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(Comparative) study (in structure/mode/ways of pronunciation, articulation, phonetics, or whatever; that is, in differences of speaking mouth postures and resultant speaking weight/force center points) between English/foreign languages and mother tongue, for better (more practical/effective/smooth) hearing/speaking of English/foreign languages.       Copyright.   Young-Won Kim,   yw@voicespec.com
open : home | main | Kor | book | FUN member : main II | Kor II


::: Comparative phonetics, brd2 :::


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Name   Young-Won Kim
Subject   "Lex Talio  :  Phonetic translation"           &          "Phonetic study  on  German/French   words/sentences"
Excerpts from the Twelve Tables or The Lex Talio
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Twelve+Tables ,    
http://www.hs-augsburg.de/~harsch/Chronologia/Lsante05/LegesXII/leg_ta01.html ,  

TABLE I (Civil procedure)
>>   Si in ius vocat, ito. Ni it, antestamino. Igitur em capito. --- If someone is called to go to court, he has to go. If he doesn't go, a witness should be called. Only then should he be captured.
>>   Si calvitur pedemve struit, manum endo iacito. Si morbus aevitasve vitium escit, iumentum dato. Si nolet, arceram ne sternito. --- If he shirks or flees, he should be captured. If illness or old age is an impediment, let him be given a carriage. If he doesn't want it, it should not be covered.
>>   Adsiduo vindex adsiduus esto. Proletario iam civi quis volet vindex esto. --- Only a landowner should be surety for another landowner. But any citizen can be surety for a proletarian.
>>   Rem ubi pacunt, orato. Ni pacunt, in comitio aut in foro ante meridiem caussam coiciunto. Com peroranto ambo praesentes. Post meridiem praesenti litem addicito. Si ambo praesentes, solis occasus suprema tempestas esto. --- When parties have made an agreement, announce it. If they don't agree, they shall state their case in the Forum before noon. They shall plead together in person. After noon, let the judge pronounce. If both are present, the case shall end at sunset.

-------------

* Original texts (of Lex Talio) show the alphabet/sound/pronunciation array (of original texts) is the result of articulation from speaking posture with cp on the lowest neck/throat and bp between the lower/front teeth.

For example,
for "antestamino [a n te s ta mi no]",     [a] is articulated from speaking posture of cp/PRM,  [n=] /bp/SCN,  [te] /cp/PRM,   [s=] /bp/SCN,  [ta] /cp/PRM,   [mi] /bp,  and [no] /cp/PRM.

If trying to speak (articulate) "antestamino" from English /P speaking posture,   "You may pay fine" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

Since standard-type speaking permits articulation/pronunciation (of words) in all stress styles of "Primary stress; /PRM",  "Secondary stress; /SCN",  or  "content word",
and since provincial/local/regional/dialect speaking does not permit articulation/pronunciation (of words) in all stress styles;

The texts of (the so-called) "Lex Talio" have word/sentence structure of provincial/local/regional/dialect speaking/language.

"Lex Talio" is not speaking of the speaking posture of cp on the lowest neck/throat and bp between the lower/front teeth;   so. I do not phonetically translate them.


tabula I    :         (article one)

Si (In case that) in (order) ius (is) vocat/uocat (observed), ito (that's good). Ni (In case not) it (careful), antestamino (You may pay fine). Igitur (Frequent violation) em (then) capito (prisonment/imprisonment).

*  If someone is called to go to court, he has to go. If he doesn't go, a witness should be called. Only then should he be captured.
------------
Si (In case of) calvitur/caluitur (tending/intending to instigate) pedemve/pedemue (soldiers) struit (negatively), manum (immediate) endo (death) iacito (sentence). Si (In case that) morbus (escapable/avoidable) aevitasve/aeuitasue (defeat) vitium/uitium (creates/makes) escit (total retreat), iumentum (one of ten) dato (will be put to death). Si (In case that) nolet (desertion happens), arceram (punishment by strangling) ne (should be given) sternito (before all soldiers).

*  If he shirks or flees, he should be captured. If illness or old age is an impediment, let him be given a carriage. If he doesn't want it, it should not be covered.
------------------
Adsiduo/Assiduo (Drunken disturbance) vindex/uindex (obliges) adsiduus/assiduus (drunken disturber) esto (whipping punishment). Proletario (For smugglers) iam (also) civi/ciui (without considering) quis/ouis (circumstances) volet/uolet (captain) vindex/uindex (obliges) esto (whipping punishment).

*  Only a landowner should be surety for another landowner. But any citizen can be surety for a proletarian.
-------------------
nex (Above all)... forti (remark) sanati (next things)
-------------------
Rem (Improprieties/homosexuality) ubi (is considered to be) pacunt (harmful for morale), orato (so, abstain). Ni (In case not) pacunt (harmful for morale), in (order) comitio (desperately) aut (necessitates) in (order) foro (need to be) ante (prepared) meridiem (carefully) caussam (in common sense) coiciunto (applicable to all).
Com (Barracks) peroranto (not tolerate) ambo (immature) praesentes (perverters). Post (Rid) meridiem (carefully) praesenti (perverting actions) litem (in all areas of) addicito (Republic/empire). Si (In case of) ambo (immature) praesentes (perverters), solis (possible) occasus measuress) suprema (urge) tempestas (resolute) esto (whipping punishment).

*  When parties have made an agreement, announce it. If they don't agree, they shall state their case in the Forum before noon. They shall plead together in person. After noon, let the judge pronounce. If both are present, the case shall end at sunset.
-------------------
uades (Will be continued)...sunuades (at next articles)...


===========


Phonetic study    on   German/French   words/sentences


I.        German

Re/Corrections:       Article of   "So many languages, so many speaking postures (I)"    <<Column 2. Ancient inventor/speaker characteristics of GERMAN alphabet>>

1.
Differently from English-speaking people who place cp and bp for /S (of secondary speaking posture) variously in the mouth or nose,
German-speaking people fix  (for /S speaking posture)   cp above(center/high)   and    bp above/back (or high, throat-side, not lip-side)   in the mouth;    which German speaking posture I (now) designate as    /S*Ger.

*              I  >>  (Ich/C2)/S*Ger  >>  [ŋi  c=  h=]/S*Ger

That is,      while taking   /S*Ger.   speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)   "I" (of English)  or  "나 [na]" (of Korean)   from CYRILLIC /C2 speaking posture,     "Ich" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*              you  >>  (du/C2)/S*Ger/+bp  >>  (Sie/C2)/S*Ger/+cp [zyi]  >>  [si  ŋe]/S*Ger/+cp

While "(Sie/C2/+cp)/S*Ger" is pronounced as [zyi],      "Sie/S*Ger" is pronounced as [si  ŋe].

*              she  >>  (sie/C2)/S*Ger [zy=]  >>  [s=  ŋi  ŋe]/S*Ger


2.
*              have  >>  (haben/C1)/S*Ger  >>  [ha  be  n=]/S*Ger

*              "Ich haben ~"  >>  ("Ich habe ~" /GC/S/Ch)/S*Ger

When speaking "Ich haben ~" without pause (like a word, continuously) from speaking posture of (/GC/S/Ch)/S*Ger,     "Ich habe ~" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
That is,    the expression of "Ich habe ~" can be said to be Greek-influenced speaking style.
In other words;      "Ich-habe" can not be divided into "Ich" and "habe"    since "Ich-habe" is the result of (continuous) articulation of "Ich-haben",    not split articulation/pronunciation of two separate words of "Ich" and "habe".

*              "du-haben ~"  >>  ("du-hast ~" /GC/S/Ch)/S*Ger
*              "er-haben ~"  >>  ("er-hat ~" /GC/S/Ch)/S*Ger


3.
A)
*              father  >>  (der-vater/C2)/S*Ger/+bp [de  ŋΛ  fa  tΛ]  >>  [de  r=  va  te  r=]/S*Ger/+bp
*              father  >>  (ein-vater/C2)/S*Ger/+cp [ŋa  ŋin  fa  tΛ]  >>  [ŋe  ŋi  n=  va  te  r=]/S*Ger/+cp

*              [ðe  ŋΛ  fa  tΛ]  >>  (Vater /GC/S/Ch)/S*Ger
*              [ŋa  y=n  fa  tΛ]  >>  (Vater /GC/S/Ch)/S*Ger

B)
*              mother  >>  (die-mutter/C2)/S*Ger/+bp [di  mu  tΛ]  >>  [di  ŋe  mu  t=  te  r=]/S*Ger/+bp
*              mother  >>  (eine-mutter/C2)/S*Ger/+cp [ŋa  ŋi  nΛ  mu  tΛ]  >>  [ŋe  ŋi  ne  mu  t=  te  r=]/S*Ger/+bp

*              [ði  mu  tΛ]  >>   (Mutter /GC/S/Ch)/S*Ger
*              [ŋa  y=  nΛ  mu  tΛ]  >>   (Mutter /GC/S/Ch)/S*Ger

C)
*              child  >>  (das-kind/C2)/S*Ger/+bp [da  s=  kin  t=]  >>  [da  s=  ki  n=  d=]/S*Ger/+bp
*              child  >>  (ein-kind/C2)/S*Ger/+cp [ŋa  ŋin  kin  t=]  >>  [ŋe  ŋi  n=  ki  n=  d=]/S*Ger/+cp

*              [ða  s=  kin  t=]  >>   (Kind /GC/S/Ch)/S*Ger
*              [ŋa  y=n  kin  t=]  >>   (Kind /GC/S/Ch)/S*Ger

D)
*              children (childs)  >>  (die-kinder/C2)/S*Ger [di  kin  dΛ]  >>  [di  ŋe  ki  n=  de  r=]/S*Ger

*              [ði  kin  dΛ]  >>   (Kinder /GC/S/Ch)/S*Ger


4.
*              Robert (or Korean 박/朴[bag])  >>  (Hitler/C2)/S*Ger [Hi  t=  lΛ]  >>  [Hi  t=  le  r=]/S*Ger

*              [H=  y=  t=  lΛ]  >>   (Himmler /GC/S/Ch)/S*Ger  >>  (Schultz /T/Ch)/S*Ger  >>  (Gottling /P/Ch)/S*Ger



II.        French

Re/Corrections:       Article of   "So many languages, so many speaking postures (I)"    <<Column 4. Ancient inventor/speaker characteristics of FRENCH alphabet>>

5.
Differently from English-speaking people who place cp and bp for /S (of secondary speaking posture) variously in the mouth or nose,
French-speaking people fix  (for /S speaking posture)   cp above(center/high)   and    bp above/front (or high, lip-side, not throat-side)   in the mouth;    which French speaking posture I (now) designate as    /S*Fr.

*              I  >>  (je/C2)/S*Fr

That is,      while taking   /S*Fr.   speaking posture (as coarticulation posture);   if articulating (or trying to speak)   "I" (of English)  or  "나 [na]" (of Korean)   from CYRILLIC /C2 speaking posture,     "je" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*              you  >>  (tu/C2)/S*Fr/+bp  >>  (vous/C2)/S*Fr/+cp [zyi]  >>  [vo  ŋu  s=]/S*Fr/+cp


6.
*              have  >>  (avoir/C1)/S*Fr  >>  [ŋa  vo  ŋi  r=]/S*Fr

*              "je-avoir ~"  >>  ("j'ai ~" /GC/S/Ch)/S*Fr
*              "tu-avoir ~"  >>  ("tu-as ~" /GC/S/Ch)/S*Fr  [t=  w=  ŋa  s=]
*              "il-avoir ~"  >>  ("il-a ~" /GC/S/Ch)/S*Fr

*               [t=  w=  ŋa  s=]  >>  ([tu  ŋa] /C1)/S*Fr


7.
A)
*              father  >>  (le-père/C2)/S*Fr/+bp [le -]
*              father  >>  (un-père/C2)/S*Fr/+cp [ŋun -]

*              "l=  w=  père" >>  (père /GC/S/Ch)/S*Fr
*              "w=  ŋa  père"  >>  (père /GC/S/Ch)/S*Fr

B)
*              mother  >>  (la-mère/C2)/S*Fr/+bp
*              mother  >>  (une-mère/C2)/S*Fr/+cp

*              "la  w=  mère"  >>   (mère /GC/S/Ch)/S*Fr
*              "ŋ=  y=  n=  mère"  >>   (mère /GC/S/Ch)/S*Fr

C)
*              child  >>  (l'enfant/C2)/S*Fr/+bp  >>  [l'e  n=  fa  n=  t=]/S*Fr/+bp

*              child  >>  (un-enfant/C2)/S*Fr/+cp/Ch  >>  [ŋu  n=  ŋe  n=  fa  n=  t=]/S*Fr/+cp/Ch
*              child  >>  (une-enfant/C2)/S*Fr/+cp  >>  [ŋu  ne  ŋe  n=  fa  n=  t=]/S*Fr/+cp

*              "w=  ŋa  enfant"  >>  (enfant /GC/S/Ch)/S*Fr
*              "ŋ=  y=  n=  enfant"  >>  (enfant /GC/S/Ch)/S*Fr

D)
*              children (childs)  >>  (les-enfants/C1)/S*Fr

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DATE: 2011.06.12 - 22:40

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41Simple viewmcmaster.ca, brocku.ca, mun.ca, ualberta.ca, ucw.cz, ut.ee, philol.msu.ru, phonetics.pu.ru, ngslt.org Y... 2008.05.20
40Simple view>> yorku.ca,    mun.ca,    mff.cuni.cz,    ffzg.hr,    zrc-sazu.si,    ff.uni-lj.si,    guest.arnes.si Y... 2008.06.24
39Simple viewcsulb/csun/gmu/ucdavis/ucr/ucsd/colorado/umd/unc/utah/virginia/uwm/sjsu/lldsa/wwu/sil/swarthmore Y... 2008.05.13
38Simple viewnorthwestern/siu/sc/Rutgers/rochester/Princeton/pitt/unm/uiowa/iastate/uiuc/uic/georgetown/byu, Y... 2008.05.06
37Simple view>> All vocabularies and grammar(s) of all languages are (already) inside babies' heads at birth. Y... 2008.05.06
36Simple viewStanford, nyu, umich, Hawaii, Harvard, uoregon, bu, Brown, ucsb, umass, nmsu, buffalo, stonybrook Y... 2008.04.29
35Simple viewRice,    ku,    msu,    gsu,    Berkeley,    yale,    haskins.   yale,    purdue,    uchicago Y... 2008.04.22
34Simple viewemich,  u.washington,  email.arizona,  usc,  udel,  ucsc,  mit,  indiana,  utexas,  cornell Y... 2008.04.15
33Simple viewCanada     &     ohio-state.edu Y... 2007.12.19
32Simple viewAustralia.  Austria,  Belgium,  France,  Israel,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Singapore, Y... 2007.12.12
31Simple viewTo publish something in a peer-reviewed journal of conference. Y... 2007.12.19
30Simple view>> univ-tlse2.fr Y... 2008.06.11
29Simple view>>  IPA,    enl.auth.gr,    flinders.edu.au,    uab.es,      uab.cat,     mpi.nl, Y... 2008.06.17
28Simple viewroot of (all) grammar(s); phonetics.        UK    &     Ie. Y... 2007.12.05
27Simple viewroot of (all) grammars; phonetics.      SWEDEN,       Bielefeld/ GERMANY Y... 2007.11.28
26Simple viewroot of (all) grammars; phonetics.         GERMANY Y... 2007.11.21
25Simple viewgrammars:     upenn,    ucla, Y... 2007.11.07
24Simple viewJames Mesbur/upenn Y... 2007.11.07
23Simple viewthe structure/principle of trumpet Y... 2007.11.07
22Simple viewDiaphragm/phonetics Y... 2007.11.07
21Simple viewyale,  purdue,  uchicago,  stanford,  nyu,  umich,  hawaii,  harvard,  uoregon Y... 2007.09.19
20Simple viewLinguistList,    Wikipedia Y... 2007.11.08
19Simple viewNorway; @hf.ntnu, @nor.uib, @iln.uio, @hum.uit, Y... 2007.08.07
18Simple viewFinland; @helsinki, @joensuu, @campus.jyu, @oulu, @uta, @utu, @uwasa, @abo, Y... 2007.08.07
17Simple view@rice.edu, @ku.edu, @byu.edu, @msu.edu, @gsu.edu, @berkeley.edu, Y... 2007.07.19
16Simple view@udel, @ucsc, @mit, @indiana, @mail.utexas, @cornell, Y... 2007.07.02
15Simple view18th International Congress of Linguists Y... 2007.06.18
14Simple view@u.washington ; @u.arizona; @ling.ohio-state  Y... 2007.06.18
13Simple viewCanadian phonetics Y... 2007.06.06
12Simple viewBritish phonetics Y... 2007.05.15
11Simple viewPhonetics, Sweden, uu.se, umu.se, su.se, kth.se, gu.se Y... 2007.05.15
10Simple viewUSC phonetics Y... 2007.04.13
9Simple viewPhonetics of Lund University, Sweden Y... 2007.03.23
8Simple viewUni-Stuttgart.de/phonetik Y... 2007.03.23
7Simple viewPhonetik in Deutschland Y... 2007.05.25
6Simple viewProfessor Wolfgang Hess, Universität Bonn. Y... 2007.08.15
5Simple viewUCLA Phonetics Y... 2007.03.12
4Simple viewChallenge to upenn phonetics/phonology Y... 2007.02.24
3Simple viewWhat kind of response are you expecting? New person/UPenn Y... 2007.02.24
2Simple viewthat of a reasonable academic, UPenn Y... 2007.02.24
1Simple viewUltimate knowledge. UPenn Y... 2007.03.02
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