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(Comparative) study (in structure/mode/ways of pronunciation, articulation, phonetics, or whatever; that is, in differences of speaking mouth postures and resultant speaking weight/force center points) between English/foreign languages and mother tongue, for better (more practical/effective/smooth) hearing/speaking of English/foreign languages.       Copyright.   Young-Won Kim,   yw@voicespec.com
open : home | main | Kor | book | FUN member : main II | Kor II


::: Comparative phonetics, brd2 :::


90 11 View counter   Join Member Login Admin
Name   Young-Won Kim
Subject   >>       'Phonetic study  on  English  nouns'        < Lingering of articles >        'definite/indefinite article'

English / German / French  nouns        &        Korean  verbs


Re:     Article of  "Phonetic study  on  German/French  words/sentences"      <<Columns 3/7>>

1.
*    articulation ball(s)

top/bottom-elongated articulation ball like (the shape of standing) egg :                 /abE
articulation ball of simple/round ball like (the shape of) basketball :                      /abR
top/bottom-crushed articulation ball like (the shape of) round/flat tomato :                /abT

While I have found the above articulation balls (/abE, /abR, /abT) formed in the mouth,
I now find more articulation balls on the throat and on the diaphragm (not left/right hemi-diaphragms but complete/whole diaphragm).

elongated articulation ball(? or rather tube-like) along the throat:                       /abThr
pie-like articulation ball on the diaphragm:                                              /abD


A)
[ui=a/P/abE,  /MS/noun] is pronounced as  papers (paper, essay)"/+-,  "letters (letter, note)"/+bp,  "records (record, file)"/+cp;        and  [ui=a/P/MS/Ch] is pronounced as  documents (document, form)"/+-,  "diaries (diary, schedule)"/+bp,  "deeds (deed, act)"/+cp  in the chest (circle) /Ch.

* If trying to speak "papers" while making articulation ball along the throat /abThr,  [t= he p= ha pe r= s=] is reflex/pronounced.

*                  "papers"  >>  ([t= he p= ha pe r= s=] /P/+-/MS)/S/abThr

If trying to imitate/speak [t= he p= ha pe r= s=] with /GC/P/abT speaking posture,  [t= he p= ŋa pe r= s=] is reflex/pronounced.         (the-papers)

*    ([t= he p= ha pe r= s=] /P/+-/MS)/S/abThr  >>  ([t= he p= ŋa pe r= s=] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT

I imagine
that Greek people firstly met English-mother-tongue people, when English-mother-tongue people speak ancient-English with /abThr (or with /abD)
and Greek people made the writing/spelling of "the-papers" (for English-mother-tongue people) based on the sound of [t= he p= ŋa pe r= s=].

** If trying to speak "papers" while making articulation ball on the diaphragm /abD,  [ŋa p= ha pe r= s=] is reflex/pronounced.

*                  "papers"  >>  ([ŋa p= ha pe r= s=] /P/+-/MS)/S/abD

If trying to imitate/speak [ŋa p= ha pe r= s=] with /GC/P/abT speaking posture,  [ŋa p= ŋa pe r= s=] is reflex/pronounced.         (a-papers)
I imagine
that Greek people made the writing/spelling of "a-papers" (for English-mother-tongue people) based on the sound of [ŋa p= ŋa pe r= s=].

*       ([ŋa p= ha pe r= s=] /P/+-/MS)/S/abD  >>  ([ŋa p= ŋa pe r= s=] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT

B)
If trying to speak [t= he p= ŋa pe r= s=] (of the sound of /GC/P/abT) with /GC/S/abT speaking posture,  (modern/current GRECOnglish/GC pronunciation) "the[Λ]-papers" is reflex/pronounced.

*            ([t= he p= ŋa pe r= s=] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT >>  ("the[Λ]-papers" /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT

And if trying to speak [ŋa p= ŋa pe r= s=] (of the sound of /GC/P/abT) with /GC/S/abT speaking posture,  (modern/current GRECOnglish/GC pronunciation) "a[ŋΛ]-papers" is reflex/pronounced.

*         ([ŋa p= ŋa pe r= s=] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT >>  ("a[ŋΛ]-papers" /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT

That is, Greek/GRECOnglish/GC-speaking people began to spread the new/elegant sound "the[Λ]-papers" or "a[ŋΛ]-papers"  (not primitive [t= he p= ha pe r= s=] or [ŋa p= ha pe r= s=]).

English-mother-tongue people hoped to be able to imitate/produce the elegant GRECOnglish/GC sound "the[Λ]-papers" or "a[ŋΛ]-papers" and borrow/adopted the Phoenician/Canaanite speaking posture /T and CYRILLIC speaking posture /C.

Since English does not have the pronunciation of [], [] is replaced/spoken with [d] by English-mother-tongue people.

papers                    ("d=  y="/T + "-Λ-papers"/P/Ch)                    "the/de[dΛ]-papers"
"the/de[dΛ]"                 ("d=  y="/C1 + "-Λ-papers"/P/Ch)                 "the/de[dΛ]-papers"

papers                       ("ŋ=  w="/T + "-Λ-papers"/P/Ch)                     "[ŋΛ]/a-papers"
"[ŋΛ]/a"                     ("ŋ=  w="/C1 + "-Λ-papers"/P/Ch)                    "[ŋΛ]/a-papers"

 ("d=  y="/T + "-Λ-papers"/P/Ch) is metaphthong/MPh reflex/pronounced as "papers [pe y= pΛr s=]".
("d=  y="/C1 + "-Λ-papers"/P/Ch) is metaphthong/MPh reflex/pronounced as "[dΛ]/the".

("ŋ=  y="/T + "-Λ-papers"/P/Ch) is metaphthong/MPh reflex/pronounced as "papers [pe y= pΛr s=]".
("ŋ=  y="/C1 + "-Λ-papers"/P/Ch) is metaphthong/MPh reflex/pronounced as "[ŋΛ]/a".

C)
If trying to imitate/speak "papers [pe y= pΛr s=]" with /GC/S/Ch/abT speaking posture,  "paper [[pe ŋi pΛr]" is metaphthong/MPh reflex/pronounced.

*          "papers [pe y= pΛr s=]"  >>  ("paper [[pe ŋi pΛr]" /GC/S/Ch/abT)/GC/P/abT
*          "papers [pe y= pΛr s=]"  >>  ("essay" /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT

"paper [[pe hi pΛr]"                  ("P=  w="/T + "-aper"/S)                  "paper [[pe ŋi pΛr]/GC"

That is, so as to imitate/speak "paper [[pe ŋi pΛr]" (which GRECOnglish/GC sound is derived from English "papers [pe y= pΛr s=]"),  
English-mother-tongue people articulate ("P=  w="/T + "-aper"/S) and pronounce "paper [[pe hi pΛr]".


D)
[ui=a/P/abE,  /MS/noun] is pronounced as  papers (paper, essay)"/+-,  "letters (letter, note)"/+bp,  "records (record, file)"/+cp;        and  [ui=a/P/MS/Ch] is pronounced as  documents (document, form)"/+-,  "diaries (diary, schedule)"/+bp,  "deeds (deed, act)"/+cp  in the chest (circle) /Ch.

*          (paper /GC/S/abT/Ch)/GC/P/abT  >>  ([p= ŋa pe =r] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT
*          (letter /GC/S/abT/Ch)/GC/P/abT  >>  ([l= ŋe t= te r=] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT
*          (record /GC/S/abT/Ch)/GC/P/abT  >>  ([r= ŋe c= ŋo r= d=] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT
*      (document /GC/S/abT/Ch)/GC/P/abT  >>  ([d= ŋo c= ŋu me n= t=] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT
*          (diary /GC/S/abT/Ch)/GC/P/abT  >>  ([d= ŋi ŋa r= y=] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT
*          (deed /GC/S/abT/Ch)/GC/P/abT  >>  ([de ŋe d=] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT

*          (essay /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT  >>  ([ŋe s= s= ŋa y=] /GC/P/abT/Ch)/GC/S/abT
*          (note /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT  >>  ([n= ŋo te] /GC/P/abT/Ch)/GC/S/abT
*          (file /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT  >>  ([f= ŋi l= ŋe] /GC/P/abT/Ch)/GC/S/abT
*          (form /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT  >>  ([fo r= m=] /GC/P/abT/Ch)/GC/S/abT
*        (schedule /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT  >>  ([s= c= h= ŋe d= ŋu le] /GC/P/abT/Ch)/GC/S/abT
*          (act /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT  >>  ([ŋa c= t=] /GC/P/abT/Ch)/GC/S/abT


E)
While "papers" is spoken with /abE;
when speaking "the papers" continuously (that is, as one word),   /abThr ia also made in addition to /abE.
And when speaking "a papers" continuously (that is, as one word),   /abD ia also made in addition to /abE.



2.
A)
If articulating [ui=a]   from /T/MS,      phase (point, time)"/+-,  stair (step, rung)"/+bp,  level (rank, height)/+cp,    and  class (category, genre)/Ch/+-,  development (stage, occurring)/Ch/+bp,  happening (chance, occurrence)/Ch/+cp are pronounced.

* If trying to speak "phase" while making articulation ball along the throat /abThr,  [t= he p= h= ha se] is reflex/pronounced.

*                  "phase"  >>  ([t= he p= h= ha se] /T/+-/MS)/P/S/abThr

If trying to imitate/speak [t= he p= h= ha se] with /GC/P/abT speaking posture,  [t= he p= h= ŋa se] is reflex/pronounced.

*            ([t= he p= h= ha se] /T/+-/MS)/P/S/abThr  >>  ([t= he p= h= ŋa se] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT

Greek people maybe made the writing/spelling of "the-phase" (for English-mother-tongue people) based on the sound of [t= he p= h= ŋa se].

** If trying to speak "phase" while making articulation ball on the diaphragm /abD,  [ŋa p= h= ha se] is reflex/pronounced.

*                  "phase"  >>  ([ŋa p= h= ha se] /T/+-/MS)/P/S/abD

If trying to imitate/speak [ŋa p= h= ha se] with /GC/P/abT speaking posture,  [ŋa p= h= ŋa se] is reflex/pronounced.

*           ([ŋa p= h= ha se] /P/+-/MS)/P/S/abD  >>  ([ŋa p= h= ŋa se] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT


B)
If trying to speak [t= he p= h= ŋa se] (of the sound of /GC/P/abT) with /GC/S/abT speaking posture,  (modern/current GRECOnglish/GC pronunciation) "the[Λ]-phase" is reflex/pronounced.

*          ([t= he p= h= ŋa se] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT  >>  ("the[Λ]-phase [fe ŋi z=]" /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT

And if trying to speak [ŋa p= h= ŋa se] (of the sound of /GC/P/abT) with /GC/S/abT speaking posture,  (modern/current GRECOnglish/GC pronunciation) "a[ŋΛ]-phase" is reflex/pronounced.

*          ([ŋa p= h= ŋa se] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT  >>  ("a[ŋΛ]-phase" /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT


phase                      ("d=  y="/T + "-Λ-phase"/P/Ch)                     "the/de[dΛ]-phase"
"the/de[dΛ]"                   ("d=  y="/C1 + "-Λ-phase"/P/Ch)                    "the/de[dΛ]-phase"

phase [fe ŋi z=]                  ("ŋ=  w="/T + "-Λ-phase"/P/Ch)                  "[ŋΛ]/a-phase"
"[ŋΛ]/a"                     ("ŋ=  w="/C1 + "-Λ-phase"/P/Ch)                     "[ŋΛ]/a-phase"


*                             "phase"  >>  ("point" /GC/S/Ch/abT)/GC/P/abT
*                             "phase"  >>  ("time" /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT


C)
While "phase" is spoken with /abE;
when speaking "the phase" continuously (that is, as one word),   /abThr ia also made in addition to /abE.
And when speaking "a phase" continuously (that is, as one word),   /abD ia also made in addition to /abE.



3.
A)
If articulating [ui=a]   from (/C2/MS)/S/P,         page (leaf/Ch, sheet)/+-,  side (border/Ch, line)"/+bp,  folio ("page number"/Ch, pagination)"/+cp,  and   library (house/Ch, residence)/Ch/+-,   room (office/Ch, apartment)/Ch/+bp,  "company (firm/Ch, concern)/Ch/+cp are pronounced.

* If trying to speak "page" while making articulation ball along the throat /abThr,  [(t= he) pa g= he] is reflex/pronounced.

*                  "page"  >>  ([t= he pa g= he] /C2/+-/MS)/P/S/abThr

If trying to imitate/speak [t= he pa g= he] with /GC/P/abT speaking posture,  [t= he pa g= ŋe] is reflex/pronounced.

*          ([t= he pa g= he] /C2/+-/MS)/P/S/abThr  >>  ([t= he pa g= ŋe] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT

Greek people maybe made the writing/spelling of "the-periodical" (for English-mother-tongue people) based on the sound of [t= he pe ri ŋo di ca l=].

** If trying to speak "periodical" while making articulation ball on the diaphragm /abD,  [ŋa pa g= he] is reflex/pronounced.

*                  "page"  >>  ([ŋa pa g= he] /C2/+-/MS)/P/S/abD

If trying to imitate/speak [ŋa pa g= he] with /GC/P/abT speaking posture,  [ŋa pa g= ŋe] is reflex/pronounced.

*        ([ŋa pa g= he] /P/+-/MS)/P/S/abD  >>  ([ŋa pa g= ŋe] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT


B)
If trying to speak [t= he pa g= ŋe] (of the sound of /GC/P/abT) with /GC/S/abT speaking posture,  (modern/current GRECOnglish/GC pronunciation) "the[Λ]-page" is reflex/pronounced.

*        ([t= he pa g= ŋe] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT  >>  ("the[Λ]-page" /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT

And if trying to speak [ŋa pa g= ŋe] (of the sound of /GC/P/abT) with /GC/S/abT speaking posture,  (modern/current GRECOnglish/GC pronunciation) "a[ŋΛ]-page" is reflex/pronounced.

*              ([ŋa pa g= ŋe] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT  >>  ("a[ŋΛ]-page" /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT

page                       ("d=  y="/T + "-Λ-page"/P/Ch)                       "the/de[dΛ]-page"
"the/de[dΛ]"                  ("d=  y="/C1 + "-Λ-page"/P/Ch)                  "the/de[dΛ]- page"

page                         ("ŋ=  w="/T + "-Λ-page"/P/Ch)                        "[ŋΛ]/a-page"
"[ŋΛ]/a"                     ("ŋ=  w="/C1 + "-Λ-page"/P/Ch)                       "[ŋΛ]/a-page"


*                             "page"  >>  ("leaf" /GC/S/Ch/abT)/GC/P/abT
*                             "page"  >>  ("sheet" /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT


C)
While "page" is spoken with /abE;
when speaking "the page" continuously (that is, as one word),   /abThr ia also made in addition to /abE.
And when speaking "a page" continuously (that is, as one word),   /abD ia also made in addition to /abE.



4.
A)
If articulating [ui=a]   from (/S/SS)/P,          cap (lid/Ch, top)/+-,  "cork (bark/Ch, skin)"/+bp,  cover (jacket/Ch, blazer)/+cp,      and   face (kisser/Ch, visage)"/ch/+-,  dial (horologe/Ch, timepiece)"/Ch/+bp,  phiz (physiognomy/Ch, look)"/Ch/+cp are pronounced.

* If trying to speak "cap" while making articulation ball along the throat /abThr,  [t= he c= ha p=] is reflex/pronounced.

*                       "cap"  >>  ([t= he c= ha p=] /S/+-/SS)/P/abThr

If trying to imitate/speak [t= he c= ha p=] with /GC/P/abT speaking posture,  [t= he c= ŋa p=] is reflex/pronounced.

*              ([t= he c= ha p=] /S/+-/SS)/P/abThr >>  ([t= he c= ŋa p=] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT

Greek people maybe made the writing/spelling of "the-cap" (for English-mother-tongue people) based on the sound of [t= he c= ŋa p=].

** If trying to speak "cap" while making articulation ball on the diaphragm /abD,  [ŋa c= ha p=] is reflex/pronounced.

*                               "cap"  >>  ([ŋa c= ha p=] /S/+-/SS)/P/abD

If trying to imitate/speak [ŋa c= ha p=] with /GC/P/abT speaking posture,  [ŋa c= ŋa p=] is reflex/pronounced.

*                   ([ŋa c= ha p=] /S/+-/SS)/P/abD  >>  ([ŋa c= ŋa p=] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT

B)
If trying to speak [t= he c= ŋa p=] (of the sound of /GC/P/abT) with /GC/S/abT speaking posture,  (modern/current GRECOnglish/GC pronunciation) "the[Λ]-cap" is reflex/pronounced.

*             ([t= he c= ŋa p=] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT >>  ("the[Λ]-cap" /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT

And if trying to speak [ŋa c= ŋa p=] (of the sound of /GC/P/abT) with /GC/S/abT speaking posture,  (modern/current GRECOnglish/GC pronunciation) "a[ŋΛ]-cap" is reflex/pronounced.

*                 ([ŋa c= ŋa p=] /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT >>  ("a[ŋΛ]-cap" /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT

cap                          ("d=  y="/T + "-Λ-cap"/P/Ch)                        "the/de[dΛ]-cap"
"the/de[dΛ]"                   ("d=  y="/C1 + "-Λ-cap"/P/Ch)                    "the/de[dΛ]-cap"

cap                          ("ŋ=  w="/T + "-Λ-cap"/P/Ch)                            "[ŋΛ]/a-cap"
"[ŋΛ]/a"                     ("ŋ=  w="/C1 + "-Λ-cap"/P/Ch)                    "[ŋΛ]/a-cap"


*                             "cap"  >>  ("lid" /GC/S/Ch/abT)/GC/P/abT
*                             "cap"  >>  ("top" /GC/S/abT)/GC/P/abT


C)
While "cap" is spoken with /abE;
when speaking "the cap" continuously (that is, as one word),   /abThr ia also made in addition to /abE.
And when speaking "a cap" continuously (that is, as one word),   /abD ia also made in addition to /abE.



5.   Korean verbs

While nouns of English/German/French languages have definite article or indefinite article  at the front of nouns  in etymology,

Korean verbs end with the sounds of "ㄴ다 [-n da]" or "요 [yo]"  in structure,

eat/먹는다 [mΛg n=n da], 먹어요 [mΛg ŋΛ yo]
go/간다 [gan da], 가요 [ga yo]

* Korean language has more than 40 dialects;    the above is the examples of Seoul/metropolitan dialect.



6.             Lingering/reappearance of the articles,          "the" & "a"

A)     While taking /T speaking posture as coarticulation,  if speak/articulating "letters" with /GC/S/abT/+bp speaking posture (which automatically carries /GC/P/abT speaking posture as coarticulation),
"the letters" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*                 letters  >>  {("the letters" /GC/S/abT/+bp)/GC/P/abT}/T

And,
while taking /T speaking posture as coarticulation,  if speak/articulating "letter" with /GC/S/abT/+cp speaking posture (which automatically carries /GC/P/abT speaking posture as coarticulation),
"the letter" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*                 letter  >>  {("the letter" /GC/S/abT/+cp)/GC/P/abT}/T

B)     While taking /T speaking posture as coarticulation,  if speak/articulating "letter" with /GC/P/abT speaking posture (which automatically carries /GC/S/abT speaking posture as coarticulation),
"a letter" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*                 letter  >>  {("a letter" /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT}/T


*                 essays  >>  {("the essays" /GC/S/abT/+bp)/GC/P/abT}/T
*                 essay   >>  {("the essay" /GC/S/abT/+cp)/GC/P/abT}/T
*                 essay   >>  {("an essay" /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT}/T

*                 phases  >>  {("the phases" /GC/S/abT/+bp)/GC/P/abT}/T
*                 phase   >>  {("the phase" /GC/S/abT/+cp)/GC/P/abT}/T
*                 phase   >>  {("a phase" /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT}/T

*                 points  >>  {("the points" /GC/S/abT/+bp)/GC/P/abT}/T
*                 point   >>  {("the point" /GC/S/abT/+cp)/GC/P/abT}/T
*                 point   >>  {("a point" /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT}/T

*                 times   >>  {("the times" /GC/S/abT/+bp)/GC/P/abT}/T
*                 time    >>  {("the time" /GC/S/abT/+cp)/GC/P/abT}/T
*                 time    >>  {("a time" /GC/P/abT)/GC/S/abT}/T

Et cetera.



7.              Why/how    "article" ??
/ ,  
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Article_(grammar) ,  
*                 "the [dΛ]"  >>  (article /C2)/GC/S/abT
*                 "a [ŋΛ]"  >>  (article /C2)/GC/S/abT

*                 "the [dΛ]"  >>  ({(article /C2)/GC/S/abT}/GC/P/abT)/P/S
*                 "a [ŋΛ]"    >>  ({(article /C2)/GC/S/abT}/GC/P/abT)/P/S

English-mother-tongue people (always/basically) carry/have English /P and/or /S speaking postures as articulation or coarticulation;
and Greek/GRECOnglish (speaking) people carry/have /GC/P/abT and/or /GC/S/abT speaking postures as articulation or coarticulation;

so,
if I (shortly) write  ("--" /C2)/GC/S/abT,
("--" /C2)/GC/S/abT  will be equal to  ({("--" /C2)/GC/S/abT}/GC/P/abT)/P/S.


If trying to speak/articulate   "the [dΛ]"  (not GRECOnglish/GC [Λ])  from /C2 speaking posture  with coarticulation /GC/S/abT,       "article" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
And,
if trying to speak/articulate   "a [ŋΛ]"  (not GRECOnglish/GC [Λ])  from /C2 speaking posture  with coarticulation /GC/S/abT,       "article" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.



8.                definite/indefinite  article

*                 "the [dΛ]"  >>  ("definite article" /T)/GC/S/abT
*                 "a [ŋΛ]"    >>  ("indefinite article" /T)/GC/S/abT



9.                Partitive article,     negative article,      zero article

*                 "some"  >>  ("Partitive article" /T/Ch)/C2
*                 "any"    >>  ("Partitive article" /T/Ch)/C2

*                 "no"     >>  ("negative article" /GC/S/abT)/C2

*                 "article"  >>  ("zero article" /C1/Ch)/GC/S/abT


http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Determiner ,  
determiner,   an English part of speech category that combines articles and demonstratives (such as 'this' and 'that').

2. Grammar  
A word belonging to a group of noun modifiers, which includes articles, demonstratives, possessive adjectives, and words such as any, both, or whose, and, in English, occupying the first position in a noun phrase or following another determiner.

determiner                       ([ŋ=  w=]/GC/S/abT + adjective/S)                     adjective

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DATE: 2011.12.29 - 13:34

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