>  toddler /C2  >>  teen /T


B)    girl
*       While taking Korea/함경-도 [ham  gyΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "소녀 [so  nyΛ],  girl/lad"   from Korea/경상-도 [gyΛŋ  saŋ  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [gi  r=  l=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [gi  r=  l=]   from English /T/Ch speaking posture,      "girl" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*                          girl /T/Ch  >>  lassie /P  >>  maid /C2

lass                                     (g/P + irl/C2)/Ch/abT                                 girl


C)       child

*       While taking Korea/경상-도 [gyΛŋ  saŋ  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "아이 [ŋa  ŋi],  child/infant"   from Korea/함경-도 [ham  gyΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) /S/Ch speaking posture,      [ŋi  n=  fa  n=  t=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [ŋi  n=  fa  n=  t=]   from English /T/Ch speaking posture,      "infant" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

child                                    (inf/P + ant/C1)/Ch/abT                              infant

*                            (child + s/S/Ch)  >>  children

*                            (ch/T + ild/P/Ch + s/GC/S/abT/Ch)  >>  children [children  n=]
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=children&submit=Submit ,  
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/children ,  
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/children ,    


6.     happy

*       While taking Korea/함경-도 [ham  gyΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "행복한 [hŋ  bog  han],  happy"   from Korea/전라-도 [zΛn  la  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [ha  p=  p=  y=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [ha  p=  p=  y=]   from English /T speaking posture,      "happy" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


7.    happily

*       While taking Korea/평안-도 [pyΛŋ  ŋan  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "행복하게 [hŋ  bog  ha  ge],  happily"   from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [g  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [ha  p=  pi  l=  y=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [ha  p=  pi  l=  y=]   from English /T speaking posture,      "happily" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


8.     philosophy

*       While taking Korea/경상-도 [gyΛŋ  saŋ  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "철학 [cΛl  hag],  philosophy"   from Korea/Seoul /P/Ch speaking posture,      [p=  hi  lo  so  p=  h=  y=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [p=  hi  lo  so  p=  h=  y=]   from English /P/Ch speaking posture,      "philosophy" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


9.     doctor

*       While taking Korea/전라-도 [zΛn  la  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "박사 [bag  sa], doctor; expert; learned man"   from Korea/Seoul /S speaking posture,      [do  c=  to  r=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [do  c=  to  r=]   from English /S speaking posture,      "doctor" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


10.     physician

*       While taking Korea/전라-도 [zΛn  la  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "의사 [ŋ=  y=  sa],  physician"   from Korea/경상-도 [gyΛŋ  saŋ  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture,      [p=  h=  y=  si  ci  ŋa  n=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [p=  h=  y=  si  ci  ŋa  n=]   from English /C2 speaking posture,      "physician" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*                            physician  >>  doctor /GC/S/abT/Ch


11.      spelling

*       While taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)    "발음 [bal  ŋ=m],  pronunciation/phonation "   from Korea/경상-도 [gyΛŋ  saŋ  do/province] (dialect) /P/Ch speaking posture,      [ŋa  l=  p=  ha  be  t=  s=]   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If articulating (or trying to speak)    [ŋa  l=  p=  ha  be  t=  s=]   from English /C2 speaking posture,      "alphabets" (of modern pronunciation)   is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

spelling                        ([ŋ=  w=]/P + alphabets/C2)/Ch/abT                    alphabets

*         alphabets  >>  alphabet /GC/S/abT/Ch  >>  phonation /T  >>  pronunciation /P  >>  articulation /C2

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DATE: 2011.05.19 - 13:18

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