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이름검색
(Comparative) study (in structure/mode/ways of pronunciation, articulation, phonetics, or whatever; that is, in differences of speaking mouth postures and resultant speaking weight/force center points) between English/foreign languages and mother tongue, for better (more practical/effective/smooth) hearing/speaking of English/foreign languages.       Copyright.   Young-Won Kim,   yw@voicespec.com
open : home | main | brd2 | book | FUN member : main II | Kor II


::: Comparative phonetics. Korean/한국어 :::


142 11 통계카운터 보기   회원 가입 회원 로그인 관리자 접속 --+
Name   Young-Won Kim
Subject             common/same  (phonetic) structure  in  Korean,  Chinese,  Japanese  &  English  alphabets/characters

http://voicespec.com/board.cgi?id=test1&action=view&gul=92&page=1&go_cnt=0 ,  

alphabet                                   (l/P + etter/S)                                      letter
character                                (l/P + etter/S)/Ch                                    letter

ideograph                               (l/C2 + etter/S)/Ch                                   letter

*                      ideograph  >>  ideogram /mGC

hieroglyph                               (l/T + etter/S)/Ch                                   letter

phonogram                                (l/T + etter/P)                                      letter

*                      phonogram  >>  phonograph /mGC


1.                                Korean alphabets

"ㅡ" : "으 [ŋ=]" : "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]",       "lie down"
"ㅣ" : "이 [ŋi]"  : "섰다 [sΛs da]",            "stand up"
    
*                    "lie down"  >>  lie /mGC
*                    "stand up"  >>  stand /mGC

*                  lie /mGC/Ch  >>  low /T  >>  drop /P  >>  fall /C1
*                stand /mGC/Ch  >>  erect /P  >>  build /T  >>  tower /C1

*                       low  >>  lower /mGC

"누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]", which is Korean/Seoul /P word, is phonetically/meaningfully corresponding to "lie down" of English /S word.
When trying to speak "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]" or "lie down" from Korean (Seoul dialect/standard) /S speaking posture, "으 [ŋ=]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"으 [ŋ=]" is the pronunciation/name of Korean vowel "ㅡ".

"섰다 [sΛs da]", which is Korean/Seoul /P word, is phonetically/meaningfully corresponding to "stand up" of English /S word.
When trying to speak "섰다 [sΛs da]" or "stand up" from Korean (Seoul dialect/standard) /S speaking posture, "이 [ŋi]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"이 [ŋi]" is the pronunciation/name of Korean vowel "ㅣ".


Korean consonant alphabets : ㄱ ㄴ ㄷ ㄹ ㅁ ㅂ ㅅ ㅇ ㅈ ㅊ ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅎ
Korean vowel alphabets     : ㅏ ㅑ ㅓ ㅕ ㅗ ㅛ ㅠ ㅠ ㅡ ㅣ

Korea/Seoul/S

ㄱ/g : ge, "기역[gi  ŋ(iΛ)g]" : "으이 [ŋ= ŋi]" : "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㄱ"

That is, Korean alphabet "ㄱ" is equivalent to "g". When trying to speak "ge" or "으이 [ŋ= ŋi]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) /P speaking posture, "기역[gi  ŋ(iΛ)g]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"기역[gi  ŋ(iΛ)g]" is the name of "ㄱ".
"으이 [ŋ= ŋi]" : "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㄱ" "기역[gi  ŋ(iΛ)g]"

* When trying to speak "기역[gi  ŋ(iΛ)g]" from Korea/Seoul /S speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea/Seoul /P speaking posture, "으이 [ŋ= ŋi]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

"ㅡ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㄱ"
"lie down" + "ㅣ" >> "ㄱ"
"ㅡ" + "stand up" >> "ㄱ"
"lie down" + "stand up" >> "ㄱ"
"ㅡ" + "섰다 [sΛs da]" >> "ㄱ"
"누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]" + "ㅣ" >> "ㄱ"
"누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]" + "섰다 [sΛs da]" >> "ㄱ"
"lie down" + "섰다 [sΛs da]" >> "ㄱ"
"누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]" + "stand up" >> "ㄱ"

That is, in alphabet structure/pronunciation of Korean, Chinese, Japanese & English,
even though partially or totally replacing "lie down" or "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]" for "ㅡ" and "stand up" or "섰다 [sΛs da]" for "ㅣ", the results are same:   so, when trying to speak
"ge" or
"으이 [ŋ= ŋi]" or
"(lie down) [ŋi]" or
"[ŋ=] (stand up)" or
"(lie down) (stand up)" or
"[ŋ=] (섰다 [sΛs da])" or
"(누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]) [ŋi]" or
"(누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]) (섰다 [sΛs da])" or
"(lie down) (섰다 [sΛs da])" or
"(누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]) (stand up)"
from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) /P speaking posture, "기역[gi  ŋ(iΛ)g]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced. Etc.


ㄴ/n : ne "니은[ni  ŋ=n]" : "이으 [ŋi ŋ=]" : "ㅣ"+ "ㅡ" >> "ㄴ"

ㄷ/d : de "디읃[di  ŋ=d]" : "으이으 [ŋ= ŋi ŋ=]" : "ㅡ" + "ㅣ"+ "ㅡ" >> "ㄷ" or "으*니은 [ŋ= ni  ŋ=n]" : "ㅡ" + "ㄴ" >> "ㄷ"

That is, Korean alphabet "ㄷ" is equivalent to "d". When trying to speak "de" or "으이으 [ŋ= ŋi ŋ=]" or "으*니은 [ŋ= ni  ŋ=n]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) /P speaking posture, "니은[ni  ŋ=n]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"니은[ni  ŋ=n]" is the name of "ㄴ".
"으이으 [ŋ= ŋi ŋ=]" : "ㅡ" + "ㅣ"+ "ㅡ" >> "ㄷ" "디읃[di  ŋ=d]"
"으*니은 [ŋ= ni  ŋ=n]" : "ㅡ" + "ㄴ" >> "ㄷ" "디읃[di  ŋ=d]"

ㄹ/(l or r) : le "리을[ri  ŋ=l]" : "으이으이으 [ŋ= ŋi ŋ= ŋi ŋ=]" : "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" >> "ㄹ" or "으이*디읃 [ŋ= ŋi di ŋ=d]" : "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" + "ㄷ" >> "ㄹ" or "기역*디읃 [gi ŋ(iΛ)g di  ŋ=d]" : "ㄱ" + "ㄷ" >> "ㄹ" or "기역*으이으 [gi ŋ(iΛ)g ŋ= ŋi ŋ=]" : "ㄱ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" >>  "ㄹ"

That is, Korean alphabet "ㄹ" is equivalent to "r" or "l". When trying to speak "le" or "으이으이으 [ŋ= ŋi ŋ= ŋi ŋ=]" or "으이*디읃 [ŋ= ŋi di ŋ=d]" or "기역*디읃 [gi ŋ(iΛ)g di  ŋ=d]" or "기역*으이으 [gi ŋ(iΛ)g ŋ= ŋi ŋ=]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) /P speaking posture, "리을[ri  ŋ=l]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"리을[ri  ŋ=l]" is the name of "ㄹ".
"으이으이으 [ŋ= ŋi ŋ= ŋi ŋ=]" : "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" >> "ㄹ" "리을[ri  ŋ=l]"
"으이*디읃 [ŋ= ŋi di ŋ=d]" : "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" + "ㄷ" >> "ㄹ" "리을[ri  ŋ=l]"
"기역*디읃 [gi ŋ(iΛ)g di  ŋ=d]" : "ㄱ" + "ㄷ" >> "ㄹ" "리을[ri  ŋ=l]"
"기역*으이으 [gi ŋ(iΛ)g ŋ= ŋi ŋ=]" : "ㄱ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" >> "ㄹ" "리을[ri  ŋ=l]"

ㅁ/m : me "미음[mi  ŋ=m]" : "이으으이 [ŋi ŋ= ŋ= ŋi]" : "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㅁ"/P or "니은*으이 [ni ŋ=n ŋ= ŋi]" : "ㄴ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㅁ"/P or "니은*기역 [ni ŋ=n gi ŋ(iΛ)g]" : "ㄴ" + "ㄱ" >> "ㅁ"/P or "이으*기역 [ŋi ŋ= gi ŋ(iΛ)g]" : "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㄱ" >> "ㅁ"/P : "이이으으 [ŋi ŋi ŋ= ŋ=]" : "ㅣ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" >> "ㅁ"/P : "으으이이 [ŋ= ŋ= ŋi ŋi]" : "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㅁ"/P

That is, Korean alphabet "ㅁ" is equivalent to "m". When trying to speak "me" or "이으으이 [ŋi ŋ= ŋ= ŋi]" or "니은*으이 [ni ŋ=n ŋ= ŋi]" or "니은*기역 [ni ŋ=n gi ŋ(iΛ)g]" or "이으*기역 [ŋi ŋ= gi ŋ(iΛ)g]" or "이이으으 [ŋi ŋi ŋ= ŋ=]" or "으으이이 [ŋ= ŋ= ŋi ŋi]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) /P speaking posture, "미음[mi  ŋ=m]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"미음[mi  ŋ=m]" is the name of "ㅁ".
"이으으이 [ŋi ŋ= ŋ= ŋi]" : "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㅁ"/P "미음[mi  ŋ=m]"
"니은*으이 [ni ŋ=n ŋ= ŋi]" : "ㄴ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㅁ"/P "미음[mi  ŋ=m]"
"니은*기역 [ni ŋ=n gi ŋ(iΛ)g]" : "ㄴ" + "ㄱ" >> "ㅁ"/P "미음[mi  ŋ=m]"
"이으*기역 [ŋi ŋ= gi ŋ(iΛ)g]" : "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㄱ" >> "ㅁ"/P "미음[mi  ŋ=m]"
"이이으으 [ŋi ŋi ŋ= ŋ=]" : "ㅣ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" >> "ㅁ"/P "미음[mi  ŋ=m]"
"으으이이 [ŋ= ŋ= ŋi ŋi]" : "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㅁ"/P "미음[mi  ŋ=m]"
But, others (like "디읃*이" : "ㄷ" + "ㅣ") do not produce "미음[mi  ŋ=m]".

* While  <ㅁ/m : me "미음[mi  ŋ=m]">  is articulation/pronunciation from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) primary/P speaking posture,
<ㅂ/b : be "비읍[bi  ŋ=b]">  is articulation/pronunciation from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S speaking posture.

ㅂ/b : be "비읍[bi  ŋ=b]" : "이이으으 [ŋi ŋi ŋ= ŋ=]/S" : "ㅣ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" >> "ㅂ"/S : "으으이이 [ŋ= ŋ= ŋi ŋi]/S" : "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㅂ"/S

That is, Korean alphabet "ㅂ" is equivalent to "b". When trying to speak "be" or "이이으으 [ŋi ŋi ŋ= ŋ=]" or "으으이이 [ŋ= ŋ= ŋi ŋi]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S speaking posture, "비읍[bi  ŋ=b]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"비읍[bi  ŋ=b]" is the name of "ㅂ".
"이이으으 [ŋi ŋi ŋ= ŋ=]" : "ㅣ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" >> "ㅂ"/S "비읍[bi  ŋ=b]"
"으으이이 [ŋ= ŋ= ŋi ŋi]" : "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㅂ"/S "비읍[bi  ŋ=b]"

* "/" (of Korean alphabet "ㅅ") is (not mouth/Mo but) chest/Ch pronunciation of "이 [ŋi]", which is the pronunciation/name of Korean vowel "ㅣ".
* "\" (of Korean alphabet "ㅅ") is (not mouth/Mo but) chest/Ch pronunciation of "으 [ŋ=]", which is the pronunciation/name of Korean vowel "ㅡ".

ㅅ/s : se "시옷[si  ŋos]" : "이으/Ch [ŋi ŋ=]/Ch" : ("ㅣ" + "ㅡ")/Ch >> "ㅅ"/Mo

That is, Korean alphabet "ㅅ" is equivalent to "s". When trying to speak "se" or "이으/Ch [ŋi ŋ=]/Ch" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) primary/P/Mo speaking posture, "시옷[si  ŋos]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"시옷[si  ŋos]" is the name of "ㅅ".
"이으/Ch [ŋi ŋ=]/Ch" : ("ㅣ" + "ㅡ")/Ch >> "ㅅ"/Mo "시옷[si  ŋos]"

ㅇ/ŋ : ŋe "이응[ŋi  ŋ=ŋ]" : "원[ŋ(uΛ)n]/circle" >> "ㅇ"

That is, Korean alphabet "ㅇ" is equivalent to "ŋ". When trying to speak "ŋe" or 'circle' or "원[ŋ(uΛ)n]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) primary/P/Mo speaking posture, "이응[ŋi  ŋ=ŋ]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"이응[ŋi  ŋ=ŋ]" is the name of "ㅇ".
"원[ŋ(uΛ)n]/circle" >> "ㅇ" "이응[ŋi  ŋ=ŋ]"

ㅈ/z : ze "지읒[zi  ŋ=z]" : "으*(이으)/Ch [ŋ= (ŋi ŋ=)/Ch]" : "ㅡ" + ("ㅣ" + "ㅡ")/Ch >> "ㅈ"/Mo : "으*(시옷) [ŋ= (si  ŋos)]" : "ㅡ" + "ㅅ" >> "ㅈ"/Mo

That is, Korean alphabet "ㅈ" is equivalent to "z". When trying to speak "ze" or "으*(이으)/Ch [ŋ= (ŋi ŋ=)/Ch]" or "으*(시옷) [ŋ= (si  ŋos)]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) primary/P/Mo speaking posture, "지읒[zi  ŋ=z]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"지읒[zi  ŋ=z]" is the name of "ㅈ".
"으*(이으)/Ch [ŋ= (ŋi ŋ=)/Ch]" : "ㅡ" + ("ㅣ" + "ㅡ")/Ch >> "ㅈ"/Mo "지읒[zi  ŋ=z]"
"으*(시옷) [ŋ= (si  ŋos)]" : "ㅡ" + "ㅅ" >> "ㅈ"/Mo "지읒[zi  ŋ=z]"

* Korean alphabet "ㅊ" has two "ㅡ"; long "ㅡ" and short "-".
long "ㅡ" is articulated with primary/PRM stress, while short "-" is articulated with (no) stress for content/CON words.

ㅊ/c : ce "치읓[ci  ŋ=c]" : "으/CON*으/PRM*(이으)/Ch [ŋ=/CON ŋ=/PRM (ŋi ŋ=)/Ch]" : "ㅡ"/CON + "ㅡ"/PRM + ("ㅣ" + "ㅡ")/Ch >> "ㅊ"/Mo : "으/CON*으/PRM*(시옷) [ŋ= (si  ŋos)]" : "ㅡ"/CON + "ㅡ"/PRM + "ㅅ" >> "ㅊ"/Mo

That is, Korean alphabet "ㅊ" is equivalent to "c". When trying to speak "ce" or "으/CON*으/PRM*(이으)/Ch [ŋ=/CON ŋ=/PRM (ŋi ŋ=)/Ch]" or "으/CON*으/PRM*(시옷) [ŋ=/CON ŋ=/PRM (si  ŋos)]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) primary/P/Mo speaking posture, "치읓[ci  ŋ=c]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"치읓[ci  ŋ=c]" is the name of "ㅊ".
"으/CON*으/PRM*(이으)/Ch [ŋ=/CON ŋ=/PRM (ŋi ŋ=)/Ch]" : "ㅡ"/CON + "ㅡ"/PRM + ("ㅣ" + "ㅡ")/Ch >> "ㅊ"/Mo
"으/CON*으/PRM*(시옷) [ŋ= (si  ŋos)]" : "ㅡ"/CON + "ㅡ"/PRM + "ㅅ" >> "ㅊ"/Mo "치읓[ci  ŋ=c]"

* While  <ㄱ/g : ge, "기역[gi  ŋ(iΛ)g]">  is articulation/pronunciation from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) primary/P speaking posture,
<ㅋ/k : ke "키옄[ki  ŋ(iΛ)k]">  is articulation/pronunciation from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S speaking posture.

ㅋ/k : ke "키옄[ki  ŋ(iΛ)k]" : "으으이 [ŋ= ŋ= ŋi]/S" : "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㅋ"/S : "기역*으 [gi  ŋ(iΛ)g ŋ=]/S" : "ㄱ" + "ㅡ" >> "ㅋ"/S

"ㅡ" + "ㅣ" >>  "ㄱ" "기역[gi  ŋ(iΛ)g]"

That is, Korean alphabet "ㅋ" is equivalent to "k". When trying to speak "ke" or "으으이 [ŋ= ŋ= ŋi]" or "기역*으 [gi  ŋ(iΛ)g ŋ=]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S speaking posture, "키옄[ki  ŋ(iΛ)k]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"키옄[ki  ŋ(iΛ)k]" is the name of "ㅋ".
"으으이 [ŋ= ŋ= ŋi]/S" : "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㅋ"/S "키옄[ki  ŋ(iΛ)k]"
"기역*으 [gi  ŋ(iΛ)g ŋ=]/S" : "ㄱ" + "ㅡ" >> "ㅋ"/S "키옄[ki  ŋ(iΛ)k]"

* While  <ㄷ/d : de "디읃[di  ŋ=d]">  is articulation/pronunciation from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) primary/P speaking posture,
<ㅌ/t : te "티읕[ti  ŋ=t]">  is articulation/pronunciation from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S speaking posture.

ㅌ/t : te "티읕[ti  ŋ=t]" : "이으으으 [ŋi ŋ= ŋ= ŋ=]/S" : "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" >> "ㅌ"/S : "디읃*으 [di  ŋ=d ŋ=]/S" : "ㄷ" + "ㅡ" >> "ㅌ"/S

That is, Korean alphabet "ㅌ" is equivalent to "t". When trying to speak "te" or "이으으으 [ŋi ŋ= ŋ= ŋ=]" or "디읃*으 [di  ŋ=d ŋ=]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S speaking posture, "티읕[ti  ŋ=t]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"티읕[ti  ŋ=t]" is the name of "ㅌ".
"이으으으 [ŋi ŋ= ŋ= ŋ=]/S" : "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" >> "ㅌ"/S "티읕[ti  ŋ=t]"
"디읃*으 [di  ŋ=d ŋ=]/S" : "ㄷ" + "ㅡ" >> "ㅌ"/S "티읕[ti  ŋ=t]"

* While  <ㅂ/b : be "비읍[bi  ŋ=b]">  is articulation/pronunciation from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S mouth/Mo speaking posture,
<ㅍ/p : pe "피읖[pi  ŋ=p]">  is articulation/pronunciation from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S (not mouth/Mo but) chest/Ch speaking posture.

* Korean alphabet "ㅍ" has two short "ㅣ", whish are articulated with Secondary /SCN stress, while normal/long "ㅣ" is articulated with primary/PRM stress.

ㅍ/p : pe "피읖[pi  ŋ=p]" : "으(이이)/SCN으 [ŋ= (ŋi ŋi) /SCN ŋ=]/S/Ch" : "ㅡ" + ("ㅣ" + "ㅣ")/SCN + "ㅡ" >> "ㅍ"/S/Ch

That is, Korean alphabet "ㅍ" is equivalent to "p". When trying to speak "pe" or "으(이이)/SCN으 [ŋ= (ŋi ŋi) /SCN ŋ=]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S chest/Ch speaking posture, "피읖[pi  ŋ=p]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"티읕[ti  ŋ=t]" is the name of "ㅌ".
"으(이이)/SCN으 [ŋ= (ŋi ŋi) /SCN ŋ=]/S/Ch" : "ㅡ" + ("ㅣ" + "ㅣ")/SCN + "ㅡ" >> "ㅍ"/S/Ch "피읖[pi  ŋ=p]"

* While  <ㅇ/ŋ : ŋe "이응[ŋi  ŋ=ŋ]">  is articulation/pronunciation from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) primary/P speaking posture,
<ㅎ/h : he "히읕[hi  ŋ=t]">  is articulation/pronunciation from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S (not mouth/Mo but) chest/Ch speaking posture.

* Korean alphabet "ㅎ" has one short "ㅡ", whish is articulated with (no) stress for content/CON words, while normal/long "ㅡ" is articulated with primary/PRM stress.

ㅎ/h : he "히읕[hi  ŋ=t]" : "(으/CON*으/PRM*원)/Ch [ŋ=/CON ŋ=/PRM ŋ(uΛ)n)/S/Ch]" : ("ㅡ"/CON + "ㅡ"/PRM + ŋ(uΛ)n)/S/Ch >> "ㅎ"/S/Ch : "(으/CON*으/PRM*circle)/Ch [ŋ=/CON ŋ=/PRM circle/S/Ch]" : ("ㅡ"/CON + "ㅡ"/PRM + circle)/S/Ch >> "ㅎ"/S/Ch

That is, Korean alphabet "ㅎ" is equivalent to "h". When trying to speak "he" or "(으/CON*으/PRM*원)/Ch [ŋ=/CON ŋ=/PRM ŋ(uΛ)n)/S/Ch]" or "(으/CON*으/PRM*circle)/Ch [ŋ=/CON ŋ=/PRM circle/S/Ch]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S chest/Ch speaking posture, "히읕[hi  ŋ=t]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"히읕[hi  ŋ=t]" is the name of "ㅎ".
"(으/CON*으/PRM*원)/Ch [ŋ=/CON ŋ=/PRM ŋ(uΛ)n)/S/Ch]" : ("ㅡ"/CON + "ㅡ"/PRM + ŋ(uΛ)n)/S/Ch >> "ㅎ"/S/Ch "히읕[hi  ŋ=t]"
"(으/CON*으/PRM*circle)/Ch [ŋ=/CON ŋ=/PRM circle/S/Ch]" : ("ㅡ"/CON + "ㅡ"/PRM + circle)/S/Ch >> "ㅎ"/S/Ch "히읕[hi  ŋ=t]"

-----------

ㅏ/a : "아[ŋa]" : "(이*으/CON)/S ["ㅣ" + "ㅡ"/CON]/S" >> "ㅏ"/S

That is, Korean vowel "ㅏ" is equivalent to "a". When trying to speak "(이*으/CON)/S ["ㅣ" + "ㅡ"/CON]/S" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S speaking posture, "아[ŋa]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"아[ŋa]" is the name of "ㅏ".

* When trying to speak "아[ŋa]" from Korea/Seoul /S/Ch speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea/Seoul /P speaking posture, "이*으/CON [ŋi ŋ=/CON]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


* While  <ㅏ/a : "아[ŋa]">  is articulation/pronunciation from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S mouth/Mo speaking posture,
<ㅑ/(ia) : "야[ŋ(ia)]"> (which sound is similar to [ya])  is articulation/pronunciation from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S (not mouth/Mo but) chest/Ch speaking posture.

ㅑ/(ia) : "야[ŋ(ia)]" : "(이*(으으)/CON)/S/Ch ["ㅣ" + ("ㅡ" + "ㅡ")/CON]/S/Ch" >> "ㅑ"/S/Ch

That is, Korean vowel "ㅑ" is equivalent to [ŋ(ia)] (which sound is similar to [ya]). When trying to speak "(이*(으으)/CON)/S ["ㅣ" + ("ㅡ" + "ㅡ")/CON]/S" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) secondary/S/Ch speaking posture, "야[ŋ(ia)]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.
"야[ŋ(ia)]" is the name of "ㅑ".

ㅓ/Λ : "어[ŋΛ]" : "(으/CON*이)/S  ["ㅡ"/CON + "ㅣ"]/S" >> "ㅓ"/S

ㅕ/(iΛ) : "여[ŋ(iΛ)]" : "((으으)/CON*이)/S/Ch [("ㅡ" + "ㅡ")/CON + "ㅣ"]/S/Ch" >> "ㅕ"/S/Ch

ㅗ/o : "오[ŋo]" : "(이/CON*으)/S  ["ㅣ"/CON + "ㅡ"]/S" >> "ㅗ"/S

ㅛ/(io) : "요[ŋ(io)]" : "((이이)/CON*으)/S/Ch [("ㅣ" + "ㅣ")/CON + "ㅡ"]/S/Ch" >> "ㅛ"/S/Ch

ㅜ/u : "우[ŋu]" : "(으*이/CON)/S  ["ㅡ" + "ㅣ"/CON]/S" >> "ㅜ"/S

ㅠ/(iu) : "유ŋ(iu)]" : "(으*(이이)/CON)/S/Ch ["ㅡ" + ("ㅣ" + "ㅣ")/CON]/S/Ch" >> "ㅠ"/S/Ch

ㅡ/(=) : "으[ŋ=]" : "으/S  [ㅡ]/S" >> "ㅡ"/S

ㅣ/i : "이[ŋi]" : "이/S  [ㅣ]/S" >> "ㅣ"/S



2.                                Chinese alphabets/characters

A)                    Chinese numbers
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Chinese+numbers ,  

0 〇 líng 영 [ŋ(iΛ)ŋ] líng
1 一 일 [ŋil] yī
2 二 이 [ŋi] èr
3 三 삼 [sam] sān
4 四 사 [sa] sì
5 五 오 [ŋo] wǔ
6 六 육 [yug] liù
7 七 칠 [cil] qī
8 八 팔 [pal] bā
9 九 구 [gu] jiǔ

10 十 십 [sib] sì
100 百 백 [bæg] bǎi
1,000 千 천 [cΛn] qiān
10,000 萬 만 [man] wàn

Korea has its own/separate pronunciation for (so-called) Chinese characters
For example, "일 [ŋil]" is Korean pronunciation, and "yī" is Chinese pronunciation for "1 一".


0) "영 [ŋ(iΛ)ŋ]" is the pronunciation from Chinese speaking posture while taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture as coarticulation.
If trying to speak "원 [ŋ(uΛ)n]" or "circle (which is phonetically/meaningfully corresponding to '원 [ŋ(uΛ)n]')"  from Chinese speaking posture while taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture as coarticulation.,     "영 [ŋ(iΛ)ŋ]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If trying to speak "영 [ŋ(iΛ)ŋ]" (but, not 'circle')  from Chinese chest/Ch speaking posture while taking Korea/평안-도 [pyΛŋ  ŋan  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture as coarticulation.,     [l=ŋ] (not "líng")  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

1) "일 [ŋil]" is the pronunciation from Chinese speaking posture while taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture as coarticulation.
If trying to speak "으 [ŋ=]" or "one [ŋ(uΛ)n]"  (or "lie down" or "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]")  from Chinese speaking posture while taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture as coarticulation.,     "일 [ŋil]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If trying to speak "일 [ŋil]"  (but, not 'one')  from Chinese chest/Ch speaking posture while taking Korea/강원-도 [gaŋ  wΛn  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture as coarticulation.,     [ŋi] (not "yī")  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

2) "이 [ŋi]" is the pronunciation from Chinese speaking posture while taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture as coarticulation.
If trying to speak "으/SCN 으/PRM [ŋ=/SCN ŋ=/PRM]" or "two [tu w=]"  from Chinese speaking posture while taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture as coarticulation.,     "이 [ŋi]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.  ** Note the upper "ㅡ" is shorter than the below one.
If trying to speak "이 [ŋi]" (but, not 'two')  from Chinese chest/Ch speaking posture while taking Japanese speaking posture as coarticulation.,     [ye  r=] (not "èr")  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

3) "삼 [sam]" is the pronunciation from Chinese speaking posture while taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture as coarticulation.
If trying to speak "으/SCN 으/CON 으/PRM [ŋ=/SCN ŋ=/CON ŋ=/PRM]"  or "three [s= w= ri]"  from Chinese speaking posture while taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture as coarticulation.,     "삼 [sam]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.  ** Note the upper "ㅡ" is shorter than the below one, while the middle one is the shortest.
If trying to speak "삼 [sam]"  (but, not 'three')  from Chinese chest/Ch speaking posture while taking Korea/함경-도 [ham  gyΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture as coarticulation.,     [saŋ] (not "sān")  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

8) "팔 [pal]" is the pronunciation from Chinese speaking posture while taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture as coarticulation.
If trying to speak "이/Ch 으/CON 으/Ch [ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/CON  ŋ=/Ch]" or "acht"  from Chinese speaking posture while taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture as coarticulation.,     "팔 [pal]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.  ** Note the upper "ㅡ" (between "/" & "\") is very short and is pronounced with no stress of content word.
If trying to speak "팔 [pal]"  (but, not 'acht')   from Chinese chest/Ch speaking posture while taking Korea/전라-도 [zΛn  la  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture as coarticulation.,     [b(=a)] (not "bā")  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*                    acht  >>  eight /mGC

4) 四 << 口 + 八

口 : 구 [gu]
If trying to speak "lips" or "입 [ŋib]"  or "미음[mi  ŋ=m]" or "이으으이 [ŋi ŋ= ŋ= ŋi]" or "니은*으이 [ni ŋ=n ŋ= ŋi]" or "니은*기역 [ni ŋ=n gi ŋ(iΛ)g]" or "이이으으 [ŋi ŋi ŋ= ŋ=]" or "으으이이 [ŋ= ŋ= ŋi ŋi]" from Chinese speaking posture while taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture as coarticulation.,     "구 [gu]"  (which is Korean pronunciation for Chinese "口")  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

"이으으이 [ŋi ŋ= ŋ= ŋi]" : "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㅁ"/P "미음[mi  ŋ=m]"
"니은*으이 [ni ŋ=n ŋ= ŋi]" : "ㄴ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㅁ"/P "미음[mi  ŋ=m]"
"니은*기역 [ni ŋ=n gi ŋ(iΛ)g]" : "ㄴ" + "ㄱ" >> "ㅁ"/P "미음[mi  ŋ=m]"
"이으*기역 [ŋi ŋ= gi ŋ(iΛ)g]" : "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㄱ" >> "ㅁ"/P "미음[mi  ŋ=m]"
"이이으으 [ŋi ŋi ŋ= ŋ=]" : "ㅣ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" >> "ㅁ"/P "미음[mi  ŋ=m]"
"으으이이 [ŋ= ŋ= ŋi ŋi]" : "ㅡ" + "ㅡ" + "ㅣ" + "ㅣ" >> "ㅁ"/P "미음[mi  ŋ=m]"

四 << 口 + 八
"사 [sa]" is the pronunciation from Chinese speaking posture while taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture as coarticulation.

*                    fwan  >>  four /mGC

If trying to speak  "fwan" (but, not 'four')  or "lips acht" or

"구 [gu] 팔 [pal]" or "lips 팔 [pal]" or "입 [ŋib] 팔 [pal]" or "미음[mi  ŋ=m] 팔 [pal]" or "이으으이 [ŋi ŋ= ŋ= ŋi] 팔 [pal]" or "니은*으이 [ni ŋ=n ŋ= ŋi] 팔 [pal]" or "이이으으 [ŋi ŋi ŋ= ŋ=] 팔 [pal]" or "으으이이 [ŋ= ŋ= ŋi ŋi] 팔 [pal]"

or "lips 이/Ch 으/CON 으/Ch [ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/CON  ŋ=/Ch]" or "입 [ŋib] 이/Ch 으/CON 으/Ch [ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/CON  ŋ=/Ch]" or "미음[mi  ŋ=m] 이/Ch 으/CON 으/Ch [ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/CON  ŋ=/Ch]" or "이으으이 [ŋi ŋ= ŋ= ŋi] 이/Ch 으/CON 으/Ch [ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/CON  ŋ=/Ch]" or "니은*으이 [ni ŋ=n ŋ= ŋi] 이/Ch 으/CON 으/Ch [ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/CON  ŋ=/Ch]" or "이이으으 [ŋi ŋi ŋ= ŋ=] 이/Ch 으/CON 으/Ch [ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/CON  ŋ=/Ch]" or "으으이이 [ŋ= ŋ= ŋi ŋi] 이/Ch 으/CON 으/Ch [ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/CON  ŋ=/Ch]"  

from Chinese speaking posture while taking Korea/Seoul speaking posture as coarticulation.,     "사 [sa]"  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

If trying to speak "사 [sa]"  (but, not 'four' nor "fwan")   from Chinese chest/Ch speaking posture while taking Korea/전라-도 [zΛn  la  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture as coarticulation.,     [b(=a)] (not "sì")  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


* I think Chinese characters are not ideograph but phonogram and Chinese characters were made by Korean (not Chinese).



3.         Japanese letters
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/kanji ,  

>>    Kanji

* (Not "Kanji" but) "Gan zi" is the pronunciation from Korea/경상-도 [gyΛŋ  saŋ  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture with coarticulation of Japanese speaking posture.
(Not "Kanji" but) "Gan zi" is corresponding to "글자 [g=l  za]" or "letter" (not 漢字, which means "Chinese speaking"); that is, if trying to speak "글자 [g=l  za]" or "letter" from Korea/경상-도 [gyΛŋ  saŋ  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture with coarticulation of Japanese speaking posture, (not "Kanji" but) "Gan zi" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

>>  hiragana (ひらがな, 平仮名 평가명 [p(iΛ)ŋ ga m(iΛ)ŋ], voice/음성), katakana (カタカナ, 片仮名 편가명 [p(iΛ)n ga m(iΛ)ŋ], spelling/철자),

* "平仮名 평가명 [p(iΛ)ŋ ga m(iΛ)ŋ]" is the pronunciation from Korea/전라-도 [zΛn  la  do/province] (dialect) /P speaking posture with coarticulation of Japanese speaking posture.
"hiragana ひらがな" is the pronunciation from Japanese /P speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea/전라-도 [zΛn  la  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture.

"平仮名 평가명 [p(iΛ)ŋ ga m(iΛ)ŋ]" and "hiragana ひらがな" are corresponding to "voice" or "음성 [ŋ=m  sΛŋ] 音聲".

"片仮名 편가명 [p(iΛ)n ga m(iΛ)ŋ]" is the pronunciation from Korea/충청-도 [cuŋ  cΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) /P speaking posture with coarticulation of Japanese speaking posture.
(Not katakana but) "gadagana カタカナ" is the pronunciation from Japanese /P speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea/충청-도 [cuŋ  cΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture.

"片仮名 편가명 [p(iΛ)n ga m(iΛ)ŋ]" and "gadagana カタカナ" are corresponding to "spelling" or "철자 [cΛl  za] 綴字".

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/hiragana ,  
>> Each kana is either a vowel such as "a" (あ); a consonant followed by a vowel such as "ka" (か); or "n" (ん), a nasal sonorant which, depending on the context, sounds either like English m, n, or ng ([ŋ]), or like the nasal vowels of French.
>> and suffixes such as さん ~san "Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms."

* "さん" is corresponding to Korean "씨 [si]".
If trying to speak "씨 [si]" or "Mr." or "Mrs." or "Miss" from Japanese /S speaking posture with coarticulation of Korea/함경-도 [ham  gyΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) speaking posture, [san] is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
If trying to speak "씨 [si]" from Korea/함경-도 [ham  gyΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) /P speaking posture with coarticulation of Japanese speaking posture, [saŋ] is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
And if trying to speak "씨 [si]" from Korea/함경-도 [ham  gyΛŋ  do/province] (dialect) /P/Ch speaking posture with coarticulation of Japanese speaking posture, [sam] is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

>>            Table of hiragana

"あ a [a]" is the pronunciation from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) /S speaking posture with coarticulation of Japanese speaking posture.
If trying to speak "으 이 이/Ch 으 이 [ŋ=  ŋi  ŋi/Ch  ŋ=  ŋi]" from Korea/경기-도 [gyΛŋ  gi  do/province]/개성-시 [gæ  sΛŋ  si/city] (dialect) /S speaking posture with coarticulation of Japanese speaking posture, [a] is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

"い i [i]" is the pronunciation from Korea/평안-도 [pyΛŋ  ŋan  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture with coarticulation of Japanese speaking posture.
If trying to speak "이 으/CON 으/CON/Ch [ŋi  ŋ=/CON ŋ=/Ch/CON]" from Korea/평안-도 [pyΛŋ  ŋan  do/province] (dialect) /S speaking posture with coarticulation of Japanese speaking posture, [i] is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


* I think Japanese characters are either not ideograph but phonogram and Japanese characters were made by same system of Korean/Chinese alphabet.



4.                         English alphabet
http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/English+alphabet ,  

A a /eɪ/
B bee /biː/
C cee /siː/
D dee /diː/
E e /iː/
F ef (eff as a verb) /ef/
G gee /dʒiː/
H aitch /eit∫/
I i /aɪ/
etc.

When trying to speak [ŋa] from English /S speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, [ŋe ŋi] (or "ei") is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When trying to speak [bi] from English /S speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, [bi] is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When trying to speak [ci] from English /S speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, [si] is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When trying to speak [di] from English /S speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, [di] is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When trying to speak [ŋe] from English /S speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, [ŋi] (or "i") is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When trying to speak [fi] from English /S speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, [ŋe f=] (or "ef") is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When trying to speak [gi] from English /S speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, [zi] is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When trying to speak [hi] from English /S speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, [ŋe ŋi ci] (or "eit∫") is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
When trying to speak [ŋi] from English /S speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, [ŋa ŋi] (or "ai") is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
etc.

uppercase or capital letters : /T

lowercase or small letters  : /C2


A          "이/Ch 으/Ch 으/SCN"        [ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/Ch  ŋ=/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back)

When trying to speak [ŋe ŋi] from English /T speaking posture with coarticulation of English /P & /S (cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle), [ŋi  ŋ=  ŋ=] (or [ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/Ch  ŋ=/SCN]) is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.         vice versa.

That is, When trying to speak [ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/Ch  ŋ=/SCN]  from English /S (cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle)  speaking posture, [ŋe ŋi] is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*As pronunciations of "uppercase or capital letters", /T speaking posture is mentioned.


Or when trying to speak
[ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/Ch  ŋ=/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
["stand up"/Ch  ŋ=/Ch  ŋ=/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
[ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/Ch  "lie down"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
[ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/Ch  "lie down"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
["stand up"/Ch  "lie down"/Ch  ŋ=/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back)
["stand up"/Ch  "lie down"/Ch  "lie down"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
["stand up"/Ch  ŋ=/Ch  "lie down"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or

["섰다 [sΛs da]"/Ch  ŋ=/Ch  ŋ=/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
[ŋi/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/Ch  ŋ=/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
[ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
[ŋi/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
["섰다 [sΛs da]"/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/Ch  ŋ=/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
["섰다 [sΛs da]"/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
["섰다 [sΛs da]"/Ch  ŋ=/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back)
[ŋi/Ch  ŋ=/Ch  ŋ=/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or

[ŋi/Ch  "lie down"/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
[ŋi/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/Ch  "lie down"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or

["stand up"/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/Ch  ŋ=/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
["섰다 [sΛs da]"/Ch  "lie down"/Ch  ŋ=/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or

["stand up"/Ch  ŋ=/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
["섰다 [sΛs da]"/Ch  ŋ=/Ch  "lie down"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or

["stand up"/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
["섰다 [sΛs da]"/Ch  "lie down"/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
["섰다 [sΛs da]"/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/Ch  "lie down"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or

["stand up"/Ch  "lie down"/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
["stand up"/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/Ch  "lie down"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or

["stand up"/Ch  "lie down"/Ch  "누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back) or
["섰다 [sΛs da]"/Ch  "lie down"/Ch  "lie down"/SCN]/T*/P/S(cp/high, bp/high/back)

from English /S (cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle)  speaking posture, [ŋe ŋi] is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.  Etc.


a        ('three quarter circle'  ŋ=  ŋi)/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back)

When trying to speak [ŋe ŋi] from English /C2 speaking posture with coarticulation of English /P & /S (cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle), ['three quarter circle' ŋ= ŋi]  (or ['three quarter circle' ŋ= ŋi]/SCN)  is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.         vice versa.

That is, When trying to speak  "['three quarter circle' ŋ= ŋi]/SCN "  from English /S (cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle)  speaking posture, [ŋe ŋi] is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*As pronunciations of "lowercase or small letters", /C2 speaking posture is mentioned.


'three quarter circle'  >>  "원 4/3"  >>  "원 사 분의 삼 [ŋ(uΛ)n sa bun ŋ= ŋi sam]"

Or When trying to speak
('three quarter circle'  ŋ=  ŋi)/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or
('three quarter circle'  'lie down'  ŋi)/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or
('three quarter circle'  ŋ=  'stand up')/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or
('three quarter circle'  'lie down'  'stand up')/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or

('원 사 분의 삼 [ŋ(uΛ)n sa bun ŋ= ŋi sam]'  ŋ=  ŋi)/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or
('원 사 분의 삼 [ŋ(uΛ)n sa bun ŋ= ŋi sam]'  'lie down'  ŋi)/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or
('원 사 분의 삼 [ŋ(uΛ)n sa bun ŋ= ŋi sam]'  ŋ=  'stand up')/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or
('원 사 분의 삼 [ŋ(uΛ)n sa bun ŋ= ŋi sam]'  'lie down'  'stand up')/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or

('three quarter circle'  '누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]'  ŋi)/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or
('three quarter circle'  ŋ=  '섰다 [sΛs da]')/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or
('three quarter circle'  '누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]'  'stand up')/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or
('three quarter circle'  'lie down'  '섰다 [sΛs da]')/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or
('three quarter circle'  '누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]'  '섰다 [sΛs da]')/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or

('원 사 분의 삼 [ŋ(uΛ)n sa bun ŋ= ŋi sam]'  '누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]'  ŋi)/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or
('원 사 분의 삼 [ŋ(uΛ)n sa bun ŋ= ŋi sam]'  ŋ=  '섰다 [sΛs da]')/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or

('원 사 분의 삼 [ŋ(uΛ)n sa bun ŋ= ŋi sam]'  '누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]'  'stand up')/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or
('원 사 분의 삼 [ŋ(uΛ)n sa bun ŋ= ŋi sam]'  'lie down'  섰다 [sΛs da]')/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back) or
('원 사 분의 삼 [ŋ(uΛ)n sa bun ŋ= ŋi sam]'  'l누었다 [nu ŋΛs da]'  '섰다 [sΛs da]')/SCN /C2/P* /S (cp/high, bp/high/back)

from English /S (cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle)  speaking posture, [ŋe ŋi] is metaphthong/MPh pronounced. Etc.


B               [di/SCN  di/SCN]      or      (ŋi  'three quarter circle'/Ch ŋi 'circle half '/Ch)/SCN

b                        (ŋi  'three quarter circle'/Ch/SCN)

C                     ('three quarter circle')               /T/P*/S (cp/high, bp/high/back)

c                     ('three quarter circle'/SCN)                 /C2/P*/S (cp/high, bp/high/back)

D                     (ŋi  'three quarter circle'/Ch)                     /T

d                      ('three quarter circle'/SCN  ŋi)

E                         "이 으 으 으"          [ŋi  ŋ=  ŋ=  ŋ=]

e                       ('three quarter circle'/SCN  ŋ=/SCN)

F                              "이 으 으"        [ŋi  ŋ=  ŋ=]

f                            ('quarter circle'/CON   ŋi/SCN   ŋ=/CON)

G                          'three quarter circle'    (ŋ=   ŋi)/CON

g                           ('three quarter circle'    ŋi)/SCN      'quarter circle'/CON/Ch

H                               "ŋi      ŋ=      ŋi"

h                             ŋi   ('quarter circle'/Ch   ŋi)/SCN

I                             [ŋ=/CON    ŋi    ŋ=/CON]

i                                     dot   ŋi/SCN

J                         ŋ=/CON    ŋi    'quarter circle'/Ch/CON

j                        dot    ŋ=/CON    ŋi    'quarter circle'/Ch/CON

K                              ŋi   (ŋi    ŋ=)/Ch

k                         [ŋi    (ŋi    ŋ=)/Ch]/SCN

L                               ŋi        ŋ=

l                                     ŋi

M                      ŋi    ŋ=/Ch   ŋi/Ch    ŋi

m              (ŋi/SCN    'circle half'/CON/Ch    ŋi/SCN    'circle half'/CON /Ch      ŋi/SCN)
 
N                          ŋi      ŋ=/Ch    ŋi

n                       (ŋi/SCN    'circle half'/CON/Ch      ŋi/SCN)

O                               'elongated circle'

o                                     circle/SCN

P                            ŋi      'three quarter circle'/Ch/SCN

p                            ŋi      'three quarter circle'/Ch/SCN

Q *(Z/Ch)                   'elongated circle'     'quarter circle'/CON

q                              (three quarter circle'        ŋi)/SCN


Z [zed (US)   ziː] / [zes  d=], [zi ŋi]                     ( [zed]  >>  [ziː] /mGC)
Q [q(iu)  w=] / [k(iu)  w=]

When trying to speak [zi] from English /S speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, [zed ] (or [zes  d=]) is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
And when trying to speak [zi] from English /S/Ch speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, [q(iu) w=] (or [k(iu) w=]) is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.

*                Z [zes  d=]  >>  Q [k(iu)  w=] /Ch (/S, cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth)

That is, if trying to articulate/speak "Z [zed] (or [zes  d=])" from English /S/Ch speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, "Q [q(iu) w=] (or [k(iu) w=])" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.


R                     ŋi         ('three quarter circle'     ŋ=)/Ch/SCN

r                              (ŋi/SCN     'quarter circle'/CON)

S                    ('three quarter circle'    'three quarter circle'/Ch)/SCN
    
s                    ('three quarter circle'    'three quarter circle'/Ch)/CON

T                                  ŋ=       ŋi

t                      ŋ=/SCN        ŋi        'quarter circle'/CON

U                           (ŋi  'circle half'/Ch   ŋi)
    
u                           (ŋi  'circle half'/Ch   ŋi)/SCN

V                               (ŋ=   ŋi)/Ch

v                              (ŋ=   ŋi)/Ch/SCN

W                            (ŋ=  ŋi  ŋ=  ŋi)/Ch             (or  ['v= ŋi'  'v= ŋi'])

w                        (ŋ=  ŋi  ŋ=  ŋi)/Ch/SCN            (or  ['v= ŋi'  'v= ŋi']/SCN)

X *(S/Ch)               (V         'invert V')/SCN         or     (ŋ=  ŋi  ŋi  ŋ=)/Ch/SCN

x                       (V         'invert V')/CON          or     (ŋ=  ŋi  ŋi  ŋ=)/Ch/CON


S ess /es/
X ex /eks/

When trying to speak [si] from English /S speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, [ŋes s=] (or "es") is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.
And when trying to speak [si] from English /S/Ch speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, [ŋek s=] (or "eks") is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.


*                S [ŋes  s=]  >>  X [ŋek s=] /Ch (/S, cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth)

That is, if trying to articulate/speak "S [ŋes s=]" from English /S/Ch speaking posture which has cp/high & bp/high/back in the mouth circle, "X [ŋek s=]" is metaphthong/MPh pronounced.            Vice versa.


Y                               [(ŋ=    ŋi)/Ch     ŋi]/SCN

y                                (ŋ=/SCN      ŋi)/Ch

Z                              ŋ=        ŋi/Ch       ŋ=

z                              (ŋ=        ŋi/Ch       ŋ=)/SCN

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142Simple view***   NOTICE (공지) :   member registration (sign in) for LOGIN,        (LOGIN을 위한 회원 가입) Y... 2013.01.04
141Simple view                                      昌嬪墓致祭文의 음성학적 번역 Y... 2012.09.05
140Simple view         <신증동국여지승람>의 팔도총도가 잘못 그려졌는가??                    (독도/울릉도) Y... 2012.08.22
139Simple view☞                   태정관 지령문,               日本海内竹島外一島ヲ版図外ト定ム Y... 2012.09.28
138현재 읽고 있는 글입니다.          common/same  (phonetic) structure  in  Korean,  Chinese,  Japanese  &  English  alphabets/characters Y... 2012.08.20
137Simple view'李'는 왜 'LEE'?         '반론자(김복순)한테 회신합니다'           (외)삼촌,          국립국어(연구)원,        표준 언어 예절 Y... 2012.07.20
136Simple view                                        送山人惠球還山 ------- 음성학적 번역 Y... 2012.05.18
135Simple view上舅氏金獻納 鋿 (상구씨금헌납상),    수강궁 상량문(壽康宮上樑文),    황매천(黃梅泉),    牧隱詩藁卷之一(목은시고권지일) Y... 2012.05.11
134Simple view                                                   각 정당 비례대표 지역별 분포 Y... 2012.04.20
133Simple view        이름 분석에 의한 차관 내정자 20명 정무직 18명 등의 지역별 분포 분석 Y... 2013.03.21
132Simple viewSenkaku せんか Islands, 釣魚台群島,       Hokkaido/Ainu, Sakhalin/Сахалин,       Liancourt Rocks 독도,  Tsushima Y... 2012.03.06
131Simple view東海/日本海/한국해,   Scarborough Shoal,   Parece Vela, 冲鸟礁/Okinotorishima,   **Luzon Sea, South China Sea Y... 2012.05.11
130Simple viewJapan/China/Vietnam/Thai/Cambodia/Laos/Burma/Malaysia/Indonesia/Brunei/Singapore/Philippines/Taiwan/Okinawa Y... 2012.07.12
129Simple view☞                                                Korea,  한국 [han gug], 韓國 or 瀚國 ?? Y... 2012.07.17
128Simple viewSocotra Rock 이어도,      Falklands,       Paracel Islands,       Spratly Islands,     Yonaguni 與那國,     Hans Island Y... 2012.04.20
127Simple view‘여울지다’         오전, 오후 등,         반대와 대조의 차이점?          햇볕의 잘못?          "가능한 빨리" Y... 2012.02.18
126Simple view                                          出必告 反必面 Y... 2012.02.13
125Simple view                    Mr.   Mrs.   씨,   さん,   氏              English/Korean/Japanese/Chinese  honorifics Y... 2011.12.28
124Simple viewAeschylus/Aesop/Euripides/Hesiod,   Homer/Lucian/Menander/Pindar,  Polybius/Sappho/Sophocles, Alcibiades Y... 2011.05.11
123Simple viewThales/Anaximander/Anaximenes/Pythagoras,  Anaxagoras/Empedocles,  Antisthenes/Diogenes/Crates/Zeno Y... 2011.05.07
122Simple viewSocrates/Thucydides/Plutarch/Herodotus/Xenophon/Aristophanes/Plato/Aristotle/Parmenides/Democritus, etc. Y... 2011.05.04
121Simple view                        phonetic analysis on     Buddha  &  Buddhism Y... 2011.05.04
120Simple viewPhonetic analysis on   Hinduism/Veda/Sanskrit/Prakrit/Zoroaster, Manichaeism/Mani,  Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh Y... 2011.04.29
119Simple view           增壹阿含經/증일아함경   일부   음성학적(phonetic)   직역 Y... 2011.04.23
118Simple view공자/맹자/사마천/손자/주자/사마광;              *Confucius, Mencius, Sima Qian, Sun Tzu, Zhu Xi, Sima Guang Y... 2011.03.22
117Simple view☞ 'Sānguó Zhì'   삼국지/삼국연의/수호전/금병매/홍루몽/서유기,    三國志/三國演義/水滸傳/金瓶梅/红楼梦/西游记 Y... 2011.03.25
116Simple view☞ 老子/Laozi, 莊子/Zhuangzi, 荀子 Xun Zi, 韓非子 Han Fei Zi, 墨子/Micius, 王陽明, 曾子/Zengzi, 列子/Liezi, 陸九淵 Y... 2011.03.29
115Simple view☞ 千字文 (Thousand Character Classic)    &   'Four Books and Five Classics: 禮記/大學/書經/詩經/易經/中庸/春秋' Y... 2011.04.07
114Simple view☞ 李太白 -- 山海經/菜根譚/列女傳/春秋繁露/淮南子/文心雕龍/歸去來辭/桃花源記/閒情賦/採蓮賦/前後出師表/鹽鐵論, etc. Y... 2011.04.12
113Simple view                   서기/단기         &         BC/AD Y... 2011.03.21
112Simple view                                      애국가와 무궁화, 태극기 Y... 2011.02.10
111Simple view☞      사쿠라/벚꽃"이 일본을 상징하게 된 사연.                        버드나무/버들 Y... 2011.03.05
110Simple view"수고하셨습니다." "수고 하세요." 등 Y... 2011.01.18
109Simple view<세>와 <대> ?? Y... 2010.12.11
108Simple view            발음장단(??)                      국격?? Y... 2010.11.14
107Simple view생선가쓰,                돈가스 Y... 2010.10.26
106Simple view약천집   제28권   記   북관십경도기병서   龍堂 Y... 2010.09.28
105Simple view삐라/leaflet/bill Y... 2010.09.06
104Simple view"이덕형(亨/馨)"         or        "이덕향(享/響/饗/黁)"    ?? Y... 2010.08.25
103Simple view☞한음문고/송도기이/대동야승 Y... 2010.08.26
102Simple view안-정복(安鼎福) ----------- 중국계 (귀화) 한국인?? Y... 2010.07.29
101Simple view"堯山夜會 요산야회" -----------음성학적 직역 Y... 2010.07.04
100Simple view동방예의지국 & 삼천리금수강산;                        "기소독점주의" & "검사동일체"  Y... 2010.06.25
99Simple view란중일기/이충무공전서 --------------------------------- 노승석 교수 Y... 2010.04.29
98Simple view☞                            "난중잡록 (亂中雜錄)"은 가짜 Y... 2012.07.09
97Simple view오익창/사호집 Y... 2014.08.11
96Simple view<박인환>의 "목마와 숙녀" - - - - - - - - - - "일기 예보"?? Y... 2010.04.27
95Simple view바다와 나비 -------------------- 김기림, "여성" (1939.4) Y... 2010.04.24
94Simple view☞                 바이올린 켜는 여자 / 도종환,               흔들리며 피는 꽃 Y... 2012.07.09
93Simple view☞                도종환 의원 등의 진짜 문제점은 무엇인가? Y... 2012.07.11
92Simple view三國史記/三國遺事/日本書紀/続日本紀/古事記/海東高僧傳 등은 모두 (역사서가 아닌) 史記의 음성학적 번역 Y... 2010.03.31
91Simple view광개토대왕 비문 전문의 음성학적 직역 Y... 2010.03.27
90Simple view고봉집(高峯集):...... 한국고전 종합 DB는 모두가 엉터리/가짜 번역??        &      독곡 Y... 2010.03.15
89Simple view고전, 탄옹집의 입춘 번역 Y... 2010.02.28
88Simple view이충무공전서(李忠武公全書) Y... 2010.02.22
87Simple view"기럭아"와 "아가"                                                 한글학회 Y... 2010.01.22
86Simple view'안 좋다'/'좋지 않다'           어버이,         야단법석,         L'Immoraliste,     빈대떡 Y... 2009.12.01
85Simple view☞                                                      빈대떡 Y... 2014.02.07
84Simple view禮曹判書 鄭麟趾 製 英陵誌;                           례조판서 정린지 제 영릉지 Y... 2009.11.04
83Simple view☞ 정인지 예조판서가 임금이 말하는 것을 받아 썼다. Y... 2010.01.13
82Simple view석가모니,              "그는 자신의 앞날이 걱정되었다"            매일/맨날/만날 Y... 2009.10.15
81Simple view특히나, 조생귤, 분재, 두음법칙, 틀림없다, '일본의 날씨는 한국과 비슷하다  '경인란과 6,25 전쟁' 빵, 우리나라/저희나라 Y... 2009.10.15
80Simple view세종임금 어제 서문의 음성학적 직역 Y... 2009.07.29
79Simple view☞ 서울/강원/충청/전라/경상/제주/북한(함경)/평안/경기/황해 지역의       발성 자세      정리  Y... 2009.08.02
78Simple view☞ 수정/2:            "이야기 할 때  /  중국 어법을 사용하다가"             "훈민정음/한글"     등 Y... 2011.01.22
77Simple view터키탕                              "Turkey (hot) bath" Y... 2009.07.14
76Simple view사이시옷 현상의 발생 원인,              윤미라 Y... 2009.07.10
75Simple view굴찾기/굴착기/굴삭기;     백호/배코 Y... 2009.06.29
74Simple viewspelling bee,               품앗이,      두레 Y... 2009.06.26
73Simple view"으로서"와 "으로써"는 모두 사투리/방언 Y... 2009.06.18
72Simple view아리랑 [(ŋ)a  ri  raŋ] Y... 2009.06.15
71Simple view"뒤쪽"과 "뒷간"                                            한글학회 Y... 2009.06.14
70Simple view"꿀꿀이"와 "얼루기"                                   한글학회 Y... 2009.06.14
69Simple view'경로당'과 '노인'                                  한글학회 Y... 2009.06.14
68Simple view"어떻냐"와 "어떠냐"                           한글학회 Y... 2009.06.10
67Simple view"말아"와 "마라"와 "말라"                                          한글학회 Y... 2009.06.08
66Simple view'-지마는'과 '-지만'과 '-만은',                              한글학회 Y... 2009.06.05
65Simple view"보자고 해"와 "보재",                           한글학회 Y... 2009.06.04
64Simple view엉터리말 "형님"??      이동철 Y... 2009.06.03
63Simple view'~라는 표현을 쓴다.'는 말이 맞는지 알고 싶습니다.  Y... 2009.03.11
62Simple view형부,  자형,  질부,  자부,  제부,  매형,  매부 Y... 2009.03.06
61Simple view☞ 김봉규 Y... 2009.03.11
60Simple view나/당신,                   남자/여자,               사내/여편네 Y... 2009.02.11
59Simple viewelementary-school;      Volksschule/Grundschule,     국민학교/초등학교 Y... 2009.02.09
58Simple view뭉치/엉터리-없는/엄는 Y... 2009.01.28
57Simple view"감칠-맛":  "짭짤한 맛" Y... 2008.12.07
56Simple view☞ 旨味      (うまみ : 주로 L-Glutamic acid의 맛)?? Y... 2008.12.18
55Simple view문무 왕 비문 Y... 2008.12.06
54Simple viewConditions on the Formation of –Er Nominals in English Y... 2008.11.06
53Simple view아줌마는 표준어인가요? Y... 2008.10.29
52Simple view☞ 김봉규 Y... 2008.10.29
51Simple view빠르다와 이르다 Y... 2008.10.29
50Simple view점심/중식/ちゅうじき(쮸지끼)/lunch;              김봉규 Y... 2008.10.25
49Simple view☞ ★ <김용완> 선생에게 두 가지를 질문: 답변 Y... 2008.10.25
48Simple view☞ < 김봉규:   재 질문>에 대한 답변 Y... 2008.10.25
47Simple view☞ <삼차 질문> 및 답변 Y... 2008.10.25
46Simple view☞ 환인조선, 환웅, 신시, 나라, 단군, 단군조선, 대진 Y... 2008.10.27
45Simple view사전에 실을 말(26)-연치, 찌르기, 북찌르기 Y... 2008.10.21
44Simple view파마의 북한말은 우엇인가요? Y... 2008.10.21
43Simple view☞                          고데기가 표준어 ?? Y... 2012.08.30
42Simple view피살/배삯 Y... 2008.10.21
41Simple view왜 'ㄱ'은 기역 이라고 읽나요? Y... 2008.10.21
40Simple view애시당초 등 Y... 2008.10.21
39Simple view염치불고, 웃바람, 치켜세우다;       웃바람, 윗바람;     우풍. 외풍(外風) Y... 2008.10.17
38Simple view산 위에서?         사뉘에서?  Y... 2008.10.17
37Simple view뱃심?     배힘?             (배짱/흑심)  Y... 2008.10.17
36Simple view아니오,   아니요,   아냐/아뇨 Y... 2008.10.13
35Simple view설거지 (어원). Y... 2008.10.10
34Simple view"내뛰다"와     "내받다" Y... 2008.10.10
33Simple view'다시' 와 '또'의 비교 Y... 2008.10.10
32Simple view설렁탕/목욕탕/해장국 Y... 2008.10.08
31Simple view뼈다귀 감자탕  Y... 2008.10.08
30Simple view느티나무: 느타리 + 나무  Y... 2008.10.07
29Simple view고양이/나비.        원숭이/잔나비  Y... 2008.10.07
28Simple view'닥쳐'  Y... 2008.10.07
27Simple view할아버지와 할머니 낱말 형성!  Y... 2008.10.07
26Simple view샘통/쥬다/또라이 Y... 2008.10.07
25Simple view곪다/곪기다, 곰기다 Y... 2008.10.02
24Simple view자장면의 의미/뜻과 어원은?       중국면,            덴뿌라 Y... 2008.10.02
23Simple view☞                 수타면의 뜻은? Y... 2011.01.15
22Simple view곰팡이/지팡이/놈팡이 Y... 2008.10.02
21Simple view경상도/전라도/제주도 말/사투리;                  한국 지음에 [y/w]를 포함할 필요, Y... 2008.09.30
20Simple view'허릿심'은 표준말이고,        '성님'은 전라도 사투리 Y... 2008.09.24
19Simple view경상도 사투리가 한글을 엉망으로 만든다. Y... 2008.09.20
18Simple view뭉치;        엉터리-없는/엄는  Y... 2008.09.17
17Simple view볶음밥...비빔밥 Y... 2008.09.10
16Simple view무슨 수를 쓰든지, 무슨 수를 쓰던지 Y... 2008.09.10
15Simple view파랗다는 있는데 보랗다는 틀린말인가요? Y... 2008.09.10
14Simple view복숭아 뼈? 복사뼈? Y... 2008.09.10
13Simple view진지/수라 등 Y... 2008.08.29
12Simple view선술집 Y... 2008.08.28
11Simple view☞ 답변 Y... 2008.08.29
10Simple view달걀/계란? Y... 2008.08.28
9Simple view'업다'와 '없다' Y... 2008.08.26
8Simple view드세요/ 드셔요 Y... 2008.08.26
7Simple view장마삐라고 표현하면 안됩니까? Y... 2008.08.26
6Simple view보부상과 부보상 Y... 2008.08.26
5Simple view'색시'라는 단어는 왜 장음인가요?  Y... 2008.08.26
4Simple view"배달 (민족/나라)"의 뜻/어원은? Y... 2008.08.26
3Simple view☞ Tibet/단국[dan-gug]/배달[bæ-dal]/닙본(Nippon)[nib=bon]    &   Persia/Gandhara/한국[han-gug] Y... 2008.09.11
2Simple view독도/울릉도/마쓰시마(まつしま)/다케시마 Y... 2008.08.26
1Simple view머리말 Y... 2007.02.23
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