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(Comparative) study (in structure/mode/ways of pronunciation, articulation, phonetics, or whatever; that is, in differences of speaking mouth postures and resultant speaking weight/force center points) between English/foreign languages and mother tongue, for better (more practical/effective/smooth) hearing/speaking of English/foreign languages.       Copyright.   Young-Won Kim,   yw@voicespec.com
open : home | main | Kor | book | FUN member : main II | Kor II


::: Comparative phonetics, brd2 :::


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Name   Young-Won Kim
Subject   >>         Who/how made English/German/French spellings??            'Indo-European'       Aryan

Re:     Article of   " 'English spelling/vocabulary'    (Korean connection)"


1.      How do English word spellings have come into being??   Who made English word spellings??

A)               noun

noun [na  ŋun] /GC/P/abT  >>  [n=  ŋo  ŋu  n=] /GC/S/abT             (Athens)
adjective [ŋ  zik  ti  v=] /GC/P/abT  >>  [ŋa d= j= ŋe c= ti v= ŋe] /GC/S/abT        (j >> zy)

cake  >>  [c=  ŋa  ke]
knowledge  >>  [k=  n=  ŋo  w=  le  d=  g=  ŋe]

That is, "noun" is pronounced as [na  ŋun] from /GC/P/abT speaking posture (with coarticulation of /GC/S/abT).

When trying to speak "noun [na  ŋun]" from /GC/S/abT speaking posture  (with coarticulation of /GC/P/abT), [n=  ŋo  ŋu  n=] is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.             Vice versa.
That is, When trying to speak  [n=  ŋo  ŋu  n=]  from /GC/P/abT speaking posture  (with coarticulation of /GC/S/abT), "noun [na  ŋun]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
Et cetera.

B)             Verb

know [no  ŋu] /GC/S/abT  >>  [k=  n=  ŋo  w=] /GC/P/abT
quicken [k(ui)k  k=n] /GC/S/abT  >>  [q=  ŋu  ŋi  c=  ke  n=] /GC/P/abT            (q >> sy)

* Note the difference between English pronunciations between noun (adjective [ŋ  zik  ti  v=] /GC/P/abT) and verb (know [no  ŋu] /GC/S/abT).

C)            Adjective

synchronous [siŋ k= rΛ n(oΛ) s=] /GC/S/abT  >>  [s=  y= n= c= h= r= ŋo no ŋu s=] /GC/P/abT
beautiful [bi  ŋu  ti  ful] /GC/S/abT  >>  [b=  ŋe  ŋa  ŋu  ti  f=  ŋu  l=] /GC/P/abT

D)              Adverb

honorably [ŋa  nΛ  rΛ  b=  li] /GC/P/abT  >>  [h=  ŋo  no  r=  ŋa  b=  l=  y=] /GC/S/abT
honourably [ŋa  n=  ŋΛ  rΛ  b=  li] /GC/P/abT  >>  [h=  ŋo  no  ŋu  r=  ŋa  b=  l=  y=] /GC/S/abT

always [ŋol we ŋi z=] /mGC  >>  [ŋa  l=  w=  ŋa  y=  s=] /mGC/Ch
forever [fΛ  re  vΛ] /mGC  >>  [f=  ŋo  re  v=  ŋe  r=] /mGC/Ch

* While "honorably [ŋa  nΛ  rΛ  b=  li] /GC/P/abT" is Athens' version,  "forever [fΛ  re  vΛ] /mGC" is Sparta's version.
When trying to speak  "forever [fΛ  re  vΛ] /mGC"  from /mGC/Ch speaking posture,  [f=  ŋo  re  v=  ŋe  r=]  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.             Vice versa.

E)           Pronoun

they [de  ŋi] /GC/P/abT  >>  [t=  h=  ŋe  y=] /GC/S/abT
I [ŋa  ŋi] /GC/P/abT  >>  [ŋi] /GC/S/abT

whose [hu  z=] /mGC  >>  [w=  h=  ŋo  se] /mGC/Ch
whom [hum] /mGC  >>  [w=  h=  ŋo  m=] /mGC/Ch

F)                     interjection

tut-tut [t=t  t=t] /GC/P/abT  >>  [t=  ŋu  t=  -tu  t=] /GC/S/abT
shh [si] /GC/P/abT  >>  [s=  h=  h=] /GC/S/abT
ahem [ŋ  hem] /GC/P/abT  >>  [ŋa  h=  ŋe  m=] /GC/S/abT



2.              German

A)               noun

Mutter [mu  tΛ] /mGC/Ch  >>  [M=  ŋu  t=  te  r=] /mGC
Lehrer [le  rΛ] /mGC/Ch  >>  [L=  ŋe  h=  re  r=] /mGC
Gedchtnis [ge  d  hi  t=  ni  s=] /mGC/Ch  >>  [G=  ŋe  d  c=  h=  t=  n=  ŋi  s=] /mGC

B)             Verb

haben [ha  ben] /mGC  >>  [h=  ŋa  be  n=] /mGC/Ch
miβlingen [mi  β=  liŋ  ŋen] /mGC  >>  [m=  ŋi  β=  li  n=  g=  ŋe  n=] /mGC/Ch

C)            Adjective

wenig [ve  ni  g=] /mGC  >>  [w=  ŋe  ni  g=] /mGC/Ch
hoch [ho  k=] /mGC  >>  [h=  ŋo  c=  h=] /mGC/Ch

fleiβig [f=  la  ŋi  βi  ŋi] /mGC >>  [f=  l=  ŋe  ŋi  βi  g=] /mGC/Ch

D)              Adverb

dadurch [da  du  r=  k=] /mGC/Ch  >>  [d=  ŋa  du  r=  c=  h=] /mGC

fleiβig [f=  la  hi  βi  hi] /mGC/Ch  >>  [f=  l=  ŋe  ŋi  βi  g=] /mGC

E)           Pronoun

Ich [ŋi  hi] /mGC/Ch  >>  [ŋI  c=  h=] /mGC
sie [zi] /mGC  >>  [s=  ŋi  ŋe] /mGC/Ch

welcher [vel  hΛ] /mGC  >>  [w=  ŋe  l=  c=  he  r=] /mGC/Ch



3.                      French

A)               noun

garon [ga  r=  oŋ] /mGC/Ch  >>  [g=  ŋa  r=  o  n=] /mGC
fils [fi  s=] /mGC/Ch  >>  [f=  ŋi  l=  s=] /mGC
fille [fi  ŋi] /mGC/Ch  >>  [f=  ŋi  l=  le] /mGC

B)             Verb

visiter [vi  j=  te] /mGC  >>  [v=  ŋi  si  t=  ŋe  r=] /mGC/Ch

partir [pa  r=  ti  r=] /mGC/+cp  >>  [p=  ŋa  r=  ti  r=] /mGC/+bp

apprendre [vi  j=  te] /mGC/Ch/+cp  >>  [ŋa  p=  p=  re  n=  d=  r=  ŋe] /mGC/Ch/+bp

savoir [sa  v=  ŋa] /mGC/Ch/+bp  >>  [s=  ŋa  vo  ŋi  r=] /mGC/Ch/+cp

C)            Adjective

haut [ŋo  t=] /mGC/Ch/+cp  >>  [h=  ŋa  ŋu  t=] /mGC/Ch/+bp

bon [boŋ] /mGC/+bp  >>  [b=  ŋo  n=] /mGC/+cp    
bonne [bon  n=] /mGC/Ch/+bp  >>  [b=  ŋo  n=  ne] /mGC/Ch/+cp

D)              Adverb

bien [bi  ŋ(ia)ŋ] /mGC/Ch/+cp  >>  [b=  ŋi  ŋe  n=] /mGC/Ch/+bp
toujours [tu  ju  r=] /mGC/Ch/+cp  >>  [t=  ŋo  ŋu  jo  ŋu  r=  s=] /mGC/Ch/+bp
jamais [ja  m] /mGC/Ch/+cp  >>  [j=  ŋa  ma  ŋi  s=] /mGC/Ch/+bp

E)           Pronoun

je [z=] /mGC/+bp  >>  [j=  ŋe] /mGC/+cp
elle [ŋel  l=] /mGC/+bp  >>  [ŋe  l=  le] /mGC/+cp



4.                                   Indo-European

*                                English  >>  (Celtic [kel  tik] /P)/T

English                                      (C/P + eltic/T)                                   Celtic

*                       Celtic [kel  tik]  >>  [sel  tik] /mGC


"Primitive Indo-European"                     ([ŋ=  y=]/C1 + English/GC/S/abT)/Ch                  English

"Primitive Indo-Iranian"                     ([ŋ=  y=]/C1 + English/GC/P/abT)/Ch                  English

ancient                                (p/S + rimitive/C1)                                  primitive

*                "Primitive Indo-European"  >>  Germanic /mGC/Ch/+bp  >> Latin /mGC/Ch/+cp

"Old English"                             (G/C1 + ermanic/P)                              Germanic

"Indo-European"                          (L/GC/S/abT + atin/C2)/Ch                          Latin

"Indo-Iranians"                             (L/GC/S/abT + atin/C2)                            Latin

Greek                             (G/GC/S/abT + ermanic/S)/Ch                          Germanic

Sanskrit                                    (L/P + atin/T)/Ch                                   Latin


"Celtic stock"                            (G/C1 + ermanic/GC/S/abT)                      Germanic

"Germanic stock"                        (R/C1 + oman/GC/S/abT)/Ch                       Roman


"Old English"                      ([ŋ=  y=]/GC/S/abT + English/C1)/Ch                    English
"Middle English"                       ([ŋ=  y=]/S + English/C1)/Ch                        English
"Modern English"                        ([ŋ=  y=]/S + English/C1)                          English
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Old+English ,  
"Anglo-Saxon"                   ([ŋ=  w=]/C1 + "Old English"/P)/Ch                  "Old English"

*                 "Anglo-Saxon"  >>  "middle of the 5th" /GC/P/abT/Ch
*                 "Anglo-Saxon"  >>  "beginning of the 12th" /GC/S/abT/Ch

"West Saxon"                   ([ŋ=  w=]/GC/S/abT + "Anglo-Saxon"/P)/Ch                 "Anglo-Saxon"
Kentish                   ([ŋ=  w=]/GC/S/abT + "Anglo-Saxon"/S)/Ch                 "Anglo-Saxon"
Anglian                   ([ŋ=  w=]/GC/S/abT + "Anglo-Saxon"/C2)/Ch                 "Anglo-Saxon"

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Middle+English ,  
*                 "Middle English"  >>  "about 1100 to about 1450" /GC/P/abT/Ch

Southwestern                   (M/S + "-iddle English"/GC/S/abT)/Ch                 "Middle English"
"West Saxon"                   (M/S + "-iddle English"/GC/S/abT)                 "Middle English"

"East Midland"                   (M/T + "-iddle English"/GC/S/abT)/Ch                 "Middle English"
"West Midland"                   (M/C2 + "-iddle English"/GC/S/abT)/Ch                 "Middle English"
Northern                    (M/P + "-iddle English"/GC/S/abT)/Ch                  "Middle English"

Kentish                             (M/P + "-iddle English"/T)                      "Middle English"

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Modern+English ,  
*                    "Modern English"  >>  "New English" /mGC/Ch

*                    "New English" /mGC  >>  "since about 1500" /T

"S East Midland dialect of Middle English"                   (M/S + "-iddle English"/T)/Ch                 "Middle English"



5.                                 Aryan
http://sports.yahoo.com/news/olympics--jesse-owens-marched-into-hitler-s-germany-and-won-four-gold-medals.html ,  
There is no photograph to prove the encounter happened, which even if it had wouldn't have changed the fact that at a time in history when Hitler was espousing Aryan racial superiority, Owens had gone out and showed the world he was wrong.

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Aryan ,  
Word History:   It is one of the ironies of history that Aryan, a word nowadays referring to the blond-haired, blue-eyed physical ideal of Nazi Germany, originally referred to a people who looked vastly different. Its history starts with the ancient Indo-Iranians, Indo-European peoples who inhabited parts of what are now Iran, Afghanistan, and India. Their tribal self-designation was a word reconstructed as *arya- or *ārya-. The first of these is the form found in Iranian, as ultimately in the name of Iran itself (from Middle Persian Erān (Sahr), "(Land) of the Iranians," from the genitive plural of Er, "Iranian"). The variant *ārya- is found unchanged in Sanskrit, where it referred to the upper crust of ancient Indian society. These words became known to European scholars in the 18th century. The shifting of meaning that eventually led to the present-day sense started in the 1830s, when Friedrich Schlegel, a German scholar who was an important early Indo-Europeanist, came up with a theory that linked the Indo-Iranian words with the German word Ehre, "honor," and older Germanic names containing the element ario-, such as the Swiss warrior Ariovistus who was written about by Julius Caesar. Schlegel theorized that far from being just a designation of the Indo-Iranians, the word *arya- had in fact been what the Indo-Europeans called themselves, meaning something like "the honorable people." (This theory has since been called into question.) Thus "Aryan" came to be synonymous with "Indo-European," and in this sense entered the general scholarly consciousness of the day. Not much later, it was proposed that the original homeland of the Indo-Europeans had been in northern Europe. From this theory, it was but a small leap to think of the Aryans as having had a northern European physiotype. While these theories were playing themselves out, certain anti-Semitic scholars in Germany took to viewing the Jews in Germany as the main non-Aryan people because of their Semitic roots; a distinction thus arose in their minds between Jews and the "true Aryan" Germans, a distinction that later furnished unfortunate fodder for the racial theories of the Nazis.


Aryan                                (G/S/Ger + ermany/P)                                Germany

**  /S/Ger (speaking posture) :   cp; above(high),   * bp; above/back (or high, throat-side, not lip-side) in the mouth.


*               Aryan  >>  "blond-haired" /GC/S/abT/+bp  >>  "blue-eyed" /GC/S/abT/+cp

arya                        ([ŋ=  y=]/P + " Indo-Iranian"/T)                         "Indo-Iranian"

*                                      arya  >>  Sanskrit /GC/S/abT

*       arya  >>  Sahr /mGC/Ch/+cp  >>  "upper crust of ancient Indian society" /mGC/Ch/+bp

*                                 Sahr /mGC  >>  Erān /P

"18th century"                                   (S/S + ahr/C2)                                Sahr
"European scholars"                             (S/S + ahr/C2)/Ch                             Sahr

"1830s"                                  ([ŋ=  y=]/T + Erān/P)                                Erān
"Friedrich Schlegel"                         ([ŋ=  y=]/T + Erān/P)/Ch/+cp                    Erān
"German scholar who was important early Indo-Europeanist"                    ([ŋ=  y=]/T + Erān/P)/Ch/+bp                    Erān

*                            Erān  >>  Ehre /mGC/Ch/+cp  >>  honor /mGC/Ch/+cp

* Ehre /mGC/+cp >> ario /P >> "older Germanic name" /P/Ch >> Ariovistus /C1 >> "Swiss warrior" /C1/Ch >> "Julius Caesar" /C2


"honorable people"                    (F/S + "-riedrich Schlegel"/P)/Ch                    "Friedrich Schlegel"
arya                        (F/S + "-riedrich Schlegel"/P)                        "Friedrich Schlegel"

Aryan                    ([ŋ=  y=]/T + "Indo-European"/P)/Ch/+bp                   "Indo-European"

"northern Europe"                   ([ŋ=  y=]/T + "Indo-European"/P)/Ch/+cp                   "Indo-European"
homeland                    ([ŋ=  y=]/T + "Indo-European"/P)                   "Indo-European"

*                         Aryans  >>  "northern European physiotype" /GC/S/abT

* "northern European physiotype" /GC/S/abT/Ch >> "Jews in Germany" /C1 >> "non-Aryan people" /C1/Ch/+cp >> "Semitic roots" /C1/Ch/+bp


"Indo-Iranian"                              (L/GC/S/abT + atin/C2)                            Latin



"Primitive Indo-European"                     ([ŋ=  y=]/C1 + English/GC/S/abT)/Ch                  English

"Primitive Indo-Iranian"                     ([ŋ=  y=]/C1 + English/GC/P/abT)/Ch                  English

ancient                                (p/S + rimitive/C1)                                  primitive

*                "Primitive Indo-European"  >>  Germanic /mGC/Ch/+bp  >> Latin /mGC/Ch/+cp

"Old English"                             (G/C1 + ermanic/P)                              Germanic

"Indo-European"                          (L/GC/S/abT + atin/C2)/Ch                          Latin

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DATE: 2012.07.03 - 14:55

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69Simple viewThales/Anaximander/Anaximenes/Pythagoras,  Anaxagoras/Empedocles,  Antisthenes/Diogenes/Crates/Zeno Y... 2011.05.07
68Simple viewSocrates/Thucydides/Plutarch/Herodotus/Xenophon/Aristophanes/Plato/Aristotle/Parmenides/Democritus, etc. Y... 2011.05.04
67Simple view'The Star-Spangled Banner'   &   'God Save the Queen'   &    'Land of Hope and Glory';        national anthems Y... 2011.02.10
66Simple view              Shakespeare       &       Plutarch Y... 2010.10.28
65Simple view>>                  Sir Thomas More         &        Marcus Salvius Otho Y... 2010.11.13
64Simple viewPhonetics/linguistics              &             Bible Y... 2010.07.08
63Simple view>>    'phonetic study on Jesus Christ  &  Moshe'          'Twelve Apostles'           'Hellenistic civilization??' Y... 2011.04.10
62Simple view>> 'Moses & Jesus Christ'           teacher/Christianity/Christ/Jesus,    '(white) Christmas (tree/carol)' Y... 2010.12.18
61Simple view>>                 Confucius/Mencius,      Moshe, "Jesus Christ"      &     Laozi/Micius Y... 2011.03.28
60Simple view>> '論語/논어 [non  ŋΛ]  &  Old Testament'      Pentateuch     'Why Torah, Prophets, Writings, 四書五經' Y... 2011.04.05
59Simple view>> translation :           논어(論語)/공자(孔子/Confucius),               etymological analysis Y... 2011.04.08
58Simple viewNoam Chomsky    vs    Philip Lieberman,  fred m. seed professor, Brown.edu Y... 2009.05.26
57Simple view>> grafting Y... 2009.09.04
56Simple view>> The pied piper of Cambridge,                 by PHILIP LIEBERMAN Y... 2010.04.30
55Simple view>>         Fw: cognitive biologists Angela Stoeger and Tecumseh Fitch Y... 2012.11.27
54Simple view>>                  Newborns Know Their Native Tongue, Study Finds Y... 2013.01.04
53Simple viewunimelb/mq.edu.au,    let.ru.nl/taalunie.org/leidenuniv.nl/mpl.nl,    jussieu.fr/lpl-aix.fr Y... 2009.04.27
52Simple viewalberta/mun/brock/qam/montr-/ubc/mcmaster/concor-/carleton/queens/vic/mcgill/manito-/sfu/calgary Y... 2009.04.15
51Simple viewSweden (gu/umu/kth/lu/su/uu)           Uk (soas/york/ucl/cam/ed/essex/city/sussex) Y... 2009.04.07
50Simple viewumd/unc/utah/sjsu,              Germany (eva.mpg/jena/koeln/konstanz/potsdam/saarland/stuttgart)  Y... 2009.03.31
49Simple view>> Andre M. of Linguistics,          Max Planck Institute, Germany Y... 2009.04.07
48Simple viewnorthwestern/siu/Princeton/pitt/sc/Rutgers/rochester/uiowa/georgetown/ucdavis/uiuc/ucsd/colorado Y... 2009.03.12
47Simple viewyale/Haskins/uchicago/stanford/nyu/umich/hawaii/harvard/uoregon/Brown/ucsb/umass/buffalo/stonyb- Y... 2009.03.04
46Simple viewarizona/UCLA/upenn/USC/washington/osu/udel/ucsc/mit/indiana/utexas/cornell/rice/ku/msu/berkeley Y... 2009.02.24
45Simple viewQ & A      between cognitive linguistics/etc. and phonetics. Y... 2008.11.19
44Simple viewStonehenge Y... 2008.05.31
43Simple view>> Dr. Mike Parker Pearson Y... 2008.06.03
42Simple view>> Stonehenge/2 Y... 2009.07.03
41Simple viewmcmaster.ca, brocku.ca, mun.ca, ualberta.ca, ucw.cz, ut.ee, philol.msu.ru, phonetics.pu.ru, ngslt.org Y... 2008.05.20
40Simple view>> yorku.ca,    mun.ca,    mff.cuni.cz,    ffzg.hr,    zrc-sazu.si,    ff.uni-lj.si,    guest.arnes.si Y... 2008.06.24
39Simple viewcsulb/csun/gmu/ucdavis/ucr/ucsd/colorado/umd/unc/utah/virginia/uwm/sjsu/lldsa/wwu/sil/swarthmore Y... 2008.05.13
38Simple viewnorthwestern/siu/sc/Rutgers/rochester/Princeton/pitt/unm/uiowa/iastate/uiuc/uic/georgetown/byu, Y... 2008.05.06
37Simple view>> All vocabularies and grammar(s) of all languages are (already) inside babies' heads at birth. Y... 2008.05.06
36Simple viewStanford, nyu, umich, Hawaii, Harvard, uoregon, bu, Brown, ucsb, umass, nmsu, buffalo, stonybrook Y... 2008.04.29
35Simple viewRice,    ku,    msu,    gsu,    Berkeley,    yale,    haskins.   yale,    purdue,    uchicago Y... 2008.04.22
34Simple viewemich,  u.washington,  email.arizona,  usc,  udel,  ucsc,  mit,  indiana,  utexas,  cornell Y... 2008.04.15
33Simple viewCanada     &     ohio-state.edu Y... 2007.12.19
32Simple viewAustralia.  Austria,  Belgium,  France,  Israel,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Singapore, Y... 2007.12.12
31Simple viewTo publish something in a peer-reviewed journal of conference. Y... 2007.12.19
30Simple view>> univ-tlse2.fr Y... 2008.06.11
29Simple view>>  IPA,    enl.auth.gr,    flinders.edu.au,    uab.es,      uab.cat,     mpi.nl, Y... 2008.06.17
28Simple viewroot of (all) grammar(s); phonetics.        UK    &     Ie. Y... 2007.12.05
27Simple viewroot of (all) grammars; phonetics.      SWEDEN,       Bielefeld/ GERMANY Y... 2007.11.28
26Simple viewroot of (all) grammars; phonetics.         GERMANY Y... 2007.11.21
25Simple viewgrammars:     upenn,    ucla, Y... 2007.11.07
24Simple viewJames Mesbur/upenn Y... 2007.11.07
23Simple viewthe structure/principle of trumpet Y... 2007.11.07
22Simple viewDiaphragm/phonetics Y... 2007.11.07
21Simple viewyale,  purdue,  uchicago,  stanford,  nyu,  umich,  hawaii,  harvard,  uoregon Y... 2007.09.19
20Simple viewLinguistList,    Wikipedia Y... 2007.11.08
19Simple viewNorway; @hf.ntnu, @nor.uib, @iln.uio, @hum.uit, Y... 2007.08.07
18Simple viewFinland; @helsinki, @joensuu, @campus.jyu, @oulu, @uta, @utu, @uwasa, @abo, Y... 2007.08.07
17Simple view@rice.edu, @ku.edu, @byu.edu, @msu.edu, @gsu.edu, @berkeley.edu, Y... 2007.07.19
16Simple view@udel, @ucsc, @mit, @indiana, @mail.utexas, @cornell, Y... 2007.07.02
15Simple view18th International Congress of Linguists Y... 2007.06.18
14Simple view@u.washington ; @u.arizona; @ling.ohio-state  Y... 2007.06.18
13Simple viewCanadian phonetics Y... 2007.06.06
12Simple viewBritish phonetics Y... 2007.05.15
11Simple viewPhonetics, Sweden, uu.se, umu.se, su.se, kth.se, gu.se Y... 2007.05.15
10Simple viewUSC phonetics Y... 2007.04.13
9Simple viewPhonetics of Lund University, Sweden Y... 2007.03.23
8Simple viewUni-Stuttgart.de/phonetik Y... 2007.03.23
7Simple viewPhonetik in Deutschland Y... 2007.05.25
6Simple viewProfessor Wolfgang Hess, Universitt Bonn. Y... 2007.08.15
5Simple viewUCLA Phonetics Y... 2007.03.12
4Simple viewChallenge to upenn phonetics/phonology Y... 2007.02.24
3Simple viewWhat kind of response are you expecting? New person/UPenn Y... 2007.02.24
2Simple viewthat of a reasonable academic, UPenn Y... 2007.02.24
1Simple viewUltimate knowledge. UPenn Y... 2007.03.02
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